Surgut, Russia

Surgut is a city in Russia, in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, the administrative center of the Surgut region. It is the largest city in the county. One of the industrial centers of Russia (industrial turnover - more than 1.2 trillion rubles in 2012), second only to Moscow and St. Petersburg (3rd place in the country).

As an administrative-territorial unit, KhMAO has the status of a city of district significance. Within the framework of local self-government, the city of Surgut forms the municipal formation with the status of an urban district as the only settlement in its composition. One of the few Russian regional cities surpassing the administrative center of its constituent entity of the federation both in terms of population and economic importance.

In 2019, he took 3rd place (on a par with Nizhnevartovsk) in the list of the richest cities in Russia, ahead of St. Petersburg. It is in the top 20 fastest growing cities in Russia, is in the top three cities in terms of the number of cars per 1000 inhabitants (≈ 380 cars), ranks 4th in the percentage of imported cars (86%) and 4th in the ranking of Russian cities with the most expensive real estate. For 2019, Surgut ranks 4th in the ranking of cities with the highest (by purchasing power) wages in the country, second only to Moscow, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and Salekhard.

In 2019, the Administration of the city of Surgut announced that the population had crossed the mark of 453,000 people (taking into account the 47,000 migrants living in its territory).

In December 2019, Surgut took second place among the 100 best cities in Russia according to the Urbanika Institute for Spatial Planning.

June 12 is annually celebrated as the day of the city.


How to get there

By plane
1  Surgut International Airport (Surgut International Airport named after Farman Kurban ogly Salmanov) , Aeroflotskaya st., 50. ☎ +7 (3462) 770-208. Around the clock.

By train
2  Railway station, Privokzalnaya street, 23. The station building has currently been demolished to build a new one in its place. A cramped building next to it has been temporarily adapted for passengers. Nov 2023 edit

By bus
There are 2 bus stations in the city.
3  Bus station at the airport. A small warm pavilion near the airport serves long-distance bus routes (Nizhnevartovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Tyumen, etc.). The ticket office and toilet are located in the airport building.
4  UBR bus station, Lenin Avenue, 70. Serves “nearby” bus routes (Lyantor, Kogalym, etc.). A tiny warm waiting room with a cash desk. url

On the ship
5  River port, st. Rybnikov, 5/1.



1  Sculptural composition “The Discoverers of the City of Surgut” (Monument to the Founders of Surgut), Roundabout, Lenin Avenue. Opened in 2002.
2  Monument to “Internationalist Soldiers”, Central Square. Opened on October 3, 1998. Sculptor P. Lyubimov, artist K. Soprichan, architects N. Mazurenko, V. Unzhakov
3  Memorial of Glory, st. Gagarin. Opened on September 8, 1968. The author of the project is V. Starodumov. Includes monuments to fighters for Soviet power and Surgut residents who fell on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War.
4  Monument to Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin, st. Republic (in front of the central library). Opened in 2001. Authors: International Center for Culture of Russia. Sculptor A. Dema, architects N. Sokolov, S. Mikhailov.
5  Monument to Taras Shevchenko, st. Ostrovsky, 16 (near the Kamerton Central Culture and Culture Center). Opened 09/10/2005
6  Monument to Karl Marx, st. Prosveshcheniya, 50. Opened November 3, 1967.
7  Monument to Ermak, Naberezhny Ave., 31 (square in front of the Ermak Hotel). Opened 06/11/2010
8  Sculptural composition “Builder”, Magistralnaya street. Opened on August 8, 2003. Sculptor A. Kapralov, “Omskgrazhdanproekt”
9  Monument to the “First Komsomol Members”, st. Melik-Karamova, Geologists Park. Opened on October 7, 1969. The authors of the project are students of the Lviv Polytechnic Institute I. Oleynik, Y. Sergeev.
10  Monument to the “Courage of the Fishermen of Surgut”, st. Melik-Karamova. Opened in 1975, reopened after restoration on December 15, 2015. Sculptor V. Gorda.
11  Monument to the Bulgarian leader Georgiy Dimitrov, st. Dzerzhinsky (Friendship of Peoples Square). Opened on September 8, 1987. Built with the participation of Bulgarian builders.
12  Sculpture “Nurse”, Nefteyuganskoye Highway, 20 (on the territory of the District Clinical Hospital). Opened 06/15/2007
13  Sculptural composition “Monument to the Smile”, Square in front of the museum center. Opened June 8, 2006
14  Stele dedicated to participants in the liquidation of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, st. Chekhov (square in memory of Chernobyl victims).
15  Stele “Broken pipe” (Torch), st. Mira / st. Ostrovsky (next to the Gazprom office). 1982-1984, sculptor Yu. Vavakin.



Average cost
Hotel "Ob", Naberezhny Prospekt, 16. ☎ +7 (3462) 23 05 05. Around the clock. from 1450 rub. The hotel is located in the city center. Single and double rooms with loggias are equipped with modern furniture; each room has air conditioning, refrigerator, telephone, TV, safe. The hotel has free Wi-Fi and cable TV. Cafe "Ob" is open from 06-30 to 00-00.




Surgut is one of the oldest Siberian cities. The city was founded near the Ostyak fortress of Prince Bardak (Borodok). Surgut was “founded by 3 people” - a governor, a merchant and a hunter. The first governors of Surgut are Fyodor Baryatinsky-Borets and Vladimir Anichkov. Today, on the central street of the city, there is a monument to the founders of the city, in which, in addition to the voivode, merchant and Cossack, there is a fourth figure - a priest - this is a fictional figure.

There is another version: on the basis of the chronicle "Gazi-Baraj Tariha", known only as a part of "Jagfar Tariha", the authenticity of which raises serious doubts among researchers, and mentioning in the sixth chapter about the foundation of the fortress of Surkhot by a certain Baytugan, assumptions are made that Surgut was founded by the Bulgars six centuries earlier - in the 940s-970s, but no confirmation of this was found.



Surgut at the end of the 16th century was a small fortress with two gates, four blind towers and one driveway. Gostiny Dvor was built in 1596. The fortification, built of strong wood, was located on the headland, so that it was impossible to approach it unnoticed either from the river or from land. A cult place was located on the central square of the settlement. The entire perimeter of the fortress was surrounded by a moat, which was overlapped by the structures of the defensive system. Outside the village, there were special buildings - craft workshops, in particular, a smithy. According to the personal list of 1625, 222 servicemen lived here. Later, due to the high mortality rate, the population of Surgut gradually decreased. In 1627 there were 216 people, in 1635 - 200 people, in 1642 - only 199. In the second half of the 17th century, the population fluctuated around 200 people, by the end of the century there were 185 inhabitants.

In the XVII-XVIII centuries, Surgut was one of the centers of the Russian development of Siberia. Among the governors of Surgut are Fyodor Baryatinsky-Borets (1594), Osip Pleshcheev (1595-1596), Prince Semyon Lobanov-Rostovsky (1596-1599), boyar Fyodor Dolgorukov (1599), Yakov Baryatinsky (1601-1602), Fyodor Golovin (1604 ), Ivan Zasekin (1606), Grigory Feofilatiev (1620-1623), Mikhail Gagarin Turok (1627-1628), Nikifor Meshchersky (1652-1653), Prince Konstantin Shcherbatov (1676-1677).


Surgut - a county town

By the middle of the 17th century, life in the city began to play with new colors. After all, it has become one of the largest trading cities. In 1708, Peter I issued a decree according to which Surgut became part of the Siberian province. After 80 years, it was assigned to the Tobolsk governorship, after which it became its center. Since 1782, the county town of the Surgut district of the Tobolsk governorship, the province was formed. In 1785, the city's coat of arms was approved. At the end of the 18th century, due to the development of the southern cities of Siberia, it lost its administrative significance. Since 1868 - the district, and since 1898 - the district town of the Tobolsk province.

Residents of Surgut, like other Siberians, were supported by the state. Servicemen received an annual salary in money (from 5 rubles 25 kopecks), bread (8 quarters for single and 11 quarters for married Cossacks) and salt (one and a half poods for married and a pood and a quarter for single). The inhabitants were supplied with weapons and ammunition.

The city has long been a place of exile. In the history of Surgut in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a significant role was made by political exiles: the Decembrists, participants in the Polish uprising of 1863-1864, landowners, populists and other fighters against autocratic power.

The cultural life in the city developed at a rapid pace, 1835 - the construction of the first Cossack school, 1877 - the first male school. A few years after that, a parish school began functioning in the city. Perhaps 1878 was one of the most significant and fruitful years in the history of Surgut, as the people's house, library and even a weather station began their work here.

In 1891, the heir to the throne, the future emperor Nicholas II, met with the inhabitants of the city at the pier near the village of Bely Yar during an eastern journey.

At the end of the 19th century (according to the 1897 census), the population of Surgut was 1.1 thousand people. The main occupation of the inhabitants was fishing, hunting, dressing the skins of fur animals, processing fish and game, collecting and storing berries and pine nuts, cattle breeding, and preparing firewood. Trade was of no small importance. By order of the Tobolsk Governor's Board of May 15, 1866, the Surgut Fair was established, called the Rozhdestvenskaya (Christmas).


In 1900, a telephone line was extended to the Surgut pier in Beliy Yar. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were two initial three-year parochial schools for boys and girls in Surgut. In 1903, a city two-class school of the Ministry of Public Education was opened with a five-year study period. In 1905, on the initiative of the district police chief Grigory Pirozhnikov, the first public library-reading room was opened at the district Committee for the Guardianship of People's Sobriety. The readings were accompanied by the display of light pictures with the help of a magic lantern, playing the gramophone, harmonica and violin. According to the report on visits to the tea room and the library-reading room for eight years (1905-1912), 14.5 thousand people visited the reading, including 4366 foreigners. Since 1913, on the initiative of Pirozhnikov, a telegraph was established.


Surgut - a place of exile

Political exile in the 17th century
Since its foundation, the city has been a place of political exile. Initially, rebellious Cossacks were exiled here. They were sent “to the service where the sovereign would indicate,” that is, to new uninhabited places in order to ensure there an irreversible Russian presence. At the end of the 16th century, 112 people were sent to the construction of the Surgut prison and the economic development of the territory, including the "Cherkasy".

In the 17th and first half of the 18th century, participants in the Tomsk uprising of 1648-1649, the uprising of Stepan Razin, were exiled to Surgut. In addition, Old Believers, captured Lithuanians, Poles and Swedes taken prisoner during the Russian-Polish and Northern wars were exiled to Surgut.


Political and criminal exile in the 18th-20th centuries

In the second half of the 18th century, political and criminal exile became widespread in connection with the decrees of Elizabeth Petrovna and Catherine II, according to which rebellious peasants were sent to exile and hard labor in Siberia. But a considerable part of these exiles were also the marginal elements of the countryside, from which the peasant community sought to get rid of. The archival documents on the history of Surgut of that period contain a lot of evidence of the clash of the local population with fugitive convicts. The latter caused significant damage to the local peasantry, were engaged in robbery, horse stealing, and the manufacture of counterfeit money. It is not for nothing that the proverb has survived: "A settler, like a baby, will pull off what he looks at."

In the 20s. XIX century. Governor-General of Siberia M.M. Speransky put things in order. Charters were developed and adopted that determined the types and duration of exile, benefits, rights and obligations of convicts. One of the main conditions of the new Charter was the requirement of compulsory labor.

In 1826, nobleman Andrei Shakhirev, a participant in the Decembrist Uprising, was sent to Surgut "for an eternal settlement". He died in Surgut on May 17, 1828. In April 1828, after a year of hard labor, another Decembrist was sent to settle in Surgut - Vasily Tizengauzen, who came from the nobility of the Livonian province. He was in Surgut exile for about a year, then for health reasons he was transferred to Yalutorovsk.

Since the 1860s. a new stage of political exile begins in Siberia, where representatives of the nobility are gradually giving way to the leading position of people from the raznochin milieu. A significant percentage of the exiles are teachers, doctors, students, high school students. In 1866, in Surgut, a group of rebel Poles - participants in the uprising of 1863 in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus - ended up in exile. Since the 70s. XIX century. in Surgut, a small colony of exiled populist revolutionaries was formed. Here, among those convicted in the "Trial of one hundred and ninety-three" are the spouses Alexander Nikolaevich and Elena Ivanovna Averkievs, sent to Surgut for eternal settlement. At the end of August 1881, a political prisoner, the future famous writer Vladimir Galaktionovich Korolenko, followed under escort from Tobolsk to Tomsk through Surgut. During this period, the city was inhabited by those deported according to the "Process of Fifty". In 1887 the Surgut colony of political exiles already numbered 25 people. Of these, 11 were members of the Narodnaya Volya society, which promoted terrorist methods of struggle.

The Surgut political exiles were engaged in handicraft production (shoemaking, carpentry), trade, cultural and educational (taught, organized mutual aid funds and public libraries) and scientific work. Some of the exiles were interested in the history and culture of the region. Among them was the nobleman Sergei Porfirevich Shvetsov. During two years of exile, he managed to collect material about the history of the city and the life of the townspeople and write a book "Essays on the Surgut Territory."

During the revolution of 1905 - 1907. Representatives of all political parties participating in the revolution were brought to the Tobolsk North. In 1906, while in exile in Surgut, Alexei Nikolaevich Ushakov was elected a deputy of the State Duma of the 1st convocation.

After the victory of the February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government issued a General Political Amnesty Decree, according to which all political prisoners were to be released. On April 26, 1917, the political link was officially abolished.


Administrative expulsion in the 1920s-1930s

Almost immediately after the October Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks decided to re-establish exile. Siberia continued to be the traditional place of the most preferred accommodation for various categories of exiles and exiles. The composition of political exiles was variegated. In Surgut and the Surgut region, a priest, a member of the Holy Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, Professor Ilya Mikhailovich Gromoglasov, a professor at the Moscow Theological Academy, theologian Ioann Vasilyevich Popov, Bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church, Archbishop of Kursk and Oboyanskiy Onuphriy were serving in exile, all three were ranked among the Orthodox Church saints. Also, one of the leaders of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party Mikhail Yakovlevich Gendelman was exiled to the Surgut region.

During the Great Terror of 1937 - 1938. Most of the administrative exiles and exiles who ended up in Surgut and the Surgut region in the 1920s-1930s were subjected to various forms of repression, including execution.

Peasant exile in the 1930s and deportation of peoples during World War II
In the 1930s. Surgut, like the entire Ostyako-Vogul district, became one of the areas for the settlement of several tens of thousands of dispossessed peasants. From 1930 to 1932, about 90 thousand people were evicted to the Ostyako-Vogul national district: dispossessed peasants from the Omsk, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk and Astrakhan regions, urban "declassed elements", the population of the border regions of the USSR (Ukraine, Belarus), persons convicted of term from 3 to 5 years with replacement of serving the term of imprisonment in a special settlement. In 1932, exiles accounted for 30% of the total population of the district. The dispossessed peasants played an important role in the development of the economy and culture of the region. They contributed to the development of the forestry and fishing industry, agriculture, worked as teachers and doctors, and participated in the development of oil fields.

In 1937-1942. shot 133 residents of Surgut and the Surgut region. The overwhelming majority of them were special settlers.

At the beginning of 1942, the Surgut region received the first group of deportees. In the navigation of 1942, 1609 settlers arrived. The ethnic composition of the exiles was motley: Germans and Finns from the Leningrad region, Russians, Ukrainians, Moldovans, Romanians from the border territories of the USSR, etc. In the second half of 1944, 1118 deported Kalmyks, accused of complicity with the Nazis, arrived in the Surgut region. The overwhelming majority of the peoples deported to our region were employed in the fishing industry. Their legal status practically did not differ from the "former kulaks". However, a tougher regime was established for the Germans and Kalmyks, which determined the order of their life.

After the death of I.V. Stalin's socio-political situation in the country has changed. In August 1954 dispossessed peasants who had been evicted in 1929-1933 were freed from labor exile. During March — July 1956, Kalmyks, Greeks, Bulgarians, Armenians, Crimean Tatars, Chechens, Ingush, Karachais and other peoples were removed from the register of special settlements. However, not all former special settlers who received permission to leave have exercised this right. For many years of exile, people settled down in the places where they were evicted, got married with local residents, and preferred to stay, confining themselves to moral satisfaction, that they are now not special settlers, but full citizens.


Surgut from civil to the great Patriotic war

On April 4-16, 1918, a district congress of Soviets of soldiers, peasants and non-ethnic deputies was held in Surgut, which declared support for the Council of People's Commissars and declared itself a full-fledged authority existing in Surgut and the district.

By June 1918, counter-revolutionary sentiments had intensified in Surgut and the district. The Surgut Soviet was dissolved, and its chairman was arrested and executed. Power passed into the hands of the Provisional Siberian Government, formed by the White Guards in Omsk. In November 1918, all power in Siberia and the Far East was concentrated in the hands of the Supreme Ruler of Russia A.V. Kolchak.

In early November 1919, an anti-Kolchak partisan movement developed in the northern regions of the province. The successes of the Red Army and the activity of partisan detachments led to the retreat of Kolchak's troops. On December 9, 1919, a partisan detachment occupied Surgut. On December 20, 1919, the Surgut district revolutionary committee was organized.

At the end of January 1921, in the north of the Ishim district of the Tyumen province, the largest anti-Bolshevik West Siberian peasant uprising against the surplus appropriation in the countryside broke out. On March 9, a rebel detachment occupied Surgut. On May 29, 1921, the uprising was suppressed by a special detachment of the Red Army. About 400 people were arrested.

On November 3, 1923, the city became the center of the Tobolsk District of the Ural Region.


On April 5, 1926, due to the small population (1.3 thousand people), Surgut was transformed into a district village.

In 1928, on the basis of the fish plot, the first industrial enterprise was created - a fish canning factory. In 1929 a collective farm was organized, in 1930 - a forest plot, in 1931 - a timber industry enterprise. In the 1930s, attempts to extract minerals began in Surgut. On March 13, 1933, a handwritten newspaper called "Vyrty Kantyko" ("Red Native") began to be published in Surgut. On October 23, 1934, the first newspaper was published - "Organizer" ("Surgut tribune").

In the 1920s and 1930s, Surgut remained a place of exile. Many of the exiles were shot. The indigenous population of the Surgut region was also subjected to repression. They were accused of shamanism, of sympathy for the participants in the anti-Soviet Kazym armed uprising that took place in 1931-1934. in the Yamal National District. The monument to the victims of political repression was erected on the Ob embankment in the area of ​​the Surgut river port, the place where the exiles disembarked.

During the Great Patriotic War 2,615 people went to the front from Surgut. Every fifth inhabitant was mobilized. 1,240 people did not return to the village of Surgut from the war. For military feats shown on the fronts of the war, Surgut residents T.Kh. Azhimov and IV Korolkov were awarded the high title of Hero of the Soviet Union. In 2005, their busts were installed at the city's Memorial of Glory.

During the war, the Odessa fish canning factory was evacuated to Surgut (this is the only case of evacuation of an industrial facility to the Tyumen North). In 1944, the Surgut, Lokosovsky and Sytominsky fish plants were merged into one enterprise - the Surgut fish canning plant, which in 1951 was transformed into the Surgut fish canning plant. The city's industry served the needs of the front with food and the coal industry of Kuzbass with timber. The women sewed clothes and various military supplies. Weaving production worked in the city.


Surgut - oil production center

In the mid-1920s, Academician Gubkin predicted that there are huge deposits of natural gas and oil in Western Siberia, but because of the outbreak of World War II, the development of oil and gas fields was started only in the late 1940s. Only in the mid-1950s, an expedition led by Farman Salmanov, which included 30 families of prospectors, first entered the Surgut land. In subsequent years, active development of oil and gas fields was carried out.

On September 13, 1957, the first exploration expedition arrived in Surgut under the leadership of F.K. Salmanov. to search for oil fields. The Yuganskaya exploration prospecting service was established.

In October 1958, due to the growth of the population and the construction of the first production facilities, the village of Surgut received the status of an urban-type settlement.

In 1959, an integrated exploration expedition was organized. On November 15, 1962, the West Surgutskoye oil field was discovered. This event confirmed the presence of large deposits of oil in the region. In subsequent years, about 30 new deposits were discovered on the territory of the region. In the spring of 1964, the operation of the Ust-Balykskoye oil field began. A month later, the first barge with oil was sent to the Omsk oil refinery.

In September 1964, the An-24 aircraft landed at the airfield near the Black Cape, which opened regular flights with Tyumen.

On June 25, 1965, Surgut acquired the status of a city of district subordination. By the mid-1970s, the former workers' settlement had grown to the size of a city. The River Port was opened for servicing oil and gas and construction companies. From 1965 to 1970, 215.7 thousand square meters were put into operation in Surgut. meters of comfortable housing. Five schools, eight kindergartens and nurseries were built. The city acquired more than 60 km of paved roads, and the first treatment facilities were built.

In February 1972, GRES-1 gave the first current. However, the growth rates of energy consumption in the oil-bearing Ob region were five times higher than the all-Union ones. Every year, one 200 MW unit was put into operation. Then came the turn of the second Surgutskaya GRES, where by 1988 six more units were commissioned - 800 MW each. The first power plant has two heating units that supply Surgut.

In 1975, the largest railway bridge in Western Siberia was opened across the river. Ob, 2 km long. In 1978, the first train arrived at the Surgut railway station.


At the end of the seventies, the oil and gas industry was reformed: the production departments were transformed into powerful production associations, which included dozens of enterprises. For 2008, the joint stock company “Surgutneftegas” was ranked 7th in the rating of the largest companies in Russia in terms of revenue.

In 2000, automobile traffic was opened across the river. Ob, a unique cable-stayed road bridge with a length of more than two kilometers was put into operation.


Modern times

At present, the city ranks third in the country in terms of industrial volume, behind Moscow and St. Petersburg. The largest companies of the fuel and energy complex are actively working in the city: PJSC Surgutneftegaz, Tyumenenergo, Gazprom, Gazprom pererabotka, Gazprom transgaz Surgut. Now Surgutneftegaz annually produces over 60 million tons of oil and almost ten billion cubic meters of natural gas. And in 1997, the fields produced 1,000,000,000th - since the beginning of field development - a ton of Surgut oil. Today Surgut is one of the largest cultural and industrial centers of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug and the entire Tyumen region. Surgut is a strategically important center of the oil and gas industry of the Russian Federation.

Surgut occupies a favorable economic, transport and geographical position: it is located at the intersection of a railway line with a powerful waterway - the Ob River. The city has turned into a significant transport hub: a railway, a highway pass through it, an international airport and a river port are located here. Developed pipeline transport (the largest oil and gas pipeline junction). The main factor of the city's economic stability is the development of the oil and energy industries. Small and medium business, social sphere (education and science, healthcare, culture, sports) are developing. Surgut is a youth city; about 76 thousand young people aged 14 to 30 live here, which is 20% of the urban population.

Surgut ranks 5th in the country in terms of population income, is one of the three most motorized cities in Russia, one of the top fastest growing cities, and the city also ranks 4th in cities with the most expensive housing.