Kyakhta, Russia

Kyakhta (Bur. Khaagta hot, Mong. Khiagt hot) is a city of regional significance in Russia, the administrative center of the Kyakhta region of the Republic of Buryatia and the urban settlement "City of Kyakhta".



Kyakhta Museum of Local Lore
The Kyakhta Museum of Local Lore is the oldest museum in Siberia and the Far East, the largest repository of the history of Kyakhta and Southwestern Transbaikalia. Until the 20s. XX century The Kyakhta Museum of Local Lore was the only research institution on the territory of the modern Republic of Buryatia.

The museum was founded in August 1890. In 1892, a merchant from Kyakhta, ID Sinitsyn, at his own expense rented an apartment on Lenin Street with an area of ​​40 sq.m. and purchased all the necessary museum equipment. Such representatives of the local intelligentsia as P. Mikhno, M. Lisovsky, Y. Talko-Gryntsevich, I. Popov, V. Molleson, A. Mostits, N. Charushin and many others took an active part in the creation of the museum. One of the first collectors of the museum, as well as its first curator, was P. Mikhno, who later became the first director.

Currently, the Kyakhta Museum of Local Lore is located in the building of the former city school. The facades of the museum building are made in the style of Russian classicism of the 19th century.

The museum contains over 120 thousand exhibits. These are amazing archaeological collections, unique samples of flora and fauna, various objects of the spiritual and material culture of the peoples who have inhabited the territory of Southern Transbaikalia, Mongolia, Japan and China since ancient times, items of Russian-Chinese trade of the 18th-19th centuries, and this is far from all, what can be seen within the walls of the museum.

The museum's visitors are especially interested in an interesting collection reflecting the history of the city and the country as a whole - the Documents and Photo Documents Fund. This collection contains more than 5 thousand documents and photographs. Another pride of the museum is the book fund, which consists of 30 thousand books and maps.

The Kyakhta Museum of Local Lore organizes a tea ceremony, where each visitor can taste tea brewed according to old recipes.



The city was founded in 1727 by the Russian diplomat S. L. Raguzinsky-Vladislavich. On his instructions, in accordance with the Burinsky treatise, the Troitskosavsky prison was built on the site of the Barsukovsky winter hut. The Trinity Church, erected inside the wooden fortress, with the side-altar of St. Sava of Serbia (the patron saint of the founder of the fortress, Savva Raguzinsky-Vladislavich), gave the name to both the fortress itself - Troitskaya, and the city - Troitskosavsk.

On December 18, 1728, the Church of the Holy Trinity and Saint Sava of Serbia was consecrated. The church was assigned to the Ambassadorial monastery. Church utensils and books of the Trinity Church were donated by Raguzinsky from his field church.

The city that grew up around the fortress was called Troitskosavsky until 1734, then it was merged with the trading settlement of Kyakhta and renamed.

The construction of Kyakhta was entrusted to Captain Knyazhnin with 30 soldiers. Later, 350 soldiers of the Yakutsk regiment and 30 Cossacks from Verkhneudinsk were sent to the construction. Several dozen workers arrived from the Ilimsky and Kabansky forts. 6 yurts and a large yard with 12 barns were set up in the settlement. The fortress was quadrangular, 100 yards long on each side, towers at the corners and two gates. Inside, 32 huts were built for merchants, a seating yard with 24 shops and 24 barns. The construction of the Kyakhtinskaya Sloboda was completed in 1728.

The agreements concluded between Russia and China (Burinsky and Kyakhtinsky) not only determined peaceful relations between neighboring countries for many years, but also became fateful for the wheatgrass place, making it the main center of Russian-Chinese trade.

Cloth, manufactory, fur goods and yuft were exported to China through Kyakhta, and tea was mainly exported from China. Silk and cotton fabrics and porcelain items were delivered in small quantities. For a long time (about a century) it was Kyakhta that supplied tea to all of Russia and almost monopolistically to Western Europe. Moreover, in Russia this Chinese tea was called kyakhta, and in other European countries - Russian.

In 1730, opposite Kyakhta, on the Chinese side, the trading settlement of Maimachen arose.

In 1735, postal service began from the Ambassador Monastery to the Chinese border.

On February 6, 1738, a permit was issued for the construction of a wooden church in the name of the Resurrection of Christ with the side-altars of the Assumption of the Most Holy Theotokos and St. Nicholas the Wonderworker at the Kyakhta trading outpost. In 1739, the church was almost completed. In 1740 the Nikolsky side-chapel was ready for consecration. The mobile regimental church of the Yakutsk regiment was returned to Selenginsk. On June 10, 1746, the Kyakhta commissar S. I. Svinin asked to consecrate the Resurrection Church. The church was consecrated only in 1750.

In 1743 Kyakhta received the status of a trading settlement.

In 1774, a decree was issued on the establishment of a magistrate or town hall in Kyakhta.

In 1792, the customs from Irkutsk was transferred to Kyakhta.

In 1796, a decree was issued on the construction of a road from Irkutsk to Kyakhta, which was called the Circum-Baikal tract or the Krugomorsky tract.

In 1805 Troitskosavsk received the status of a city. In 1829 there were 4054 inhabitants and 542 houses.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the Trinity Fortress was demolished.

In 1851, city administration was introduced in Troitskosavsk. The city administration ruled Troitskosavsky, Kyakhta and Ust-Kyakhta. Kyakhta city administration was abolished on February 9, 1863.

A fire on May 22, 1868 destroyed most of Kyakhta. The fire burned down the city archives until 1801.

In the 19th century, Troitskosavsk, a rich merchant city, was called by contemporaries the Sandy Venice and Zabalui-Gorodok. Since the last quarter of the 19th century, after the construction of the Suez Canal, when most of the imports to China began to be sent by sea, the importance of the Kyakhta trade began to decline. It decreased even more with the construction of the Sino-Eastern Railway (1903). Kyakhta lost its importance as the main point of trade with China and became the center of Russian trade with Outer Mongolia. In the second half of the 19th century, public education necessary for the economy and merchants developed in the city. The Alekseevsky real school is open and operates in the city.

In 1873, a meteorological station was opened in Troitskosavsk - the first in Transbaikalia.

In 1907, the 26th East Siberian Rifle Regiment arrived here, which was part of the 7th East Siberian Division, which distinguished itself in the battles for Port Arthur. His St. George Banner is currently in the Irkutsk Regional Museum of Local Lore.

In Kyakhta, the travels of the explorers of Central Asia began or ended - N.M. Przhevalsky, P.K. Kozlov, G.N. and A.V. Potanin, V.A.Obruchev and others.