Tunkinsky National Park, Russia


One of the most amazing corners of Siberia is the Tunkinsky National Park, located in the south-west of the Republic of Buryatia in a picturesque place - the valley of the Irkut River between lakes Baikal and Khubsugul.

The history of the park began in 1991. The main goal of its creation is to protect the natural complexes of the Baikal basin, the Eastern Sayan and Khamar-Daban ranges, the Tunkinskaya valley, as well as the development and preservation of the national culture, creating the necessary conditions for recreation. The total area of ​​the park is 1118 thousand 662 hectares, 1025 thousand hectares, of which - the national park and 158.7 thousand hectares - the land of other users and owners.

Tunkinsky National Park is characterized by mountainous and highly rugged terrain. Separate plains are located on spacious river valleys and in intermontane depressions of the earth's surface. The main waterway of the park is the Irkut River with several tributaries.



The national park is located in the Tunkinsky district of the Republic of Buryatia (occupies the entire administrative region) on the northern slopes of the Khamar-Daban and Eastern Sayan ridges and in the Tunkinsky hollow.

The boundaries of the Tunkinsky National Park completely coincide with the boundaries of the region, with an area of 11.8 thousand km², it occupies the Sayano-Baikal part of western Buryatia. It borders in the north along the Tunkinsky Goltsy with the Okinsky district, in the south along the Khangarulsky ridge and the watershed of the western Khamar-Daban - with the Zakamensky district of the republic. In the west and southwest, along the Munku-Sardyk massif and the southeastern spurs of the Greater Sayan, the state border of Russia and Mongolia passes. In the east, the district adjoins the Slyudyansky district of the Irkutsk region.

The northern half of the region is occupied by the Tunkinskaya valley, which is a continuation of the Baikal depression and is unique for its healing springs and alpine meadows. It stretches in the latitudinal direction for 200 km, gradually rising to 1200 m above sea level and narrowing from 30 to 20 km. The main river of the region, the Irkut, flows along the bed of the valley.

The southern part of the region is divided by the Zun-Muren River into the mountain-taiga spurs of Khamar-Daban in the southeast and the spurs of the Greater Sayan with treeless plateaus in the west.



The climate of the region is sharply continental, characterized by large daily and annual temperature ranges, a small amount of annual precipitation. In winter, the Siberian anticyclone dominates - an area of high pressure of cold air masses and the corresponding clear, calm, frosty weather. In summer there are cyclones with cloudy rainy weather. The average temperature in January is from -22 °C ... -24 °C in the lowest places of the basin to -19 °C ... -21 °C in the mountains. The average temperature in July is from +17 °C in the basin to +11 °C…+14 °C in the mountains. Absolute minimum down to -50 °C, maximum +34 °C. The average annual rainfall is 300...350 mm, in the mountains 500...600 mm, on the slopes of Khamar-Daban - up to 1000 mm. Winds of the western and eastern direction prevail in accordance with the stretch of the Irkut River and the basin itself from west to east.



The fauna of the park is characterized by the inhabitants of the taiga, steppe, rocky mountain peaks. The main dominant is red-backed vole, common shrew, even-toothed shrew and red-backed vole. Musk deer and maral predominate among ungulates, ermine and sable among predators. In the alpine zone, the high-mountain big-eared vole and the northern pika dominate, among the predators - the stoat, in its lower part the co-dominants are the common shrew and red-backed vole.

The avifauna of the park is rich and is represented by 237 species of 17 orders (comprehensive assessment of 1994). Of these, 48 species are listed in the Red Book of Buryatia and 9 species in the Red Book of Russia. Taiga species dominate in dark coniferous forests - hazel grouse, spotted woodpecker, spotted pipit, nutcracker, Siberian redstart, green warbler, king warbler, Muscovite, nuthatch, etc .; few are the big dove, the deaf cuckoo, the yellow, the cuckoo, the jay, the little flycatcher, the red-necked nightingale, the brown-headed chickadee; rare: raven and shur. The mountain tundra is dominated by the talovka warbler, rubythroat nightingale, common lentil and polar bunting. In mixed and larch forests, the avifauna is poorer compared to dark coniferous forests. In addition to species common to coniferous and mixed forests - hazel grouse, deaf cuckoo, spotted woodpecker, kuksha, taiga flycatcher, moskovka, etc., larch forests are characterized by such species as capercaillie, capercaillie, spotted horse, warbler-talovka, warbler-zarnichka , finches, etc. In floodplain ecosystems on lakes, swamps, banks and islands of rivers, the whooper swan, mallard, whistle-teal, cracked teal, gray duck, red-headed and crested duck, spotted cricket, yellow wagtail, yellow-headed wagtail, etc. nest Near large reservoirs, birds of prey, associated by the nature of their diet with wetlands, settle: osprey, field harrier, white-tailed eagle. Goshawk and sparrowhawk settle in forests near water bodies and swamps. In open areas along the sides of the basins, the most common bird species are the field lark, dubrovnik, gray heron, ruddy shelduck, lapwing, fifi, marshmallow, etc., occasionally there are a field harrier and a gray crane.

Of the amphibians, the Siberian frog is common, the moor frog, the Siberian salamander and the Mongolian toad are rare. The most common representative of reptiles is the common muzzle, as well as the viviparous lizard, common snake, patterned snake and common viper.

Grayling, lenok, taimen, whitefish, pike, dace, ide, tench, roach, crucian carp, minnow, burbot, perch, char, loach are constantly living in the reservoirs of the park.

Number of registered species:
fish - 16
amphibians - 4
reptiles - 5
birds - 237
mammals - 47



The dominant type of vegetation is forest. All forests of the national park are classified as forests of the 1st group. Plantations of Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica) and larch (Larix) predominate: 25.5% and 52.8% of the forested land, the share of coniferous plantations is 86.2%, softwood plantations 11%. Low-grade plantations and shrubs occupy 55.9%.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the flora of the national park includes more than 1000 species of vascular plants, including 68 species included in the Red Book of Buryatia and the Red Book of Russia.



On the territory of the park, it is possible to visit a large number of people to get acquainted with natural, cultural and historical sights, to relax at numerous mineral springs. These are the carbonic waters of the Arshan resort, the ferruginous springs of Khongor-Uuly, the methane thermal springs of the Zhemchug mineral springs, the siliceous radon thermal baths of the Nilova Desert, and the carbonic acidic thermal thermal waters of Shumak.

Monuments of nature:
Marble bottom of the Kyngarga river.
Zhemchugskaya well
Geological outcrop Bely Yar
Source Khongor-Uula
Koymorsky lakes (Khoymor)
hobok lake
Ihe-Ugun River (at the exit from the mountains)
Kyngarga river

Monuments of history and culture:
Cross on the site of the Tunkinsky prison, built to protect the borders of the Russian state
Ancient Buddhist architectural ensemble Burkhan-Baabay or Khan Shargay-noyon
The sacred cult place Bukha-noyon is a rocky outcrop of marble on the spurs of the Tunkinsky Goltsy.
Place of offering Tamhi Baryash
Churches: Holy Intercession, Holy Innokentievskaya, Knyaz Vladimirskaya, Petropavlovskaya.



The following types of tourism are developed on the territory of the Tunkinsky National Park:

Outbound tourism is associated with the movement of citizens of one country beyond its borders.

Domestic tourism is the movement of tourists within one country.

Inbound tourism is the entry of foreigners into the territory of the state.

Depending on the criterion by which a tourist's journey through the territory of the Tunkinsky National Park is evaluated, classifications can be distinguished:
by purpose of travel:
recreational tourism
medical tourism
health tourism
cognitive (excursion) tourism
gastronomic tourism
sports tourism
recreational fishing
extreme tourism
by landscape and geographical features
according to the method of movement: active, transport tourism.

Business tourism

Other classifications
by way of equipment
by organizational form
according to age and social characteristics
activity during vacation
on other grounds.
The Tunkinsky National Park has received special professional awards:

Tourism Brand: Best Practices
The best guide to the territory
The best travel portal
Top 1000 brands in Russia :: Living heritage