Barguzin Nature Reserve, Russia

Barguzin Nature Reserve

Barguzin State Natural Biosphere Reserve is a nature reserve in Buryatia, on the territory of the North Baikal region. Historical center - Davsha; Since 2012, the management of the reserve is located in the village of Ust-Barguzin.


History of the Barguzin Reserve

The Barguzin Reserve is the oldest reserve in Russia. It was named after the Barguzin Uyezd of the Trans-Baikal Region, on the territory of which it was created on December 29, 1916 (January 11, 1917) as the Barguzin Sable Reserve to preserve and increase the number of sables. At the time of creation, there were only 20-30 sable individuals, currently - 1-2 individuals per 1 kmĀ². This is the only state reserve in the country, established before the 1917 revolution.

Since the mid-1930s, having completed the target program for sable, it has moved into the category of complex reserves. Since 1986 it has been included in the list of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. In 1996, the territory of the reserve was fully included in the UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site "Lake Baikal".

Since 1997, the day of the formation of the Barguzin Reserve has been celebrated in the Russian Federation as the Day of Reserves and National Parks.

In September 2011, an order was issued by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy of the Russian Federation on the formation of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "United Directorate of the Barguzin Reserve and the Zabaikalsky National Park" or FBSI "Zapovednoe Podlemorye" on the basis of the Barguzin Reserve and the Zabaikalsky National Park, which includes these two protected areas and the state Frolikhinsky reserve.


Flora and fauna

All natural complexes are preserved in the reserve, where elk, musk deer, white hare, brown bear, shrews, black-capped marmot live - only 41 species of mammals. Baikal omul, whitefish, sturgeon, grayling, taimen, lenok and other fish species are found in the waters of the reserve.


Reserve animals

The fauna of the Barguzin Reserve is quite diverse. The animals inhabiting its territories belong to the inhabitants of the East Siberian taiga complex.

Among mammals, forest animals are the permanent inhabitants of the reserve, among which you can find: sable, flying squirrel, Siberian weasel, musk deer, red deer and roe deer. Inhabitants of mountain tundra territories are also found here - Altai pikas, big-eared voles, black-capped marmots and reindeer. Of the Holarctic species, the main inhabitants of the Barguzinsky Reserve are: wolf, fox, wolverine, lynx, brown bear, elk, hare, hare, housekeeper and red-backed vole.

The world of amphibians and reptiles in the Barguzin reserve is rather small. Of its representatives, only the sharp-faced and Siberian frogs and the Siberian salamander are found. Of the reptiles, the common snake, the common viper, the patterned snake, the common snake and the viviparous lizard live here.

The ichthyofauna of the Barguzin Reserve is poorly studied. The total number of aquatic individuals is about 50 species, and only 11 of them are permanent inhabitants of the inland water bodies of the reserve.

In spring, black grayling, lenok and taimen enter the rivers. Kudaldinskoye Lake is inhabited by sore species of fish: pike, perch, burbot, roach, ide and minnow. The coastal areas of Lake Baikal are suitable for omul, whitefish and Baikal sturgeon. In the deeper waters of Lake Baikal, there are Baikal gobies and unique golomyanka.


Plants of the reserve

The flora of the Barguzin Reserve is very diverse. There are 877 species of vascular plants, 212 species of lichens, about 170 species of fungi, more than 145 species of mosses and over 1215 species of algae.

The three-flowered bedstraw, the lanceolate and marsh grapevine, and the common snake are the plants that survived the glacial period and still grow on the territory of the reserve today. Along with them, plants that appeared after glaciation grow here - Smirnov's bluegrass, trihedral astragalus and bristly aronia.

On the shores of Lake Baikal, cedar dwarf trees, wild rosemary, lingonberry and other shrubs that prefer a humid climate grow. Some types of alpine vegetation are also found here: broad-leaved fireweed, round-leaved and skinny birches, fragrant currants, moss, lichens.

The western slopes of the Barguzin ridge are represented by three types of vegetation belts - forest, subalpine and alpine.

In the forest belt, deciduous forests and light forests grow, in which dwarf cedar, fir and pine forests are found. Slightly higher are mixed, dark coniferous-light coniferous forests, and the upper layer of the forest belt consists only of dark coniferous forests.

The subalpine belt of the reserve consists of fir-birch zones, fir and birch forests, cedar dwarfs and dwarfs. The upper part of this belt is characterized by stone placers and rocks, among which there are dwarf cedar and ash rhododendron, fir, spruce, birch and various types of lichens.

The southern border of the reserve is located in the coastal zone, so the main vegetation here is fir and cedar. The coastal areas are covered with wild garlic and willow thickets. And the vegetation cover consists of fragrant spikelets, lichens, thick ribs, sheep fescues, badan, Altai lyceum, Siberian anemones and Altai violets.