Nizhny Tagil, Russia

Nizhny Tagil

Nizhny Tagil (Tagil - mans., Lit. a lot of water; Russ. Nizhny-Lower) is a city in the Sverdlovsk region of Russia, the administrative center of the urban district, the city of Nizhny Tagil, which belongs to the Gornozavodsky administrative district. Railway station of the Sverdlovsk railway. The city ranks second in terms of population in the Sverdlovsk region after Yekaterinburg and is a large industrial center of the Urals. The volume of shipped goods of own production in the manufacturing industry in 2007 amounted to 131.8 billion rubles.

By the decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 2, 2020, the city was awarded the title "City of Labor Valor".



Name by location on the Tagil River (right tributary of the Tura); the definition of "lower" indicated the presence of another plant upstream of the Tagil River. The etymology of the hydronym "Tagil" has not been finally established, according to E. M. Pospelov, from a number of possible the most preferable from the word tagil, used in the Mansi language, in the meaning of "a lot of water"



At the end of the 16th century, Ermak Timofeevich set up a parking lot for his troops in the vicinity of the city, near the Bear-Stone Mountain, thereby overcoming the European-Asian watershed.

“The mountain is magnetic in the yasash estates up the Tagil volost, down the Tagil river on the left side: the mountain on top of the long-bend is 300 yards, across 30 yards, 70 yards high, to the other side, the same, and among the mountain is the umbilical cord of a pure magnet ...
... the Siberian boyar son Mikhail Bibikov saw a suitable place for the plant on the Tagil and Vyya rivers. In the same summer, seven blacksmiths and miners with Leonty Novosyolov were inspected. On the banks of the rivers there are dark forests and pine forests and stone mountains and a large mountain circle ... there is enough good forest for the dam of the builder ...
Report of the Verkhoturye voivode DP Protasiev to Tsar Peter the Great, 1696 ".

In 1696, in the region of Vysokaya Mountain, and in 1702 along the banks of the Vyya River, the son of the boyar Mikhail Bibikov found copper ore. 1696 is considered the beginning of the city's history. In 1714, the then owner of the Ural factories, Akinfiy Demidov, was reported about the mines, shortly after that, by decree of Tsar Peter I, he founded the Tagil and Vyisky ironworks and the production of cast iron, iron and copper began in the Urals. Ore was taken at the Vysokogorsky, Lebyazhinsky and Ivanovsky iron mines. In 1737, copper ore was discovered along the banks of the Lebyazhka River.

October 8 (19), 1722 is considered the date of the founding of Nizhny Tagil, when the first production of cast iron was obtained at the Vyysky plant. Founded by the Demidov dynasty, which before the revolution owned the Tagil factories: "Verkhne-Vyisky" and "Tagil". At this time, the products of the Tagil iron-making and copper-smelting plants, known under the trademark "Old Sobol", became world famous. The legend about the use of Tagil copper in the creation of the Statue of Liberty has not yet been documented.

Nizhniy Tagil is also widely known in Russia for its folk craft of Tagil painting of tin trays. In 1833, the first steam locomotives in Russia were built in Nizhny Tagil by serf inventors, father and son Cherepanovs (Efim Alekseevich and Miron Efimovich). According to legend, in 1800, a serf locksmith Efim Artamonov made the world's first bicycle with pedals and steering.

In 1807, the Nizhniy Tagil Mining District was formed. It includes the factories and mines of the Demidovs.

In 1918, major battles took place in Nizhny Tagil during the Civil War. They were very violent and lasted from September 9 to October 22, 1918. They were attended by 10 thousand soldiers of the Red Army and 6 thousand White Guards, on whose side also acted as part of the Czechoslovak legion. It has been established that in total about 400 Czechoslovak legionnaires perished in the battles for Nizhniy Tagil. In November 2009, a monument to the Czechoslovak legionnaires who fell there was opened in Nizhny Tagil. There are 67 names of soldiers on the monument, which we managed to establish.

Nizhny Tagil received the status of a city on August 20, 1919 by a resolution of the Yekaterinburg Military Revolutionary Committee:
“The Nizhniy Tagil plant should be transformed into the city of Nizhniy Tagil, without a county, with the introduction of municipal utilities in it <...>
The city of Nizhny Tagil merges into one whole from the Tagil, Vyisko-Nikolskaya, Troitsko-Aleksandrovskaya volosts. "

In 1920-1923, Nizhny Tagil was the center of the Nizhne-Tagil district.

In 1926, five clubs and eight libraries operated in the city, and the first radio center appeared. In 1930, 42 thousand people lived in the city, its housing stock barely exceeded 220 thousand square meters, 94% of the houses were wooden, 85% were one-story. The city had 19 elementary schools, two technical schools, a workers' school, two cinemas, two hospitals with a total of 126 beds. There was no water supply or sewerage system.

In 1932, the construction of the first workshops of the Ural Carriage Works began. Four years later, in October 1936, the first freight car rolled off its assembly line. In 1937, the first tram was launched in Nizhny Tagil. In 1939, a teacher's institute was opened - the first higher educational institution in the city.

During the Great Patriotic War, Uralvagonzavod, where eleven enterprises of the western part of the USSR were evacuated, produced most of all the T-34 tanks produced.


In the late 1930s. All-Union Association "Steel" ordered "Gipromez" to start designing the "Novo-Tagil Metallurgical Plant". On September 1, 1930, a resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR was issued, obliging the Supreme Agricultural Academy and the State Planning Committee of the USSR to begin the construction of the NTMZ. On March 17, 1931, on the Fedorina Gora, near the Vyazovka River, the first barrack appeared on the construction site, where the construction headquarters was located. In 1932, the construction management of the plant was already located in three barracks. By 1935, a water supply workshop was built at the NTMZ plant, the construction of a thermal power plant and open-hearth and bandage workshops began. In 1936, the laying of the first open-hearth furnace took place. In January 1938, a motor transport workshop began to work, and in April of the same year a workshop for networks and substations was opened, in May - a mechanical workshop and a molding workshop. On April 25, 1940, the plant's CHPP gave the first current, and on June 17, a by-product coke plant was launched; On June 25 of the same year, the first blast furnace produced the first pig iron, and on September 23 the second open-hearth shop was opened; On December 11, the second blast furnace was launched. In the same year, the VZhR enrichment plant was built at the Vysokogorsky mine, iron ore production in 1940 was 744,000 tons. In 1941, the third blast furnace was launched at NTMZ, and the refractory plant for the first time in the Urals mastered the technology of steel-pouring supplies. During the Great Patriotic War, the production of ferrochrome was mastered at the old Demidov Metallurgical Plant (named after Kuibyshev). In the rolling shop "NTMZ" began the production of armor plates for the needs of the front, and ferrosilicon was launched in the blast furnace shop. In February 1942, the production of shells for the front-line "Katyusha" was mastered. On April 25 of the same year, the fourth blast furnace was put into operation at NTMZ. In 1943, the boiler-assembly shop began work, the fifth and sixth blast furnaces were launched; the third coke oven battery and the tar distillation shop began to operate at the coke-chemical production, and the magnetic enrichment plant and the Hoffman furnace (at the OGZ) began operating at the VZhR. In 1944, an iron foundry, a blacksmith shop and an instrumentation workshop were built at NTMZ, and new batteries were launched at Koksokhim. In 1945, pre-repair and steam power shops were launched.

During the years of the Great Patriotic War, 4,278,000 tons of steel were smelted at the Novy and Stary metallurgical plants of Nizhny Tagil, and 532,000 tons of rolled metal were produced. During the war years, "NTMZ" produced about 30% of all armored steel in the USSR. More than 13 million tons of crude ore were mined at VZhR; about 8 million tons of commercial ore were produced.

The importance of Nizhny Tagil is also evidenced by the fact that it was included in the list of 20 cities of the USSR subject to atomic bombing, according to the first post-war plan of war against the USSR (Plan "Totality"), developed in the United States already in 1945, and was also included in subsequent similar plans.

On February 1, 1963, the Council of Working People's Deputies of the city of Nizhny Tagil was transferred to the subordination of the Sverdlovsk Regional Council of Working People's Deputies.

On February 1, 1971, Nizhny Tagil was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor "for the successes achieved by the workers in fulfilling the tasks of the five-year plan for the development of industrial production, especially the branches of ferrous metallurgy and mechanical engineering."

Since the early 1990s. the city produces the T-90 main battle tank (manufactured by Uralvagonzavod).