Irbit, Russia

Irbit is a city in the Sverdlovsk region of Russia, the administrative center of the Irbit region (not part of it) as an administrative-territorial unit. The city is located 204 km north-east of Yekaterinburg, 180 km north-west of Tyumen, on the right bank of the Nitsa River at the confluence of the Irbit River, in the middle part of the Turin Plain. The city is crossed by the Yekaterinburg - Tavda - Ustye-Akha railway line of the Sverdlovsk railway, as well as regional highways going south-west to Kamyshlov and Artyomovsky, to the south-east to Baikalovo and Gorbunovskoye, to the north-east to Turinsk and Tavda, to the northwest to Alapaevsk.

Irbit, like the entire Sverdlovsk region, is located in the time zone MSK + 2. The time offset from UTC is +5: 00. The total area of ​​the Irbit municipality is 6423 hectares. It borders on all sides with the Irbit municipality. In the northern part of the city there is a city-wide park, in the south-western part there is a forest-park zone, the Bugry massif with a picturesque relief, mixed (natural) and coniferous, mainly artificial forests, there are also rare oak plantations for the Trans-Urals. The natural monument "Belaya Gorka" is located 20 km from the city, where a complex of children's health institutions has been formed. In the northeast, between the Nitsa and Irbit rivers, there is the Elm Grove nature reserve, which is the easternmost point of distribution of wild elms on the territory of the Russian Federation. The main waterways are the flat rivers Nitsa and Irbit, belonging to the West Siberian type with a characteristic spring flood. In some years, the part of the city located in the river valley is significantly flooded. Deposits of diatomites are located in the city area. The quarries cover an area of ​​31 hectares.



The city got its name from the Irbit River, which the Tatars called Irbei. In the documents of the 17th century, the Irbei River and the Irbeyskaya Sloboda first appear, but very soon we meet the spelling Irbitskaya, Irbitskaya Sloboda. Even later, the river and the settlement were called Irbit, and even now this pronunciation can be heard among people of the older generation. Among the rural population, the name of the city is often pronounced as "Erbit", "We are from Erbit".

Local historian I. Ya. Antropov linked the name of the city with the emergence of a fair here. The Irbeya River, according to the local historian, got its name from the Tatar “Iryb”, which means “congress” (meaning trade).
According to N. A. Yamin's version, the Russian name of the Irbit river comes from the Bashkir Irbiy (Ir-Biy).
Professor A. K. Matveev gives the following explanation: “In appearance, this is a typical Türkic word. In the Tatar language - and the source must be looked for first of all in it - there is also a quite suitable word Ir - "man", "hero", "hero", and as a dialect - "land", "country". Biy in Bashkir means "the tribal leader", while the Tatar language is very close to the Bashkir language both geographically, in structure and in the composition of the dictionary. "
An attempt is known to explain the name of the city and the Irbit River from a combination of "Ir" (the name of a non-existent prince) and "bit" (a certain Ir was allegedly beaten here).
The author of one of the articles in the book "Picturesque Russia" claims that the word Irbit means "lousy swamp." Probably, he had in mind the previously highly swampy territory, on which the southern part of Irbit was spread.



The oldest settlements
The oldest settlements on the site of the city emerged in the Bronze Age (II millennium BC), the most significant of which is the Irbit settlement, located on an outlier hill in the northwestern outskirts of the city, opposite the village of Melnikova on the left bank of the Irbit River.

In the lowest layer of the settlement, fragments of a pot-shaped burnished pottery with a flat bottom and carved ornamentation dating back to the Bronze Age were found. Its second layer contains evidence of early Iron Age. During the third settlement in the X-XIII centuries, the top of the hill was separated from its lower part by protective structures: a deep moat, a rampart, two rows of hedges or palisades. Perhaps a representative of the local nobility lived in the settlement. The fourth, the most recent settlement of the kurgan dates back to the XIII-XVI centuries.

Ethnically, the ancestors of the Mansi lived here until the 13th century. At a later time, they were ousted by the Siberian Tatars, on the northern outskirts of the present city there was their settlement Irbeevsky yurt. At the beginning of the 17th century, they were ousted by Russian settlers from central and northern Russia.

In 1631, at the confluence of the Irbit River with Nitsa, the Verkhotursky Slobozhan Ivan Shipitsyn (Spitsyn) laid the foundation for the Irbeevskaya Sloboda (later the name Irbitskaya is fixed in use). A prison was founded.

The population of the settlement was made up of state peasants and White Cossacks, as well as clerks, clergymen, coachmen, miller, blacksmith, gunner, bobies. According to the first census in 1666, there were two courtyards of the boyar's son, a clerk's courtyard, 21 courtyards of White Cossacks and 112 courtyards of quitrent peasants in the settlement. According to the census of 1680, besides the fort there was a church, with two priests. There are 22 villages subordinate to the settlement - Zaikova (33 yards), Shmakova (14), Rechkalov (also 14 yards). A total of 220 yards of quitrent peasants.

Soon after the foundation, a torzhok appeared in the settlement. In 1643, by decree of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, the torzhok was legalized, and the Irbit fair arose. It was held each on a feast day, Epiphany. Later, the dates of the fair were changed. European, Asian and Siberian goods were sold here. The fair became the second in Russia after Nizhny Novgorod.

County town
During the uprising of Yemelyan Pugachev, the inhabitants of Irbit resisted the peasant troops.

In 1775, Catherine the Great granted the settlement the status of a city for the "unshakable loyalty of the inhabitants of Irbit" to her empress in the fight against the "villainous gangs" of Yemelyan Pugachev. In 1776 the city received the coat of arms:
An upright shield, cut in two in two, in the upper part in a silver field, a blue St. Andrew's cross, showing the unshakable loyalty of the inhabitants of the city of Irbit to Her Imperial Majesty, in the lower part in a red field placed on the cross a saber and a golden rod of Mercury, meaning the first defeat with this weapon villains, and the second exercise in the trade of the inhabitants of this place.

In 1781, after the formation of the Irbit district, Irbit received the status of a district town.

Since 1821, Irbit was built up according to the general plan as a single architectural ensemble of the city-fair. In the central part, the planning structure of the general plan has survived: 5 beams of the main streets converging to the main shopping area, the main street crossing them and a rectangular network of quarters. During the fair, a fair theater and a circus operated in the city, and since 1863 the Irbitsky Fair Leaflet newspaper was published. In 1891, the writer Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak collaborated with the newspaper.


In 1846, a professional drama theater began operating in the city.

In 1885, a section of the Ural railway of the Trans-Siberian railway was laid. The road passed from Yekaterinburg to Tyumen, bypassing Irbit. The city and the fair, staying away from the highway, began to lose their commercial significance. However, the fair lasted until 1929.

On April 27, 1879, a fire broke out in the city of Irbit, which destroyed almost the entire central part of the city. As a result, 12 blocks were burnt out.

In February 1883, a monument to Catherine the Great by the famous sculptor Mikeshin was solemnly unveiled on the main Trade Square, the square was renamed from Trade Square to Catherine Square. So Irbit residents immortalized the memory of the Empress, who gave Irbit the status of a city. The Perm governor and the Yekaterinburg bishop came to the opening. The bronze empress held a letter in her left hand, where the significant number for the city “February 3, 1775” was engraved. The monument was erected at the initiative of the City Duma with money collected by the people of the district, and was cast in St. Petersburg.

During the revolution of 1905–1907, a strike of workers of a printing house, a meeting of workers and peasant uprisings took place in Irbit.

In 1914, the Luch cinema was opened in the city.

In 1916, a railway appeared in Irbit: the Yekaterinburg-Tavda line of the North-Eastern Ural Railway (part of the Trans-Siberian Railway) passed through the city. There was also water transport, there was a pier on the river Nice.

Irbit fair
Soon after the foundation, a torzhok appeared in the settlement. In 1643, by decree of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, the torzhok was legalized, and the Irbit fair arose. It was held each on a feast day, Epiphany. Later, the dates of the fair were changed. European, Asian and Siberian goods were sold here.

In 1686 a gostiny dvor was built for the fair.

In the 18th century, attempts were made to transfer the fair to the larger cities of Yekaterinburg, Tyumen, but they were unsuccessful.

In 1734, Academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences Johann Georg Gmelin visited the Irbit fair on the way to the Great Northern Expedition led by Vitus Bering and left a description of the fair:

The streets are so full of people, horses, sleighs and all sorts of goods that you can hardly drive ... There were Greeks, Jews, Bukharians ... Everyone brought with him the goods of his land and carried through Arkhangelsk: wine, French vodka and so on, Bukharians - products made of gold, silver, and the Russians - silver mined from ancient graves ... There was also a state-owned shop with copper dishes brought from Yekaterinburg ... Small cakes were sold in the streets: shouts, noise, squabbles were heard everywhere, in places around the fires there were crowds of beggars ... For money, one could have everything at the fair.

After the establishment of the Orenburg fortified border line in 1735-1742 and the abolition of internal duties in 1735, the number of foreign merchants temporarily decreased, but the fair remained one of the largest and gathered traders from all over Russia and from border regions. This is reported by academician Ivan Lepekhin, who visited the Irbit fair during the 1768-1772 expedition and left a detailed description of it in his diary.

In the 19th century, in terms of money turnover, the Irbit Fair was the second in Russia after the Nizhny Novgorod. The fair was of exceptional importance for the international fur market and the Russian tea market, and hosted merchants from China, India, Central Asia, Western Europe and Russia. During its implementation, the population of Irbit increased many times over. Only during its holding a fair theater and a circus operated in the city, a newspaper was published.

In 1864 the Irbitsky passage was opened, the main symbol of the fair, as it was called then: "Nevsky Prospect Irbit". In the square in front of the passage, the grand opening of the fair took place. According to legend, the course of the fair was associated with the procedure for raising the Russian flag over the main pavilion: the flag got confused - the fair was protracted, turned around right away - trade would go well, turned towards Siberia - the fair would be favorable for Siberians, towards Europe - for merchants from central Russia.

In 1885, a section of the Ural railway of the Trans-Siberian railway was laid. The road passed from Yekaterinburg to Tyumen, bypassing Irbit. The city and the fair, staying away from the highway, began to lose their commercial significance. However, the fair lasted until 1929.

Civil war and the first five-year plans
In the revolutionary year 1917, the main monument of the city, the monument to Catherine II, was demolished (the sculpture was melted down around 1927).

In January 1918, Soviet power was established in Irbit, in July 1918 the city was taken by units of the White Siberian Army, a year later, during the Yekaterinburg operation, it was occupied by the troops of the Red Army.

In 1919-1923 Irbit was the district center of the Yekaterinburg province, the district (1923-30) and district (1924-34) center of the Ural region, since 1934 the regional center of the Sverdlovsk region.


From 1926 to 1933 a horse-drawn railway functioned in the city.

During the pre-war five-year plans, the city turned into an industrial center.

In 1930, a school-factory was established. In 1933, the first peat mining machine in the Soviet Union was made here. Since 1937 the plant has specialized in the production of bearings. Since 1939, he has been producing tractor trailers. Now it is the Irbit special equipment plant.

Irbit in World War II
During the Great Patriotic War, evacuated enterprises were located in Irbit. From July 1941 to 1943 inclusive, an artillery school evacuated from Smolensk was located in the city. In 1930, a diatomite plant was founded, on the basis of which, after the arrival of equipment from the evacuated glass and porcelain factories in 1941, the Irbit glass factory was established. In 1941, on the basis of a motorcycle plant evacuated from Moscow, the Irbit motorcycle plant arose. Glass and motorcycle factories worked for the needs of the front, created motorcycles and shatterproof glass for tanks, aircraft and searchlights. On May 2, 1942, Irbit received the status of a city of regional subordination.

Second half of the 20th century
On February 1, 1963, the council of workers 'deputies of the city of Irbit was transferred to the subordination of the Sverdlovsk regional council of workers' deputies.

In 1971, a branch of the Sverdlovsk Picture Gallery was opened.

In 1975 the Irbit bakery was founded.

On September 1, 1981, the city was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor “for the active participation of the city workers in the formation of Soviet power, a great contribution to ensuring the defeat of the Nazi invaders in the Great Patriotic War, the successes achieved in economic and cultural development, and in connection with 350 anniversary ".

In 1996, the first elections were held for the head of the municipal formation of the city of Irbit.

On September 24, 1996, by the decision of the Irbit City Duma, the first Charter of the municipal formation of the city of Irbit was approved, registered by the Department of Justice of the Sverdlovsk Region on September 30, 1996 under No. 76.

In 2003, the tradition of holding the Irbit Fair was restored.

In 2004 the city was endowed with the status of an urban district.

Official name since January 1, 2006 - Irbit Municipality.

In 2013, a monument to Catherine the Great was restored on the main square.