Ural, Russia


Ural is located in Russia. The territory of the Urals is formed by the East European and West Siberian plains and the Ural Mountains separating them.

In the east, the Urals border on Siberia, on the west side, on the Volga region and north-west of Russia. In the north, the shores of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug are washed by the waters of the Arctic Ocean, and the Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions in the south have a federal border with Kazakhstan.

The Ural extends across the territory of Russia and Kazakhstan. Geographically, the Urals borders in the east - with Siberia, in the west - with the Volga region and the North-West of Russia, in the north it is washed by the waters of the Arctic Ocean, and in the south the border reaches the Caspian lowland and the coast of the Aral Sea.


Kurgan Oblast




Sverdlovsk Oblast


Ganina Yama


Kholat Syakhl


Nizhny Tagil





Tyumen Oblast




Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Yugra)




Chelyabinsk Oblast


Taganai National Park
Zyuratkul National Park


Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Gydan Nature Reserve

Novy Urengoy
Upper-Taz Nature Reserve



Ural is a region located in the Ural Mountains. The Ural Mountains are a chain of mountain ranges and massifs of ancient folding, stretching from the Arctic Ocean to the semi-deserts of Kazakhstan. The Ural region we have identified includes the Southern Urals, the Middle Urals, part of the Northern Urals, as well as part of the Cis-Urals and Trans-Urals.

The Ural Mountains divide our country into the European part and the Asian part, and this division is not only conditional. Mountains are a kind of dividing barrier that prevents the penetration of air currents from west to east. Throughout Europe, the climate is strongly dependent on the air masses formed in the Atlantic and the warm current of the Gulf Stream. To the east of the Ural Mountains, the climate is completely different, as it is formed by arctic air currents and Pacific cyclones.

The highest peaks of the Urals reach 1500-1700 m, while the lion's share of the territory belonging to the Middle Urals is generally a chain of hills and elevations with rare mountains no higher than 600 m. A common joke that you can cross the Urals and not notice that you have been in the mountains is like times about the Middle Urals.

On the other hand, the region is rich in salt and fresh lakes and many rivers that feed the waters of the Ob, Pechora and the Caspian Sea. The nature of the Urals is typical for central Russia. Taiga in the north of the region is replaced to the south by deciduous forests, which in turn turn into forest-steppes and steppes. Altitude zonation is manifested in mountainous regions. The Urals is a zone of risky agriculture, which, however, does not prevent the placement in the Urals of almost 8% of Russia's sown areas, including fields of wheat, sunflower and flax, although this applies to a greater extent to the Southern Urals and the Cis-Urals, because. fodder crops and potatoes already predominate in the Middle.

Mineral resources are the most important wealth of the region. At various times, the Urals were in demand as a supplier of resources for the needs of the state. In the 16th century copper was mined in the mountains, from the 17th century the richest deposits of high-quality iron ore began to be developed, in the 18th century gold was found in the Urals, and the production of precious and semi-precious stones was expanded. In the future, the Urals supplied and continues to supply bauxites, platinum, salts, asbestos, oil, gas, coal, and rare non-ferrous metals. From the 18th century the region is a key industrial center, where, in addition to the mining industry, enterprises of non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy, timber processing and mechanical engineering are concentrated. Therefore, the metaphorical name of the Ural Mountains - "The Range of Russia" - carries a double meaning: the Urals are an important economic hub of the country, a guarantee of its stability and stability.

The most complete portal for a traveler in the Urals is the Nash Ural site. It is difficult to find somewhere more comprehensive information about the natural objects of the Ural Mountains. In addition, overview information is given on all significant cities and towns in the region, all articles are accompanied by photographic materials. Separately, the site uralgeo.net is dedicated to the geography and geology of the Southern Urals (Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Orenburg regions and the Republic of Bashkortostan). It may not have the most successful design, but the information is well structured and also provided with photographic materials. For lovers of outdoor activities, there is a special guide to the Southern Urals, which contains tips for tourists and reports on trips. A real storehouse of ideas for forest travelers.



A permanent population in the Urals appeared in the Neolithic era (VI-IV thousand years BC), there were cities in the Bronze Age (III-II thousand years BC), but this is still a little-studied page of history. In the 9th-10th centuries, the region began to be inhabited by modern peoples belonging to the Ugric (in the north) and Turkic (in the south) groups. The Turkic people were the Bashkirs, who settled in the territories of the modern Orenburg and Chelyabinsk regions and Bashkiria. They gave the name to the region - the Urals. It is already difficult to trace the exact origin of the word, but in the culture of the Bashkirs, the Ural is a mighty batyr, the hero of the epic of the same name. The peoples of the Northern and Middle Urals are the Komi-Permyaks (the territory of the modern Perm Territory) and the Mansi, or, as they were also called, the Voguls (the territory of the modern Sverdlovsk Region), related to the Finno-Ugric tribes. Accordingly, most of the place names of the Urals are Bashkir, Mansi and Permyak names.

The first serious state entity that established control over the Urals was the Golden Horde. Even then, the Urals made a feasible contribution to the confrontation with the West, taking an active part in the raids on Russia. But after a couple of centuries, the Golden Horde broke up into separate khanates and principalities, including the Kazan Khanate (the Bashkirs got there), the Pelym principality (the Mansi got there), the Great Perm principality (with the Komi-Permyaks) and the Siberian Khanate (they got there one way or another all). All the principalities and khanates immediately began to establish active foreign policy ties (in the form of mutual raids) with each other and with other yesterday's "brothers" in the Horde, including the Moscow principality. Strengthening the latter in the XV century. sentenced all independent regimes from Novgorod to Kazan. Recalcitrant to Moscow remained the Trans-Urals, which were in the zone of responsibility of the Siberian Khanate. Over the Southern Urals, the Nogai Horde still retained a semblance of control, but in the 16th century. Cossacks from the Volga and Don are actively settled on these lands and no one is asked. They begin to be called Yaik Cossacks - after the name of the Yaik River, which had yet to be called the Urals.

In 1581, the legendary Yermak Timofeevich volunteered to go to the lands of the Urals and Siberia as the plenipotentiary of Moscow, although he represented not so much the interests of the government as the interests of business - the merchants of the Stroganovs, who controlled the Urals and planned expansion to the east. After 4 years, he died in the waters of the Irtysh, fleeing from a sudden night raid, but the victories of a small Cossack detachment inspired followers to campaign. In the conquered Siberia (for the import of Western cultural values ​​and the export of furs), an overland route was established through the fortress of Verkhoturye, where the Ural governor was planted. From that moment on, the two main cities of the region - Verkhoturye and Tobolsk - began to argue with each other for political weight and significance. But after a hundred years, both lost their bets: the country was now called Russia and the country needed guns. And in the Urals they began to develop iron deposits - much south of the old "fur" road.

Already in the XVII century. metallurgical plants of the Urals began to appear, Tatars and other peoples of the Volga region began to actively move here, and in the late 17th-early 18th centuries, fleeing persecution, dissident Old Believers poured in. Illegal migrants planted their culture, took away jobs, fished and beat the beast. The indigenous people were happy to see the guests.

In the Middle Urals, the Stroganovs are being replaced by the Demidovs - new industrialists who, thanks to Peter, rose, as usual, from the mob. But the state itself has already appreciated the role of the region and is in no hurry to leave it at the mercy of the enterprising Demidovs and other enterprising merchants and industrialists. The vertical of power is being strengthened across the country, counties are united into provinces and provinces. To control the industry and mining of the Urals, a Mining Office was organized in Kungur, which later moved to Yekaterinburg. In 1773-1775. the Pugachev uprising swept through the Urals, actively supported by the Bashkirs and the Yaik Cossacks. Many fortresses of the Urals sniffed gunpowder, many of them fell. And although the most dramatic events took place in the Orenburg region, the entire Urals felt the gravity of the consequences. The Cossacks were abolished, the administrative center of the Middle Urals shifted to Perm. Catherine II was the first to change geographical names just in case: r. Yaik changed to r. Ural.

19th century - a century of rapid progress and applied development of sciences. Despite the increasing technological gap between Russia and Europe, the now demanded mechanical engineering is actively developing in the Urals (and it will remain the core industry of the Urals to this day), the first Russian steam locomotive is born in Nizhny Tagil, and a few decades later the region was entangled with a network of railways.

In the 20th century, in the Urals, traditionally considered a reliable rear, more than 140 years after Pugachev's peasant war, active hostilities broke out again. This time, a real front line ran through the mountains (the Eastern Front of the Civil War), there were bloody battles for Perm, Kungur, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Tagil, Chelyabinsk, Zlatoust, Orenburg, Ufa, Kurgan. The Czechoslovak Corps, the Siberian Army, the Ural Army operated in the Urals, they were opposed by the forces of the Red Army.

But during the Great Patriotic War, the role of the Ural rear was greater than ever. Many enterprises from Ukraine and Central Russia were transferred here, the production of ammunition and military equipment was launched, and the dormant mining industry is actively developing. It is unlikely that the Urals would have been such an industrially developed region in the second half of the 20th century without these tragic events.

Heavily decimated by the crisis in the industry in the 90s, the Urals lost the lion's share of its industrial potential, however, the region's flagship enterprises retain their weight in the country's economy and are actively developing. UMMC-Holding, Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, EVRAZ, Bashkir Fuel Company enjoy unconditional influence in the region. Great hopes are pinned on the "titanium valley" under construction in Verkhnyaya Salda.


Other destinations

Munpupynyer Plateau (Mansi boobies), Pechoro-Ilychsky Reserve. The Manpupuner Plateau is one of the most iconic and beautiful places in the Ural Range. "Mansiysk Bolvany" are included in the list of seven wonders of Russia. This mysterious plateau is located in the Northern Urals, on the territory of the Pechero-Ilychsky Reserve, in the upper reaches of the Pechora River. It is famous for its seven stone pillars, from 29 to 42 meters high. this place is "Ural Stonehenge", and tourists call it the Mountain of Stone Idols, or simply Navels.


How to get there

By plane
There are international airports in each of the regional centers and some major cities. The largest airports are Koltsovo (Yekaterinburg), Ufa, Roschino (Tyumen).

By train
The Trans-Siberian Railway passes through the Urals from west to east. Yekaterinbug and Tyumen are the largest railway stations of the Trassib in the Urals, Ufa and Chelyabinsk are the most important stations on the historical part of the highway.

By bus
In the Urals, there is a fairly well-established bus service, there are bus stations in almost all cities. The largest transport centers: Ufa, Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk.

By car
From Moscow on the federal highway M5 "Ural" or M7 "Volga".

The region has an extensive network of roads and railways, some difficulties with transport may arise only in the Northern and Polar Urals. The largest transport hubs are Yekaterinburg (Northern Transsib) and Chelyabinsk (Southern Transsib). From these cities you can directly get by car, bus or train to almost any significant object on the map of the Urals. However, due to the significant distances, the aircraft also remains an actual mode of transport. Domestic airlines connect the airports of Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Perm, Ufa, Magnitogorsk, Orenburg and Orsk.

Suburban rail transportation in the Urals and in the Tyumen region is organized by Sverdlovsk Suburban Company OJSC (with the exception of the Perm Territory, where the carrier is Perm Suburban Company OJSC, and Bashkiria, where the carrier is Bashkortostan Suburban Passenger Company OJSC). You can plan your trip using the timetable on the website. Ticket control is not uncommon, therefore, in order to avoid unpleasant situations, it is better to purchase tickets in advance - at ticket offices or ticket sales terminals (green, stand at stations). Cashless payments are available at major stations.



There are several large national parks in the Urals. Including, in the Chelyabinsk region - Zyuratkul (the nearest city is Satka) and Taganay (the nearest city is Zlatoust).

In the Perm Territory, near the city of Kungur, there is the Kungur Ice Cave - a karst cave with a length of more than 5 km - a popular place for speleologists and ordinary tourists (1.5 km are available for excursions) due to picturesque underground lakes and bizarre stalactites and stalagmites formed in the cave in winter.

The Ural Mountains are the border between Europe and Asia. Its conditionality does not mean invisibility: "border signs" in the form of stelae are placed throughout the Urals (for example, in the Merry Mountains or west of Yekaterinburg), and in the Southern Urals the border runs along the channel of the Ural River. The "original" idea to take a picture while standing with one foot in Europe and with the other foot in Asia occurs to almost every second tourist, but what's wrong with innocent fun if you don't care on the way?

The Urals is a zone of active archaeological research. The main object of excavations is the sites of prehistoric tribes and cities of the Bronze Age. One of the important sights of this kind is the Country of Cities (the so-called Sintasht culture). This is a complex of ancient cities and fortresses dating back to the III-II millennium BC. - i.e. peers of the Egyptian pyramids. It is located on the territory of the Chelyabinsk and Orenburg regions and Bashkortostan, spread over 350 km. The main tourist attraction is the remains of the city of Arkaim.

Another well-known object of research is the site of the caveman Sikiyaz-Tamak, in the Chelyabinsk region, the region of the city of Satka. The cave complex is open to tourists.

One of the Russian pioneers of the Urals is the legendary Yermak. And although he was not the only one wandering through the surrounding forests, any camp found during excavations dating back to the 16th century (+/- 100 years) is immediately attributed to Yermak and his squad. There are many such places in the Urals, you should not completely trust the guides who wishful thinking. What kind of Cossack detachment belonged to the parking lot - now it’s still impossible to establish anyway.


Things to do

The height of the ancient Ural Mountains often becomes an object of irony - most often these are hills a little over 200 m high. But despite this circumstance, there are many ski resorts in the Urals that attract athletes from neighboring regions. The largest ski resorts of regional significance are Solnechnaya Dolina (Chelyabinsk region, near the city of Miass), Abzakovo, Bannoe (Bashkiria, near the city of Magnitogorsk), Gubakha (Perm Territory, near the city of Kungur), Belaya and Ezhovaya (Sverdlovsk region, Merry Mountains).

In addition, the ancient mountains have become a popular object of tourist and sport climbing, as well as caving.

Sanatorium treatment in the Urals is widespread. About a hundred sanatoriums offer recreation on the banks of lakes and rivers, mud therapy, mineral waters, etc. However, one must be prepared for high prices for tours - restoring health in the Urals is not a cheap pleasure. The most famous sanatoriums are Obukhovsky, Zeleny Mys, Rush, Nizhnie Sergi (Sverdlovsk region), Kisegach, Sinegorye, Uvildy, Sungul (Chelyabinsk region), Ust-Kachka (Perm Territory), Pearl of the Trans-Urals (Shadrinsk, Kurgan region), Karagay (Bashkiria) ).



One of the most popular tourist routes in the Urals is rafting on the Chusovaya River. Chusovaya - the left tributary of the Kama, a river 592 km long, flowing through the territory of the Chelyabinsk, Sverdlovsk regions and the Perm Territory. On the river there are sections of varying degrees of difficulty, organized rafting is carried out for both family tourists and extreme sportsmen.



The Urals gained world fame thanks to its subsoil rich in minerals. Despite the fact that all the main deposits had already been developed by the end of the 20th century, precious metals and semi-precious stones are still mined in the region. Accordingly, local jewelry will come down as Ural souvenirs, although it must be taken into account that if the Ural emerald can still be found, then almost all the malachite that is sold in souvenir departments is from the Congo, although it is locally processed (malachite is no longer mined in the Urals).

Of the other local crafts, the Urals exclusive will be the Nizhny Tagil painted trays, the elder brothers of the Zhostovo, the Kasli casting and the Zlatoust edged weapons, as well as the Orenburg downy shawls, famous far beyond the borders of Russia.

If you drive a car through the Ural Mountains, then along the road you can see quite decent market formations, where tourists are sold "goods of the Ural Mountains", "Ural souvenirs". All sorts of things are sold: cleavers of all sizes, smokehouses, moonshine stills, samovars, stainless steel boxes, fur boots, felt boots, stone chips paintings and many other interesting things (as well as Chinese consumer goods and goods for car travelers). By the way, some products are very worthless and deserve some attention, since you won’t buy anything like this in other places of our vast Motherland (in any case, in terms of price-quality ratio).


Precautionary measures

There are a large number of ticks in the forests of the Urals. Their activity begins early - the first ticks are removed in May. Precautions in the summer in the forest and even in city parks are required, and it is better not to climb into dense thickets. Encountering large animals is unlikely near hiking trails. But on the other hand, a meeting with a viper is quite possible.

An important rule for walking through the forest is to be equipped with navigational devices, a guide, or very good orientation skills. Do not underestimate the Ural taiga: you can get lost by moving only a few tens of meters from the path, and the settlements and roads are not very dense. Travelers lost in the forest (even local residents) are by no means uncommon.

Avalanches in the Urals are very rare. However, a number of avalanche-prone areas have been noted in the Polar Urals, where careless tourists periodically become victims of avalanches. The Polar Ural is a test for professional travelers.