Chelyabinsk is the seventh by the number of
inhabitants, the fourteenth in terms of area occupied by the city of
the Russian Federation, the administrative center of the Chelyabinsk
region, a city district with intracity division. The population is
1,202,371 people (2018). Chelyabinsk is located on the geological
border of the Urals and Siberia, on the eastern slope of the Ural
Mountains, on both banks of the Miass River (Tobol Basin).
Founded in 1736 as a fortress, by the XIX century Chelyabinsk became
one of the largest shopping centers of the Urals, and by the end of
the century and all of Russia due to the appearance in 1892 of the
city’s railway connection with Moscow. In connection with the active
construction of industrial enterprises in Chelyabinsk during the
first five-year plans, and then the evacuation of factories during
the Great Patriotic War, the city became one of the largest
industrial centers in the USSR. Because of the intensive production
in the city of tanks and other combat vehicles during the war
period, Chelyabinsk in 2015 was given the title of city of labor
valor and glory, and the city itself was popularly called
History of Chelyabinsk
The fortress of Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was
founded at the location of the Bashkir village of Chelyaby (Bashkir:
Силәбе, Siläbe) by colonel Alexey (Kutlu-Muhammed) Tevkelev in 1736
to protect the surrounding trade routes from possible attacks by
Bashkir outlaws. During Pugachev's Rebellion, the fortress withstood
a siege by the rebel forces in 1774, but was eventually captured for
several months in 1775. In 1782, as a part of Ufa Viceroyalty that
was later reformed into Orenburg Governorate, Chelyabinsk became a
seat of a its own uyezd and finally was granted town status and its
current name in 1787.
Until the late 19th century,
Chelyabinsk was a small provincial town. In 1892, the
Samara-Zlatoust Railway was completed which connected it with Moscow
and the rest of European Russia. Also in 1892, construction of the
Trans-Siberian Railway from Chelyabinsk started and in 1896 the city
was linked to Ekaterinburg. Chelyabinsk became the hub for
relocation to Siberia. For fifteen years more than fifteen million
people - a tenth of Russia - passed through Chelyabinsk. Some of
them remained in Chelyabinsk, which contributed to its rapid growth.
In addition, in Chelyabinsk was organized custom office set "customs
fracture" the bounding duty-free grain and tea to the European part
of the country that led to the emergence in mills and set the
tea-packing factory. Soon Chelyabinsk started turning into a major
trade center, its population reached 20,000 inhabitants by 1897,
45,000 by 1913, and 70,000 by 1917. For rapid growth at the turn of
the 20th century, similar to American cities, Chelyabinsk called
"Behind the Urals Chicago".
During the first Five-Year Plans
of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid industrial growth.
Several establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and
the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During
World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet
factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German
armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of
workers to Chelyabinsk. Facilities for the production of T-34 tanks
and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk. During World
War II, it produced 18,000 tanks, and 48,500 tank diesel engines as
well as over 17 million units of ammunition. In the press of the
time Chelyabinsk was informally called "Tankograd" or "Tank City".
The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce
heavy tanks; it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.
Chelyabinsk Airport (IATA: CEK, ICAO: USCC) is an airport in
Russia located 18 km north of Chelyabinsk. It services large
airliners and can park up to 51 aircraft. It also serves as a
secondary hub for Ural Airlines and Yamal Airlines.