Tyumen Oblast, Russia

The Tyumen region is located in Western Siberia and is a region within a region. On paper, it stretches across all of Russia, from the Kazakh border to the Arctic Ocean, but in reality, the Tyumen region stretches from Tyumen for 500 kilometers, and then the Khanty-Mansiysk and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrugs begin, formally belonging to the same Tyumen region, but in reality completely independent. This article talks about the southern part of the Tyumen region, while separate guidebooks are dedicated to the autonomous okrugs.

The Tyumen region is the region from which the Russian development of Siberia began. Here are the oldest Siberian cities - Tyumen and Tobolsk, the only Kremlin in all of Siberia and the best monuments of the Siberian Baroque - characteristic Tyumen churches that cannot be confused with anything else. The steep banks of the Tura and Irtysh break the idea of the flat and boring landscapes of Western Siberia, and from a practical point of view, the Tyumen region is a rich, comfortable region and therefore very convenient for travel.



Tyumen is only a year older than Tobolsk, but the history of these two Siberian capitals - historical and modern - is completely different. Unlike the quiet district Tobolsk, Tyumen is a large and modern city, in the center of which, nevertheless, dozens of carved wooden houses have been preserved. In addition to them, here you need to see wonderful Siberian churches, including the ancient Trinity Monastery, and the picturesque Tura embankment, from which almost all of these churches are visible. Although you can walk around the old part of the city in half a day, you will get a lot of impressions, and in the vicinity of Tyumen you will find other interesting things: the oldest stone mosque in Siberia, hot springs and archaeological sites.

Ishim stands halfway between Tyumen and Omsk. In the past it was a fair town, and now it is a large station on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Not much remains of Ishim’s turbulent merchant past, but the city successfully compensates for the lack of antiquity with modern examples of monumental art, including a very exotic monument to Borodino bread. Also in Ishim you can see a cathedral in the Siberian Baroque style, and to the south, closer to the Kazakh border, a beautiful forest-steppe landscape begins - the Ishim hillocks along the banks of the river of the same name.

Tobolsk is one of the oldest Russian cities beyond the Urals and the first capital of Siberia. Here is the only Kremlin beyond the Urals and nearly a dozen churches in the Siberian Baroque style, and the number of architectural monuments goes into the hundreds. In addition to this, Tobolsk is located very picturesquely. The Kremlin stands on a high hill, from which stunning views of the Irtysh and the old, foothill part of the city open. In the vicinity of Tobolsk (and also on the Irtysh) there is the Abalaksky monastery - one of the oldest in Siberia.

Yalutorovsk is located on the Trans-Siberian Railway, an hour and a half drive from Tyumen. This is not the first city that is worth visiting in the Tyumen region, but, despite its position in the alphabet, it is by no means the last. If the stay of the Decembrists in Siberia surprises few people, then a recreated wooden fort and a wonderful cathedral in the Siberian Baroque style (also, in fact, recreated) are not encountered at every step. Yalutorovsk also has a lot of old, this time completely authentic buildings, and a surprisingly pleasant urban environment worthy of a large city.




How to get there

By plane
The main airport is located directly in Tyumen, the secondary one is in Tobolsk. You can also fly to Yekaterinburg, where there are several more flights, and some of them are even international. From Yekaterinburg to Tyumen it takes 4-5 hours.

By train
In the southern part of the Tyumen region there is the Trans-Siberian Railway, trains along which run every 2-3 hours and take travelers to either Moscow or Vladivostok. In Tyumen, another major highway branches off to the north, leading to Surgut, Noyabrsk and Novy Urengoy. Despite the lack of electrification, the flow of trains here is only slightly inferior to the Trans-Siberian, and, having reached Tyumen, these trains can turn both to the west and to the east, which makes it possible to easily travel by train not only to cities located directly on the Trans-Siberian, but also to the displaced to the north of Tobolsk.

By bus
Although Tyumen and Tobolsk have bus connections with all surrounding regions, in most directions buses are obviously inferior to railways due to the huge distances. It makes sense to travel by bus from Kurgan or Kazakh Petropavlovsk (to Ishim), which are not connected to Tyumen by rail. To the north of Tyumen, the number of roads is negligible, and at the borders of the regions they are difficult to pass and obviously do not have regular transport. The only exception is the road north-west from Tyumen to the city of Tavda in the Sverdlovsk region, along which there is regular bus service.

By car
Routes P351 from Yekaterinburg, P254 from Kurgan and P402 from Omsk lead to Tyumen (the roads are in very good condition). In the northern direction, the P404 highway goes to Surgut and Khanty-Mansiysk. Among the local roads, the already mentioned road to Tavda and the Kurgan-Ishim link are at your service, which, on the contrary, allows you to avoid transit through Kazakhstan. The road to the Omsk region along the Irtysh (via Tara and Ust-Ishim) has no asphalt surface and is apparently not suitable for long trips.

On the ship
The only river with regular navigation is the Irtysh. In the summer, ships from Omsk to Salekhard travel along it from time to time (rarely), making a stop in Tobolsk.



By train
Suburban trains in the Tyumen region are operated by the Sverdlovsk commuter company. However, these trains are few: 4 times a day on the Tyumen–Yalutorovsk–Zavodoukovsk section, and also once a day from Tyumen to Tobolsk and Ishim, respectively. There are a lot of long-distance trains, and they usually stop wherever a traveler might need them, but they are significantly more expensive than buses and commuter trains. If you decide to take the train, buy a ticket at the ticket office, as conductors sell tickets at a premium.



There are many attractions in the Tyumen region, but they are located quite compactly: almost everything interesting is located in several cities and in their environs, and for a general acquaintance with the region in general it is enough to visit only two cities - Tyumen and Tobolsk, where there are the oldest stone buildings preserved in Siberia, Trinity Monastery and Tobolsk Kremlin, respectively. Although the latter was built at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries. (later heavily destroyed and reconstructed), it quite well replicates the design and style of ancient Russian fortresses in Central Russia, but the churches in it are already baroque. The first Siberian cathedrals (Sofia in Tobolsk, Znamensky in the Abalak Monastery and Trinity in Tyumen; all from the late 17th or first half of the 18th century) were quite unusual, combining stone decoration in the spirit of what later became Siberian Baroque, with concave domes borrowed from in Ukraine. Apparently, there was no concept in this, but was the whim of a specific person who was involved in the design of Tobolsk churches. In general, at that time in Siberia they could still afford to build something absolutely original, not fitting into any canons - such, for example, the Tobolsk Gostiny Dvor (1703-07), more reminiscent of a small Kremlin or castle.

By the middle of the 18th century, the Siberian Baroque style was emerging, in many ways reminiscent of the Vyatka churches of the same period, but differing from them in the larger volume of churches and taller bell towers, in some places even topped with spiers. In addition, Western Siberian temples are usually more spectacular than Vyatka ones due to their more advantageous location, which you will especially appreciate in Tyumen and Tobolsk, where there are several such temples. They also exist in Yalutorovsk, Ishim, and beyond the borders of the modern Tyumen region: in the west in Severouralsk, and in the east in Tara. At the same time as the churches, many civil buildings were built in Tobolsk, the number and age of which Tobolsk rivals many regional centers in the European part of Russia.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the heyday of Tobolsk ended, and with it, stone construction became easier. On the other hand, many wooden buildings have come down to us from this period. There are dozens of pre-revolutionary wooden houses in Tyumen, mostly restored and fully integrated into the urban environment. In Tobolsk, such monuments are treated much less carefully, but even there a lot has been preserved, and it is curious that the decor of wooden houses in these two cities is completely different: voluminous, lush carvings in Tyumen and simple, geometric patterns that prevail in Tobolsk. The oldest wooden mosque (1840s) has been preserved in the village of Irtyshat yurts near Tobolsk, and the first stone mosque in Siberia (1888) is located in the village of Embaevo in the vicinity of Tyumen.

If you have time, visit Yalutorovsk and Ishim, where there are many old houses, and in Yalutorovsk, in addition, a full-fledged wooden fort, which once existed in all cities of Siberia without exception, has been recreated.

Historically, the Tobolsk region is a traditional place of exile. Some lived in Tobolsk itself or in surrounding cities, and others were sent through Tobolsk to places even more remote, as told by the exhibitions of the Tobolsk prison castle, where, for the amusement of the public, there was even a hostel “Prisoner” with an imitation of spending the night in a locked prison. camera. Many Decembrists also visited here, the museums of Yalutorovsk and Tobolsk are dedicated to their fates. However, the Tobolsk region was by no means a remote outskirts. In Tobolsk you will see pre-revolutionary buildings of gymnasiums, hospitals, colleges, and in the city museum you can spend the whole day getting acquainted with Siberian nature or the history of the royal family, which, by the way, was exiled to the same Tobolsk in 1917.

It is well known from the school geography course that beyond the Urals the West Siberian Plain begins. When viewed from a train traveling along the Trans-Siberian Railway, this area is quite monotonous, but it changes dramatically in the river valleys. The most picturesque places are near Tobolsk, from where it is worth going to Abalak not even for the sake of the monastery, but simply to once again admire the steep bank of the Irtysh. In Tyumen, the terrain is much simpler, but the curve of the Tura with the temples standing along it perfectly complements the man-made monuments. The banks of Ishim to the south of the city of the same name (Ishim Hills) are also beautiful, and in the very south of the region, on the road from Tyumen to Kurgan, there is the Maryino Gorge - a very deep ravine that suddenly appears in the middle of a completely flat area. Nearby, the Ingal Valley is a picturesque area along the Iset River, especially interesting for archaeologists: the local mounds hide traces of many cultures that lived in Western Siberia long before the appearance of the Tatars and Russians. The Tyumen region is famous for its mineral springs, including warm ones. All of them are located in the vicinity of Tyumen.

House-museum of Grigory Rasputin, Pokrovskoye village. works on a special schedule. One of the first in Russia and the first private museum in Siberia. Located across the street from the site of Rasputin's house, which was demolished before the 1980 Olympics. Also in this place the penultimate attempt on the life of the Great Elder took place, and in the backyard of the house there is a two-story house of Rasputin’s parents. A small but rich exhibition, an interesting excursion from the founders of the museum, the historian spouses. In the house you can see the famous chair, a carved window frame of a real house, original documents and photographs. A visit to the museum and a tour will turn the philistine attitude and stereotypes that, as a rule, surround the image of this odious figure, upside down.


Physiographic characteristics

Geographical position

The Tyumen region (with the autonomous okrugs of KhMAO-Yugra and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug) is located in the western part of the West Siberian Plain. The northernmost point of the Tyumen region is Vilkitsky Island 73°30' N. w. (the northernmost continental point is located on the Yamal Peninsula - Cape Skuratov 72°52'N), the westernmost is at the source of the Northern Sosva River, (59°18'E), the easternmost is in the Nizhnevartovsk region at the source the Vakh River (85°41' E), the southernmost one - in the Sladkovsky region, on the border with Kazakhstan (55°10' N). The total length from north to south is 2100 km, and from east to west - 1400 km.

The region is located in the natural zones of arctic deserts, tundra, forest-tundra (north and center of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug), taiga (southern Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, north of the southern part of the Tyumen region), mixed forests and forest-steppe (center and south of the southern parts of the Tyumen region).

The area of the south of the Tyumen region (without autonomous okrugs) is 160,122 km².



The region is located in the MSK+2 time zone. The applied time offset relative to UTC is +5:00. Ekaterinburg time for most of the Tyumen region corresponds to solar time. For the western part of the region, including the city of Tyumen, the time is one hour ahead. For the eastern part of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the time is one hour behind.



More than 70 thousand watercourses with a length of more than 10 km flow through the region, their total length is 584.4 thousand km. The largest rivers in the region - the Ob (185 km³/year) and the Irtysh (36.5 km³/year) - are of navigable importance. There are approximately 70 thousand lakes in the region. In the north and central part, thermokarst and swamp lakes are common, in the south there are drainless salt water bodies in relief depressions.



The region has extreme natural and climatic conditions in most of the territory - the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the Beloyarsky and Berezovsky districts of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra belong to the regions of the Far North, and the remaining districts and urban districts of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug and the Uvatsky district are equated to them.

The climate is arctic, subarctic in the north and temperate in the center and south. The average January temperature ranges from −15°C in Tyumen to −47°C in the north of the region. The duration of the frosty period ranges from 130 in Tyumen to 210 days a year or more in the tundra region.


Natural resources

The autonomous okrugs contain the bulk of the country's oil and gas reserves. The total volume of prospecting and exploration drilling exceeded 45 million m3. Oil production is concentrated in the middle Ob region. Gas is produced mainly in the northern regions. Large oil fields are located in Ugra: Samotlorskoye, Priobskoye, Fedorovskoye, Mamontovskoye, Krasnoleninskoye; gas - in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug: Urengoyskoye, Medvezhye, Yamburgskoye. Depth of occurrence is from 700 m to 4 km. Peat, sapropels, quartz sands, and limestones are extracted. About 400 deposits of raw materials for the production of building materials have been explored.

Ore minerals and precious stones were discovered on the eastern slope of the Subpolar and Polar Urals (in particular, deposits of lead, copper, chromite).

The region is rich in fresh water reserves, which are represented by large rivers - Ob, Irtysh, Tobol, lakes (650 thousand) - Chernoye (224 km²), Bolshoi Uvat (179 km²), etc., groundwater, which contains more than half of Russian reserves iodine (30 mg/l) and bromine (40-50 mg/l).

Most of the territory (43 million hectares 430 thousand km²) is covered with forests. In terms of forest resources, the region ranks third in the Russian Federation after the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Irkutsk Region. The total timber reserve is estimated at 5.4 billion m³.

In the south of the Tyumen region there are about a dozen hot (37-50 °C) geothermal springs with balneological properties. The springs are popular not only among residents of Tyumen, but also among neighboring regions: Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions.


Flora and fauna

The territory of the Tyumen region extends in the meridional direction across the whole of Russia, capturing 8 natural zones and 13 zoogeographical regions, which determines the floristic and faunal diversity of the region.

Due to the flatness of most of the Tyumen region, zonal changes in vegetation cover are clearly visible within its boundaries. In the far north of the region, in the Arctic desert zone, there is almost no vegetation; to the south it is replaced by a tundra zone with vegetation of lichens, mosses, and low perennial grasses; Woody plants include shrubs (crowberry, cranberry), shrubs (blueberry, bearberry), dwarf species of birch and willow. Behind the tundra there is a narrow strip of forest-tundra, where Siberian spruce and downy birch grow along with tundra vegetation. The central, large part of the Tyumen region is occupied by taiga, where the forest stand is dominated by coniferous species - Scots pine, Siberian pine, common spruce, Siberian fir. In the southern part of the taiga there is an undergrowth of raspberry, rose hip, juniper, mountain ash, and elderberry bushes. In the subtaiga, the main tree species are downy birch and warty birch, occupying 53% of the forest fund area of the Tyumen region. The extreme south of the region is located in the forest-steppe zone where birch and aspen groves and thickets of willow bushes predominate.

The forest fund is under 12 million hectares, 120 thousand km², forested area is 6.87 million hectares, 68,700 km², timber reserves are 961.3 million m³.

In the modern fauna of the Tyumen region there are 95 species of mammals, about 360 species of birds, 6 species of reptiles, 8 species of amphibians, 93 species of fish. Each natural zone has its own typical representatives of the fauna. In the north of the region, in the Arctic waters, live the bowhead whale, walrus, polar bear, and sea hare. The tundra zone is inhabited by the arctic fox, polar owl, and white-billed loon. In the forest-tundra there are white hare, muskrat, and goldfinch. The taiga is inhabited by brown bear, wolverine, elk, lynx, sable, pine marten, squirrel, chipmunk, capercaillie, hazel grouse, eagle owl, and waxwing. In the south of the region, in the forest-steppe, there are foxes, raccoon dogs, brown hare, common hedgehog, and water vole.



711 rare and endangered species are listed in the Red Book of the Tyumen Region. The list of specially protected natural areas in the south of the region includes 99 objects, of which one is international and 3 are federal.



The settlement of the region began 40.3 thousand years ago. n., as evidenced by the discovery of the talus (supraheel) bone near the Poluyanovsk village of Baygara (above Tobolsk on the right bank of the Irtysh). The oldest found in Northern Eurasia is a wooden burial boat from the Chalcolithic burial ground “Buzan-III” in the Ingal Valley.

Until 1704, the name “TUMEN” (1562 - Description of Russia, Muscovy and Tartary. Author of the Englishman Antonio Jenkins) is found on ancient maps, as well as “Tarteres de Tumen” (“The newest General map of the entire Moscow Empire” 1704) - the name of the territory of the modern Tyumen region.

In 1708, the Tobolsk rank was abolished, and Tobolsk was appointed the administrative center of the largest Siberian province in Russia. In 1782, from the territory of the liquidated Tobolsk province, the Tobolsk governorate was formed, transformed in 1796 into the Tobolsk province.

On November 3, 1923, the Tyumen province was liquidated, and instead of its counties, districts were formed, which became part of the Ural region. From January to December 1934, there was an Ob-Irtysh region with a center in Tyumen, territorially corresponding to the modern Tyumen region, then it was abolished, and its territory was included in the Omsk region.

The Tyumen region was formed on August 14, 1944 by separating a number of districts from the Omsk and Kurgan regions. The first formal leader (chairman of the executive committee of the regional Council of Workers' Deputies) was Kuzma Fedorovich Koshelev.