Gusinoozyorsk, Russia


Gusinoozyorsk (Buryatsky: Galuuta, Galuta) is a city and administrative center of the Selenginsky District of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the northeastern shore of Lake Gusinoe, 110 kilometers (68 miles) southwest of Ulan-Ude. Population: 24,582 people (2010 census)

Gusinoozyorsk was founded as a settlement of Shakhty in 1939, when the development of a brown coal deposit began nearby. Since 1953 - the city of Gusinoozyorsk.

It is located on the northeastern shore of Lake Gusinoe, 110 km south-west of Ulan-Ude on the Kyakhtinsky tract - the A340 federal highway.

Gusinoozersk is the second city in terms of economic importance and population in Buryatia. The main city-forming enterprise is the Gusinoozyorskaya TPP.


Sights of Gusinoozersk

Tamchinsky datsan
Bultumur datsan
Deer stone
Rock Englishwoman
Agsurg spring
Atsula tract
Temnikovskaya cave
Goose lake
Pike lake
Mount Slain
Geser's parking lot
Novoselenginsky Museum of the Decembrists
Old Selenginsk
Chikoy arrow
Park of culture and rest
City sports complex
Sports complex GRES

Museum of the city of Gusinoozyorsk

House of Culture "Shakhtar".
Puppet theater "Rodnichok".
City leisure center "Russia".
Leisure Center "Rus".


History of Gusinoozersk

Oykonym Gusinoozyorsk was formed by tracing the limnonym Galuuta Nuur from the Buryat language. The Buryat name, in turn, is due to the fact that the inhabitants of the surrounding uluses collected goose feathers on the shores of the lakes, which later formed the Goose Lake.

The first information of Russian and European travelers that the waves of the Goose Lake throw "hard earth coal" on the shore date back to 1772. In the 1890s, the geologist V.A.Obruchev conducted a study of the Gusinoozersk brown coal deposit and pointed out the possibility of its industrial development.

In 1932−1935, the geologist I. Ya. Sotnikov conducted preliminary exploration on the eastern shore of Lake Goose in the area of ​​the Bain-Zurkhe hill (Southern section). On August 26, 1934, the Bureau of the Buryat-Mongolian Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks transferred the Gusinoozyorskoye coal deposit to the Vostsibugol trust. In September, the laying of the mine and the construction of the village began, but due to the remoteness and difficulties in transportation, work at the mine near the Bain-Zurkhe fell was suspended.

On February 17, 1938, the Bureau of the Buryat-Mongolian Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks adopted a resolution "On the use of local mineral fuel" and set the task of comprehensive development of the Gusinoozyorskoye deposit. In August-September, on the site of the present city, exploration and production mines No. 2 and No. 5 are laid. In November 1938, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR transferred the development of the deposit from the Vostsibugol trust to the Bukachachinsky correctional labor camp of the GULAG of the NKVD of the USSR, later transformed into Gusinoozerlag (1940-1942 ).

In 1939, the construction of a village began on the Northern section (the village of Northern Shakhty). The first trains with coal went along the railway line to the Zagustai station.

During the Great Patriotic War, over two thousand prisoners worked at the mines of Gusinoozerlag. In 1942, work on the development of the deposit was again transferred to the Vostsibugol trust. At the end of the war, one and a half thousand repatriated Soviet prisoners of war and three hundred Japanese prisoners of war of the Kwantung Army arrived. The Japanese worked in mines, built residential and public buildings in the village, many of which still exist today.

In the post-war years, the settlement grew and developed. A power plant with a capacity of 1000 kW was launched, a FZO school, a hospital, a canteen, a cinema, etc.

On April 28, 1948, the settlement of Shakhty was assigned to the category of workers' settlements. In the autumn of the same year, the deportation of Japanese prisoners of war took place. The memory of them remained in the buildings they built and the name of the Yaponka tract on the southern outskirts of the city.

On June 15, 1953, the working settlement of Shakhty was transformed into a city of regional subordination and named Gusinoozerskoye after Lake Gusino, on the banks of which it is located.

By the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR dated June 21, 1961, the administrative center of the Selenginsky aimag of the Buryat ASSR was moved from the village of Novoselenginsk to the city of Gusinoozyorsk.

In 1966, open development of the Kholboldzhinsky coal deposit began south of the Bain-Zurkhe hill on the eastern shore of Lake Gusinoe. In November 1968, the construction of a thermal power plant began at the mouth of the Zagustai River. On December 22, 1976, the Power Engineer's Day, the first stage of the Gusinoozyorskaya TPP was launched.

The 1970-1980s were marked by the growth of the city's economy. In addition to coal and energy enterprises, a radio factory, a bakery, a dairy, a brick factory, a garment factory, a timber processing enterprise, and construction organizations operated. The territory of Gusinoozyorsk is significantly increasing. Neighborhoods of power engineers, coal miners, workers of a radio plant with five-story residential buildings, schools, kindergartens and shops are being built.

On December 27, 1977, Gusinoozersk was transformed into a city of republican (ASSR) subordination and removed from the Selenginsky region.

On February 24, 1982, the ulus Tukhum of the Zagustai City Council was included in the city of Gusinoozyorsk.

In the 1990s, with the collapse of the USSR, the main enterprises of the Soviet period were closed due to the unprofitability of production. Due to the low quality of the new coal seams, the work of the Gusinoozyorsk mines is terminated. In 2000, the Kholboldzhinsky coal mine was closed, which was one of the main enterprises of the city for more than two decades.


In 1998, Gusinoozyorsk ceased to be a city of republican subordination and was included in the Selenginsky district.

In 2013, an interdistrict vascular center was opened in the city, where residents of the Selenginsky, Kyakhtinsky, Dzhida and Zakamensky districts undergo treatment.

In February-March 2015, the XIII Republican Winter Rural Sports Games were held in Gusinoozyorsk.

It is located in the Gusinoozerskaya depression on the northeastern shore of Lake Gusin, 110 km south-west of Ulan-Ude, on the Kyakhtinsky tract - the A340 federal highway, 6 km southeast of the Zagustai railway station.

The central part of the city is located on the southwestern steppe ridge of the Monostoy ridge of the Selenginsky midlands, gently descending to the shore of Lake Gusinoe and to the estuarine floodplain of the Zagustai River. The part of the city adjacent to the lake is built up mainly with houses of the private sector, across the river Zagustai there is the Gusinoozyorskaya GRES, the Zagustai station and the village of Zaozyorny.

The city is located in a zone of sharply continental climate. Winters are snowy, cold, with dry frosts; summers are short and often hot. The average temperature in summer is +19 ºС, in winter –22 ºС. Annual precipitation is 250 mm on average.

How to get there
6 km northwest of the city is the Zagustai station of the East Siberian Railway on the southern Ulan-Ude - Naushki line.

There is a bus station in the city, from which buses regularly depart in all directions of the region and to Ulan-Ude.