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Description of Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude (until 1934 - Verkhneudinsk, the Bur.
Ulaan Үde khoto) is a city of republican subordination in Russia,
the capital of the Republic of Buryatia. It forms an urban district
of the city of Ulan-Ude. It is large cultural, scientific,
industrial center of Eastern Siberia. Sustainable epithets can be
applied to Ulan-Ude: The heart of Russian Asia and the Sunny City on
the shores of Baikal.
Ulan-Ude is located in Western Transbaikalia, one
hundred kilometers east of
in the Ivolgino-Uda intermountain basin, on both banks of the
Selenga River, at the confluence of the Uda River into it. The
depression is a vast depression extended from the southwest to the
northeast, and limited from the northwest to the Khamar-Daban
ranges, from the north by the Ulan-Burgasy ridge, from the southeast
to the Tsagan-Daban ridge.
History of Ulan-Ude
The first occupants of the area where Ulan-Ude now stands were
the Evenks and, later, the Buryat Mongols. Ulan-Ude was settled in
1666 by the Russian Cossacks as the fortress of Udinskoye. Due to
its favorable geographical position, it grew rapidly and became a
large trade center which connected Russia with China and Mongolia
and, from 1690, was the administrative center of the Transbaikal
By 1775, it was known as Udinsk, and in 1783 it was
granted city status and renamed Verkhneudinsk. After a large fire in
1878, the city was almost completely rebuilt. The Trans-Siberian
Railway reached the city in 1900 causing an explosion in growth. The
population which was 3,500 in 1880 reached 126,000 in 1939.
From 6 April to October 1920 Verkhneudinsk was the capital of the
Far Eastern Republic (Дальневосточная Республика), sometimes called
Chita Republic. It was a nominally independent state that existed
from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the
Russian Far East. On 27 July 1934, the city was renamed Ulan-Ude.