Baikalsky Nature Reserve, Russia

The Baikal or Baikalsky State Natural Biosphere Reserve was established by the decree of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR dated September 26, 1969 No. 571 on the basis of the resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Buryat ASSR dated December 31, 1968 No. 461.

The creation of the reserve was preceded by a discussion of scientists and public figures. In August 1958, the Irkutsk conference outlined the need to create a reserve regime on Lake Baikal. Then a group of specialists in the field of nature conservation spoke to the press with an open letter, where they substantiated the need to create a number of protected areas on Lake Baikal and in its basin. The conference participants proposed to declare the 15-kilometer zone of the lake's coast a protected area. In 1961, O. K. Gusev and A. A. Nasimovich, to develop these proposals, put forward the idea of ​​organizing a national park on Lake Baikal. Since 1965, I.P. Gerasimov and A.A. However, the emphasis was on the fact that the creation of the reserve was necessary for a purely practical purpose - to provide ultrapure water for high-tech chemical production, and “natural complexes - landscapes located in the Baikal basin, like Baikal itself, were those complex and delicate systems, existence and dynamics which ensures continuous replenishment of the volume and properties of Baikal water."


Geographical position

The territory of the reserve covers the central watershed part of the Khamar-Daban ridge with the highest point of Mount Sokhor (2316 m). The northern macroslope is located along the southern coast of Lake Baikal within the Kaban region. On the southern slope, the border of the reserve runs along the right bank of the Temnik River on the territory of the Dzhida and Selenga regions.


Purpose of creation

The reserve was originally designed as a complex ecosystem and became the second in the "chain" of protected areas, covering almost the entire coast of Lake Baikal by now. The creation of the reserve was the response of the USSR ecologists to the beginning of the construction of the notorious Baikal PPM. One of the most important tasks of the reserve is the protection of undisturbed cedar forests. At present, the reserve serves as a reference territory for assessing the impact of airborne industrial emissions from Southern Siberia on forest ecosystems.

Area - 165,724 hectares, taking into account the changes introduced by the order of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR dated June 20, 1973 No. 366-r. The number of clusters is 1.


Subordinate territories and security zone

The reserve is surrounded by a strip of protection zone with a width of 0.5 to 4 kilometers with a total area of ​​34 788 hectares (formed by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Buryat ASSR No. 435 of December 3, 1976).

In 1985, the territory of the Kabansky federal reserve (12,100 ha) in the Selenga delta was transferred to the jurisdiction of the reserve.

Since March 3, 2011, the territory of the federal reserve "Altacheisky" (78 373 hectares) in the Selenginsky midlands was transferred to the jurisdiction of the reserve.


The convention

Since 1994, the Kabansky Wildlife Refuge has been classified as a wetland of international importance (Selenga delta, Ramsar Convention). In 1986, the reserve was included in the international network of biosphere reserves. Since 1996, the territory of the reserve and reserve has been part of the Lake Baikal site of the World Natural Heritage.


Eco education and tourism

The reserve has a Museum of Nature, founded in 1971. The ornithological collection is most fully represented in it - 104 exhibits. The exposition of the museum is constantly updated. So, in April 2019, a new exhibit appeared - a stuffed seal baby that died as a result of human criminal actions.

An ethno-town has been created on the territory of the reserve. A number of excursions have also been developed and special ecological paths have been arranged.

The promotion of tourist groups along the southern border of the reserve is prohibited in accordance with the law on reserves (in the old editions of the 1950s and early 1960s, published before the establishment of the reserve, there are many references to categorical tourist routes along this territory)


Flora and fauna

More than 1050 species of higher vascular plants grow in the reserve (as of 2014), about 70% of the territory is occupied by forests. Many of them are rare, endemic and relict species. The Red Book of Buryatia (2013) includes 45 species and 10 - in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. There are 49 species of mammals, 251 species are birds, amphibians and reptiles - 6, fish - 12.


The most protected species of animals

Otter, wild boar, roe deer, elk, brown bear, sable, capercaillie, black kite, kiksha, tundra partridge, crested wasp eater, Far Eastern tree frog, sharp-faced frog, lenok, taimen, grayling, viviparous lizard.


Protected plants

hazel grouse dagan, kostenets Altai, calypso bulbous, lady's slipper large-flowered, neottianta nodule, anemone Baikal (Arsenyevia), Rhodiola rosea (Golden root), Swertia Baikal, raponticum safflower (safflower safflower stemmakant, safflower safflower)