Chelyabinsk is the capital of the Chelyabinsk
region and one of the Russian millionaire cities. Unlike other Ural
capitals, Chelyabinsk cannot boast of an ancient history. Founded
later than others, until the beginning of the 20th century, it was a
completely ordinary Ural city, so the old development here is small
and fragmentary, which, however, the Chelyabinsk residents more than
compensated for the creation of a pedestrian street - one of the
best in Russia. There are remarkable wooden houses in the city, but
the most interesting are the monumental ensembles of the post -war
period, one of the best in Russia, and in addition, from all
regional centers of the Urals, Chelyabinsk leads in the scope of
heavy industry, which constitutes the essence of this city.
Chelyabinsk stands on a small and pretty swampy Miass River. The geography of the city is non -trivial: it is, as it were, it is clamped between several large lakes and, according to local residents, stands on seven hills, which resembles Moscow - there really are height changes, but the hills are gentle and low. The city is located in the forest -steppe zone, which, however, you will not see so simply: industrial outskirts and suburbs stretch from the center for tens of kilometers, but there are also good parks and even entire forests. Like the entire Chelyabinsk region, industry here is surprisingly closely adjacent to wildlife.
The date of the founding of the city is considered to be 1736, when a fortress was built on the Miass River. They called it in the Bashkir village of Chelyaba, which happens either from Chestari (royal, educated), or from Siluәbe (hollow, shallow pit). There was no royal fate to the city: until 1917 he was part of the Orenburg province, but in a commercial, he immediately turned out to be promising, which was already noted on the emblem of 1782, which depicts a camel symbolizing the caravan from Central Asia. A century later, in 1892, the Samaro-Zlatoust railway came to the city: it is significant, however, that it was still not Chelyabinsk, but a Chrysostom. Soon the road was extended to the east, and for some time it became the main stroke of the Trans -Siberian Railway. Chelyabinsk himself turned out to be a gate to Siberia, which is reminiscent of the rapid growth of the city in the first decade of the 20th century, when almost all the old buildings were built, and the pre -revolutionary elevator, which flashes in the city center, and even a special area of the migrant, where the migrants who went to Siberia lived .
After the revolution, Chelyabinsk was covered by a civil war, which began right here with an uprising, which was stuck during the transfer from the German front to the Far East of the Czechoslovak Corps on May 14, 1918. A year later, the city returned to the rule of the Bolsheviks, but the battles in the vicinity took place serious. Now Chelyabinsk is almost a leader in the number of memorials of the Civil War. The first years of Soviet power were marked by the creation of the Chelyabinsk province (which later became the region), the rapid industrialization and construction of several large factories that further grew during the Great Patriotic War, when many enterprises were evacuated to the Urals. In the war years, Chelyabinsk received an unofficial title of Tankograd, as the Tractor Plant produced the lion's share of Soviet tanks.
During the war years, the population grew from 270 to 650 thousand people, so the main development in Chelyabinsk is the post -war. Enterprises in the full sense of the word have become tractor and metallurgical plants, each of which forms its own area with monuments of the Stalinist style. A lot of first -class Soviet architecture and in the city center, according to this indicator, Chelyabinsk stands on a par with Volgograd and Minsk. After the war, the city continued to grow, already in 1976, crossing the millionth mark and not having lost its status of a millionaire even after the collapse of the USSR. Now the population of the city is growing again, in terms of the number of inhabitants it is 8th place in Russia.
Inquisitive travelers will find a lot of interesting things in the city: not only Soviet architecture or industrial flavor, but also a wonderful museum of local lore, railway museum, non -trivial monuments and carved wooden houses that suddenly arise among new buildings. Due to the rareness of historical development, you can get a general idea of Chelyabinsk in a few hours, but it also makes sense to stay here for 2-3 days.
Chelyabinsk is very great. Its sleeping areas are
scattered in a large territory, interspersing with lakes, forests, and
industrial zones. Landscapes here are very different: from idyllic
wooden houses on the shore of the lake to steaming pipes and dumps
overgrown with weeds. The center is located on the southern shore of a
fairly swampy city pond. The pond crosses the Kirov Street from the
north to the south, which in the center becomes a pedestrian. After
about a kilometer, it rests on the area of the revolution and passing
perpendicular, i.e. From west to east, Lenin Avenue. This is the central
city highway with the most luxurious Stalinist development. Behind Lenin
Avenue, the center gradually comes to naught, completely ending in the
area of the railway station, to which about 2 km.
Almost all attractions are in the center or very close to it - for example, on the opposite bank of the city pond. In addition, the two districts are of interest: the socialist plant, which rests on the eastern end of Lenin Avenue, and the socialist plant, which stands completely separately, about 10 km north of the center.
In terms of the number and regularity of flights, the Chelyabinsk airport is inferior to Yekaterinburg and Ufa. The main message with Moscow (about 10 flights per day), there is a daily flight from St. Petersburg, local lines in Ufa-Orenburg, Perm, Kazan (not every day). International flights are mainly charter.
Balandino Airport (Iata: CEK). ☎ +7 (351) 778-37-77. It is located 18 km northeast of the city. Several new buildings are attached to the typical building of the Soviet era. If you stand on the station square, then the arrival will be on the left, and the departure will be on the right. There is a stand with coffee in the arrival hall. In the departure hall - storage room, souvenir shops and, on the second floor, a rather cozy restaurant with hot food. After control, in the internal departure zone, a single cafe-bar with a dreary look of sandwiches and unusually expensive drinks.
Station Chelyabinsk-Glavny, Privokzalnaya Square, 1. ☎ +7 (800) 7750000.
Chelyabinsk is a nodal station on the historical path of the Trans -Siberian Railway. Trains running in four directions pass through Chelyabinsk: north and north-west (to Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Tagil, Nizhnevartovsk, Tyumen, New Urengoy, Kirov, St. Petersburg), to the east (in Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Tyndu Tyndu. Chita, Tomsk, Vladivostok), south (in Astana, Karaganda, Tashkent, Orenburg) and to the west (in Ufa, Moscow, Samara, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Brest, Simferopol, Adler, Kislovodsk, Anapa, Astrakhan, Baku, Voronezh ).
The suburban message is served by 5 directions: North-West (Argayash, Verkhny Ufaly), North (Kamensk-Uralsky), East (Kayasan, Shchuchye, Schumikha, Kurgan), South (Emanelinsk, Yuzhnouralsk, Troitsk, Cartaly, Western (Miass, Zlatoust, Zlatoust, Zlatoust, Crocachevo). The road is electrified with the exception of the northwest direction served by diesel trains and rail buses. The greatest intensity of traffic is west: up to 15 pairs of suburban trains. Since 2007, a rail bus runs to Yekaterinburg through Upper Ufaly.
Chelyabinsk is one of the centers of the network of federal highways of various directions, which is explained by the position of Chelyabinsk. Transport flows from the European part of Russia to Siberia pass through Chelyabinsk (the border between the Urals and Siberia passes through the city, the city is located near the border of Europe and Asia). The transport flow from Kazakhstan is also great (explained by the border position of Chelyabinsk) and Yekaterinburg.
In Chelyabinsk, bus communication is also developed more intercity. Stations. Unified reference service of the Chelyabinsk bus station-8-800-775-52-32
On the ship
There is no direct sea and river message in Chelyabinsk.
Movement in the city can be carried out by public
transport or taxi.
The cost of a taxi is an average of 100-150 rubles for a trip, from the station and the airport a little more, about 200 and 400, respectively.
From public transport the most mobile - minibuses, cost 25 rubles.
The tram, trolleybus and the bus also cost 23 rubles. Public transport is not very dependent on traffic jams in the city.
Payment for travel can be made directly in transport to the driver or conductor. For those who often use the services of public carriers, there are preferential payment systems, travel and transport cards.
The only car sharing (permanent car rental) in Chelyabinsk is provided by URAMOSOM COMPLE
The main attraction of Chelyabinsk is, of course, his
pedestrian street, Kirovka. It will represent not the first and even
more so that in Russia an example of organizing a large pedestrian zone
with beautiful lanterns, shops and street sculpture. Nevertheless, if in
the same Nizhny Novgorod a pedestrian street is only a small addition to
everything else, then in Chelyabinsk it contains a good half of city
attractions. Go along Kirov from end to end, look into the side streets,
where there is, for example, a mosque or carved wooden houses, and you
will get a good idea of the city. Its historical center, stretching
along Kirovka and in width not exceeding 3-4 quarters, is a strange
mixture of pre-revolutionary houses, new buildings, fences and
wastelands. The urban environment has not been preserved here, and not
the fact that there were once, although interesting houses come across,
and the wooden ones are especially curious, which are often crowned with
low but impressive towers-this is a specific Chelyabinsk element, for
other parts of the Urals, uncharacteristic.
Sovetsky Chelyabinsk, starting in the area of Lenin Avenue and leaving further south, looks completely different: there is already an integral city with one of the best ensembles of Stalinist architecture in Russia. If you liked it, do not miss the areas of the tractor and metallurgical plants, where the architecture is no worse, and sometimes even more original: in the social city of metallurgists, the Stalin Empire is close to Gothic.
In addition to architecture, Chelyabinsk is interesting for sculpture. Firstly, a complete set of civilian-war memorials, including those that are not suspected in other parts of the country. Secondly, the Bashkir Mausoleum of Lenin is no longer anywhere, even in Bashkiria.
The Carboats Spiridonov, Trinity Track, 22A/1 (TC "Mayak +", 3rd floor). 10: 00-17: 00 (except for PN and W). 10 rub. The museum contains a private collection of cars of the 1920-1930s of foreign production. The exposition is originally decorated in the style of the Golden Calf, Ilf and Petrov, and the pearl collection is the same LorrainedEtietrich, known as the antelope of the GNU.
There are many shopping and entertainment centers in
Chelyabinsk. The largest are the TRK "Rodnik" (not far from the new
bridge to the north -west), the Gorki shopping center, the Focus
shopping center, the Almaz shopping center
Estet, Lenin Ave. 61. ✉ ☎ (351) 263-83-45, 263-48-28. The salon has a large selection of gifts and souvenirs, in addition, it is the official dealer of the Kaslinsky Plant of Architectural and Art Casting.
In the center of the city: Pizza Mia pizzeria, stalls with Fast-Food (hot frying pan), city cafes "Lucky Smile", "Subway", departments of chain stores "Prospekt".
Burger Club. ☎ 8-908-703-54-06. From 10 to 24. The local analogue of McDonald's and Burgerking with good food and acceptable price. There is Wi-Fi.
st. Kirova, 80 (Arbat).
st. Dzerzhinsky, 102/2 (c/t aurora).
Cafe at shopping and entertainment complexes.
Numerous restaurants and entertainment (night) clubs. The most expensive and famous of them is the Ural Dumplings, is located in the city center, 66 Lenin Ave., Nearby, several cafes. On Lenin Ave. and Kirov St. there are many restaurants of all price categories with different kitchen - European, French, Chinese, Japanese, etc.
Hostel Sunshine v Kontakte Russian V.Png, Russian street, 279 (5th floor). ☎ +7 (351) 225-21-28, +7 (912) 896-54-53. from 400 rubles. The hostel occupies a whole floor in a student dormitory with a block system. Each block has two multi -seater rooms and a bathroom with a sink, a toilet and a shower. There are common kitchen, a TV room and a game room with a table tennis table. Hostel staff maintains high level cleanliness. The elevator works only in the daytime. Credit cards are accepted for payment.
"Malachite" (center), "Omsk", (cross.
"Victoria" (in the north-west of the city), "Birch", "Heliopark" (Lake Smolino, Trinity Tract).
The ParkCity Hotel, 6 Fold Park, 6. High -speed Internet in each room, centralized air conditioning with the possibility of individual management in the room, safe, minibar, hairdryer, gender with heating in the bathroom, intercity and international communication in rooms.
Hotel Almaz, st. Forest Park, 15.
Grand Hotel Vidgof is located in the very center of the city on the main street, 3 km from the railway station and 18 km from the international airport.
Stationary phones of Chelyabinsk have seven-digit
numbers of the type +7 (351) XXX-XX-XX.
GSM operators: Big Three-MTS, Megafon and Beeline, are also present Tele2 and Utel (Rostelecom).
CDMA 2000 EV-DO: SkyLink network.
3G: there, the HSPA+ (GSM) standard from MTS, megaphone and Beeline.
Wi-Fi: In the city center, it is easy to find a cafe or other institution with an access point, most often access is free. In the parks of Gagarin and Pushkin at the entrance and central alleys, the network is also caught from intercommunication.
LTE (4G): present.
You should refuse to visit the working areas of the city - ChTZ, Leninsky district in the evening and at night.
According to the toponymic dictionary
"Geographical Names of the World" edited by Evgeny Pospelov, the
village was founded in the Chelebi tract, the name of which comes
from the Turkic personal name Chelebi ("prince", "educated"). The
descendants of the first settlers and old-timers said that the name
of the Chelyaba fortress, given by the name of the tract, goes back
to the Bashkir word “silәbe” (“depression”, “shallow pit”). This
version is supported by the notes of the German traveler Johann
Gmelin, who visited the Chelyabinsk fortress in 1742. Also, in his
historical monograph, Vladimir Vitevsky wrote: “Chelyab is a Bashkir
word, which means a bucket or a burak in translation into Russian.
The location of Chelyabinsk is really a bucket-shaped basin. "
Subsequently, various alternative versions appeared:
According to the researcher A.V. Orlov, the Chelyabinsk fortress was named after the village of Selyaba, which stood on the river. Selyabka. This version was supported by V. A. Dolgorukov and V. A. Vesnovsky, who wrote in his reference book in 1909 that according to legend, at the time of the foundation of Chelyabinsk, there was the Bashkir village of Selyaba on this place.
According to some scholars (U. K. Safiulin, G. F. Satarov, Yu. G. Podkorytov), the village was founded by the legendary Turkic hero Selyambey.
GA Turbin believed that it was the village of the Bashkir tarkhan Taymas Shaimov, who had the honorary title of "chelyabi" .
It is quite possible that on the site of modern Chelyabinsk there were the patrimonial lands of the Turkic hero Selyabi-Chelebi.
Some researchers derive the name from the Türkic root "chelyabi" ("selyabi"), that is, noble.
There is a version of the origin of the toponym from the name of the river, since a considerable number of villages were named after the rivers near which they were built. Among the Turkic peoples, it was customary to name rivers by the names of the owners of those patrimonial lands where they flowed. Opponents of this version note that at the time of the appearance of the Russians in the South Urals (late 17th - early 18th centuries), no villages near the river. Miass did not exist, since it was the territory of the Bashkir peoples and it was unsafe to live next to them. During the time of the Mongol Empire and the Golden Horde, the honorary title of Chelebi (Chelubey) was spread. The anthroponym Chelebi in the Islamic world refers to the epithets with the meaning of a strong, influential person (translated from the Turkic - pretty, handsome, sun-like). In history, you can find many confirmation of the existence of this anthroponym. So, for example, according to legend, on the Kulikovo field in the previous battle with the monk Peresvet from the side of the Golden Horde, the hero Chelubey participated. Chelibir was the name of one of the batyrs who served the Chernigov princes. In the XV century. Sultan Mehmed I elebi ruled Turkey. The famous Turkish scientist of the 17th century. Haji Khalifa bore the pseudonym Kyatib Chelebi. His youngest contemporary was the largest Turkish traveler of the Middle Ages Evliya Чelebi. Translated from Turkish into Russian, "chelyab" means God, and "chelyabi" is divine, gifted by God.
The Chelyabinsk fortress was founded in 1736 on the site of the Selyabe tract. One of the reasons for the construction of the Chelyabinsk fortress, as well as the Miass (now the village of Miass) from Chebarkulskaya, was the attacks of the Bashkirs on the carts with food following from the Techenskaya settlement to the Orenburg and Verkhoyitsky fortresses.
On September 13, Colonel AI Tevkelev (Tevkelev Kutlu-Mukhammed) "founded the city in the Chelyabi tract from the Miyass fortress, thirty miles away." The fortress was founded with the consent of the owner of the land on which the construction was planned - the Bashkir tarkhan Taymas Shaimov; which ultimately led to the release of his Bashkirs from taxation. Later, on behalf of AI Tevkelev, Major Ya. Pavlutsky completed the construction of the Chelyabinsk Fortress. He, presumably, had searched for a place for the fortress several years earlier. Since 1736, the Chelyabinsk fortress was administratively included in the Ufa province.
On June 20, 1742, the German traveler I. G. Gmelin compiled the first description of the fortress: “This fortress is also located on the Miyass River, on the southern bank, it is similar to Miyasskaya, but larger and surrounded only by wooden walls made of lying logs. Each wall is approximately 60 fathoms. It was founded shortly after the Miyassk fortress, and it got its name from the forest nearest to it, located higher on the southern side of the river, in Bashkir Chelyabe-Karagai. "
In 1743-1781, the Chelyabinsk fortress became the administrative center of the Isetskaya province, according to the decree of the Orenburg commission of September 22, 1743, before that it was simply part of this province.
On March 23, 1748, the first stone church was laid in the Chelyabinsk fortress, which became the main cathedral of the Isetskaya province.
As of the 1760s, in the Chelyabinsk fortress there were a voivode and a provincial chancellery (transferred from the Techenskaya Sloboda in 1743), a poll tax, a spiritual government, a town hall, about 500 courtyards (of which about 100 courtyards are inside the fortress). Inside the fortress, on the right bank of the river, there was a fortification with 2 wooden towers. The fortress on both banks of the river was surrounded by a wooden fence (zaplot) with slingshots, nadolbami and three passable towers. Lived: irregular troops of 354 Cossacks led by the ataman and 8 foremen, a regular provincial company of the chancellery (infantry company), 192 merchants and workers, 42 peasants and household servants. In addition, 154 souls of residents who had moved from Shadrinsk lived 15 versts in the village of Balanchnoi. The fortress had a wooden church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, built before 1743 and built after a stone three-altar (Nativity of Christ, John the Theologian, Nicholas the Wonderworker). The postal road to Orenburg passed through the Zelair fortress and was 572 versts.
In 1774, thanks to the actions of the governor A.P. Verevkin, he withstood the siege of the Pugachevites, but in February 1775 the Pugachevites took the fortress. General IA Dekolong, who had arrived with reinforcements, helped in the liberation.
In 1781, the Chelyabinsk fortress became the city of Chelyabinsk and the center of the Chelyabinsk district of the Yekaterinburg region of the Perm governorship. Since 1782, Chelyabinsk, like the county, was administratively subordinate to the Ufa region of the Ufa governorship when it was created from the Orenburg province. On June 6, 1782, by the decree of Empress Catherine II, the coat of arms of the district town of Chelyabinsk, Ufa governorship, was approved. In the upper part of the shield is the Ufa coat of arms, and in the lower part there is a loaded camel, as a sign that trade routes passed through the city.
In the 1780s, Chelyabinsk was a quiet district town, but it was home to world-class events. So, in 1788, a group of doctors led by S. Andreevsky studied the symptoms and gave the name to anthrax, and were the first in the world to isolate serum against this deadly disease.
Since 1796, in connection with the abolition of the governorships, Chelyabinsk and the district are part of the re-created Orenburg province and a new coat of arms is approved: a loaded camel in the lower part of the provincial shield.
In the first half of the 19th century, a trade and craft layer began to form among the townspeople. By the middle of the 19th century, the city took a strong place in the fair trade of the Urals.
Until the end of the 19th century, Chelyabinsk was a small town.
The rebirth of Chelyabinsk took place in 1892 thanks to Emperor
Alexander III. It was associated with the completion of the
construction of the Samara-Zlatoust railway, which connected
Chelyabinsk with the European part of the Russian Empire. It was
thanks to the intervention of the emperor that the previously
proposed project was canceled, which was supposed to lead the
railway through Kazan - Yekaterinburg - Tyumen. Since 1892, the
construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway continued further to the
east of the country. The further development of the city was
facilitated by the commissioning in 1896 of a branch of the Ural
Mining Railway connecting Chelyabinsk with Yekaterinburg, as a
result of which the entire freight traffic from the previously
isolated railway flowed through Chelyabinsk to the European part of
the country, in addition to the flow from Western Siberia. In just a
few years, the city has taken a leading position in the country in
the trade in bread, butter, meat and tea. The Chelyabinsk Exchange
of the late 19th century is the first in Russia for trading in
bread, and the second for trading in imported tea. This was also
facilitated by the introduction by the government of the country of
the so-called "Chelyabinsk tariff break" (1896-1913). The unofficial
honorary name “Gateway to Siberia” is assigned to Chelyabinsk.
From 1893 to the 30s of the XX century in Chelyabinsk, near the railway station, the largest medical and nutritional resettlement center in Russia appeared and exists as part of the Resettlement Administration, through which at that time almost all migrants to Siberia and the Far East passed. In the same year, the Chelyabinsk branch of the State Bank of the Russian Empire was opened in the city.
In 1898, next to the railway station, the first plant in the city "V. G. Stoll & Co ”, which produced agricultural tools and implements.
For several years the population of the city has grown significantly (in 1897 - about 20 thousand people, in 1910 - more than 60 thousand, in 1917 - about 70 thousand), and the territory has increased by a third. Many settlements appeared around the railway station. A religious school (1830, a new building was built in 1878), a women's gymnasium (1870), a real school (1902, from 1905 in its own building), and a trade school were opened. A people's house and a railway meeting club were built. There were about 1,500 commercial and industrial establishments in the city with an annual turnover of up to 30 million rubles. Trading offices, agencies, representative offices of foreign companies selling machinery and equipment were opened. For its rapid growth at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, similar to American cities, Chelyabinsk was sometimes called the Trans-Ural Chicago.
During the first five-year plans
After the October Revolution. The armed rebellion of the Czechoslovak corps after the events of May 14, 1918 at the Chelyabinsk railway station and the capture of the city on the night of May 26-27, 1918, led the neutral corps of many thousands to participate in the civil war on the side of KomUch and later A. V. Kolchak. Despite the political instability, the Chelyabinsk elevator was commissioned in 1918. After the capture of the city in July 1919 (Chelyabinsk operation), the Bolshevik authorities began to form by the Reds: a revolutionary committee was created, elections to party committees were held. On September 3, 1919, Chelyabinsk became the center of the Chelyabinsk province, created by the decision of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, transformed on November 3, 1924 into the Chelyabinsk District of the Ural Region.
On January 17, 1934, by a resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the Ural region was divided into three regions - the Sverdlovsk region with the center in Sverdlovsk, the Chelyabinsk region with the center in Chelyabinsk and the Obsko-Irtysh region with the center in Tyumen.
In 1937, the issue of renaming the city of Chelyabinsk into Kaganovichgrad was considered.
During the first Soviet five-year plans, Chelyabinsk became one of the country's largest industrial centers. If by 1919 there were only two enterprises in the city, then from the beginning of the 1930s a tractor, abrasive, ferroalloy, electrode, machine tool, and zinc factories began their work. Here is what Louis Aragon wrote about this period, who visited Chelyabinsk in the summer of 1932 on his way from Sverdlovsk as part of a delegation of progressive writers from Europe and the United States:
“… Chelyabinsk suddenly opens. We skirted whole kilometers of new houses, white with gray stripes. At the foot of them there are still huddled black dugouts, in which they used to live ... ... there is not a single tourist who would not ask first of all: “What is this? This is Chelyabtraktorostroy. And this is the power station - ChGRES “. And still at home, still at home ... "
- Letters from Lausanne. Literary essays. A. A. Shmakov // Chelyabinsk: South Ural Book Publishing House. - 1980
Chelyabinsk and repressions did not bypass, one of such reminders
is the mass graves on the "Golden Mountain" and the biography of the
first heads of the South Ural Railway.
During the Great Patriotic War
During the Great Patriotic War, Chelyabinsk played an important role as a rear city. Chelyabinsk received thousands of evacuees. The city's population has grown from 270 to 650 thousand people. On the basis of more than two hundred enterprises evacuated in 1941, which merged with local industries, the giants of the industry ChKPZ, ChMK, ChTPZ were created. The Moldavian and Izmail offices of the USSR State Bank were evacuated to the Chelyabinsk office of the USSR State Bank (by that time there were also regional offices of the USSR Industrial Bank and the USSR Agricultural Bank). From 1941 to 1945, the People's Commissariat of the Tank Industry, one of the largest industrial commissariats of the USSR, was located in Chelyabinsk. In addition, the city housed the People's Commissariat for Ammunition, the People's Commissariat for Medium Machine Building, the People's Commissariat for Power Plants and the People's Commissariat for Construction. Since August 21, 1943, Chelyabinsk has been a city of republican (RSFSR) subordination.
Already at the beginning of the war, Chelyabinsk acquired a second, unofficial name - Tankograd. After connecting the capacities of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant with two evacuated enterprises - the Leningrad Kirov and the Kharkov Motor-Building, huge production switched to the production of tanks. The plant has been producing heavy KV-1 tanks since 1940 (since 1943 it has been producing the IS-2). Also, it was mastered in just 33 days, the mass production of T-34 tanks. For the first time in the world practice of tank building, the assembly of a medium tank was put on the conveyor at ChTZ, later taken over by Uralvagonzavod. During the Great Patriotic War, 60 thousand tank diesel engines were produced in Chelyabinsk. Since 1943, ChTZ has produced SU-152 self-propelled artillery mounts, and then ISU-152. In total, over the war years, the plant produced 18 thousand combat vehicles, which is one fifth of all produced in the country. At the plant them. Kolyuschenko mastered the production of the BM-13 installation - the famous "Katyusha". During the war, the city's enterprises produced diesel engines, ammunition (cartridges, mines, bombs, land mines, rockets), electrical equipment for combat vehicles, parts for tanks and ZIS vehicles, armored glass for aircraft and other products necessary for victory. By the end of the war, every third tank and combat aircraft had Chelyabinsk steel.
On July 30, 1941, the formation of the Chelyabinsk Tank School began. It trained tank commanders (crews), military technicians, senior driver-mechanics for heavy tanks and heavy self-propelled artillery installations. The training was combined with practical training in the ChTZ workshops in the production of tanks. In total, from 1942 to 1945, 37 graduates of military specialists in various specialties were produced at the school. A total of 6,863 officers were trained for the armored forces. Before the Battle of Kursk, graduates of the school, as well as residents of the city and the region, participated in the formation of the 30th Ural Volunteer Tank Corps (later the 10th Guards Ural Volunteer Tank Corps), tank brigades and in the formation of 16 heavy self-propelled artillery regiments. In particular, in Chelyabinsk, the following were formed: the 96th Tank Brigade named after the Chelyabinsk Komsomol (formed in May 1942, the honorary name Shumenskaya was awarded for military services); 97th Tank Brigade (formed in June 1942, later the 52nd Guards Tank Brigade, Fastovskaya); 99th Tank Brigade (formed in June 1942, later the 59th Guards Tank Brigade, Lublin); 244th Chelyabinsk Tank Brigade (formed as part of the Ural Volunteer Tank Corps, later the 63rd Guards Chelyabinsk Tank Brigade, Petrakuvskaya); 119th Tank Brigade (formed in the spring of 1942, later, due to losses, was reorganized into the 7th Guards Breakthrough Regiment, Elninsky); 166th Tank Brigade (formed in the spring of 1942, later, due to losses, was reorganized into a tank regiment); 360th separate Ural volunteer tank regiment (formed in the summer of 1942); 1536th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 378th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment, Novgorod); 1529th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 333rd guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment, Polotsk-Vitebsk); 1548th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 367th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment, Oder); 1544th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 377th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment).
In the locomotive depot of the city's railway station in
1941-1942, 5 armored trains were built, formed and sent to the front
as part of the 38th separate armored train division and the 39th
special armored train division. More than ten ski battalions were
also formed in Chelyabinsk (in particular, the 39th, 40th, 43rd,
44th, 155th, 157th, 217th, 218th, 242nd, 243 th) and the 15th ski
In Chelyabinsk, during the war years, 10 evacuation hospitals were deployed for seriously wounded requiring long-term treatment (a total of 118 evacuation hospitals were deployed in the region, until 1943, including in settlements of the present Kurgan region), as well as the departments of a number of large hospitals in the city, to which it was delivered from front about 220,000 people, 78% of whom were healed and returned to the front. Not without lethal outcomes, amounting to 0.3% of the total. The wounded and sick who died in hospitals were buried mainly in the Lesnoye and Uspenskoye cemeteries in mass graves. The 4251st and 4253rd infectious diseases, 5153rd mobile field hospitals were formed in the city and sent to the front. In 1941-1944, the Kiev Medical Institute was in evacuation in Chelyabinsk, which produced doctors for the front; in 1944, the Chelyabinsk Medical Institute was created on its basis.
During the war, the city hosted the Chelyabinsk camp No. 102 of the UNKVD in the Chelyabinsk region for interned prisoners of war of the foreign army and the Chelyabmetallurgstroy forced labor camp (originally Bakalstroy-Bakallag, later Chelyablag) of the GULAG system of the NKVD of the USSR.
In the postwar period, Chelyabinsk became a supplier of equipment, machinery, human resources for the restoration of Stalingrad, Donbass, DneproGES and others. The importance of Chelyabinsk is also evidenced by the fact that it was included in the number of 20 cities of the USSR subject to atomic bombing, according to the first post-war plan of war against the USSR (Plan "Totality") developed in the United States already in 1945, and was also included in subsequent similar plans.
In 1947, a new development plan was approved, which provided for multi-storey buildings in the city center and areas adjacent to industrial enterprises. This radically changed the panorama of Chelyabinsk. Enterprises were built, new industries appeared.
Automation was actively introduced at the enterprises, production was modernized. So, since 1954, cars with the brand name of the Kolyuschenko plant entered the world market and were supplied to 40 countries of the world. In 1956, the first stage of the world's largest electric pipe shop was put into operation at the pipe-rolling plant. In a decade, 18 new workshops were commissioned at the metallurgical plant, and in 1958 blast furnace No. 5 was launched - the first All-Union shock Komsomol construction project in Chelyabinsk was completed. During this period, ChMP (now ChMK) became the flagship of the ferrous metallurgy of the USSR.
By 1960, there were already about 15 thousand students in Chelyabinsk. The first classical university in the South Urals - ChelSU was founded in 1976. By the 1980s, the capital of the Southern Urals had become a major scientific center of the country: 7 universities and about 40 research and design institutes operated here.
Since June 3, 1958, Chelyabinsk is again a city of regional subordination.
In the early 1970s, the first visitors were received by the sanatoriums and dispensaries of ChTZ and ChTPZ, a city student hospital appeared, and large medical institutions were built. In a short time, the north-western part of the city was built up, new quarters of high-rise buildings appeared at ChTZ and the north-east. On October 13, 1976, a millionth resident was born in Chelyabinsk, while 3 newborns were included in those at once.
By 1980, the city's enterprises provided more than half of the all-Union production of stainless steel, a fifth of pipes produced in the USSR, a third of ferroalloys, and up to 40% of road vehicles. At this time, a new building of the drama theater for 1200 seats was opened, the Chelyabinsk puppet theater acquired all-Russian fame. In 1986, Chelyabinsk celebrated its 250th anniversary; in honor of this, a geological museum, a chamber and organ music hall, monuments to Igor Kurchatov and To a New Way were opened.
The first half of the 1990s became difficult for Chelyabinsk, resulting in bankruptcy of enterprises, non-payment of salaries, and underfunding of social programs. In the second half of the decade, industry resumed its work in Chelyabinsk, and many combines and factories entered the world market with their products. In 1996, the zoo was opened, and in 2004 - the pedestrian street Kirovki, which has become a favorite walking place for Chelyabinsk residents and guests of the city. In 2006, a new building of the State Historical Museum of the Southern Urals was opened, and in 2009 the Traktor ice arena with a capacity of 7,500 spectators.
In the 2010s, after the economic downturn of the 1990s, the
construction and commissioning of new housing intensified in the
city, large microdistricts were built from scratch (in turn,
consisting of smaller microdistricts and housing complexes) with all
infrastructure in the eastern and northern western outskirts, for
which the boundaries of the city were expanded by transferring the
land of the Sosnovsky district: "Churilovo", "Topolinaya Alleya",
"Academ-Riverside", "Parkovy"; whole residential complexes with
their own names, and sometimes comparable in size to small
On September 1, 2011, a bromine leak occurred in the city at the Chelyabinsk-Glavny railway station, which injured 102 people, and some areas of the city were covered with a suffocating odor. On February 15, 2013, a meteorite of the same name fell in the vicinity of Chelyabinsk, 7320 buildings and 1613 people suffered from the blast wave that occurred during the fall.
Chelyabinsk is located almost in the center of the mainland Eurasia
(1400 km from the geographical center), east of the Ural ridge, 200 km
south of Yekaterinburg. The height above sea level is about 200-250 m.
The geological location: the western part is the Southern Urals
(granites), the eastern part is Western Siberia (sedimentary rocks), so
the city is on the border of the Urals and Siberia and has an unofficial
name “Gate. In Siberia ”, at the turn of the XIX -XX centuries, after
the construction of the Trans -Siberian Railway, many travelers bought
postcards at the Chelyabinsk railway station and sent them around the
world as evidence of their stay in Siberia. The Leningrad bridge
connects the Ural and Siberian banks of the Miass River, thus is a
bridge from the Urals to Siberia. Strictly along the border of the Urals
and Siberia passes the Meridian highway on the site from Lenin Avenue to
Mechanical Street: travel along Lenin Ave. under the Viaduct of the
Meridian highway is the most famous among the inhabitants of the city,
the intersection of the border of the Urals and Siberia.
The city stands on the Miass River, within the city is the Shershnevsky reservoir and three lakes: Smolino, Sineglazovo, the first. Several small rivers flowing into Miass flows through the city: abbot, colupaevka, chikinka, hee and chernushka, most of them are launched through pipes and collectors underground.
The relief of the city is poorly hilly in the west with a gradual decrease to the east. An interesting fact, Chelyabinsk as Rome, Constantinople and Moscow, is located on seven hills. The city is "cut" by the valley of the river. Miass and hollows with lakes and swamps. The shores of Miass are covered in places with forest and shrubs. On the territory of the city below the Shershnevsky reservoir, the river in several places was trained in forming a system of urban ponds, as a result of which the channel spilled with gentle shores, the bottom is sophisticated. Higher and below the city of a half -mountainous river with a quick flow, rifts and rocky shores. The climate is moderately continental.
From the south-west to the north, Chelyabinsk, Sosnovsky District, is subtle-shaped. On the eastern side, the satellite city Kopeisk adjoins the Chelyabinsk. In the northeast, Chelyabinsk borders on the Krasnoarmeysky district.
Chelyabinsk is located in the clock zone of MSC+2. The displacement of the used time relative to the UTC is +5: 00. In accordance with the time and geographical longitude used, the average sunny noon in Chelyabinsk occurs at 12:54.
Chelyabinsk is located in the forest -steppe zone, almost in the
center of the mainland of Eurasia at a large distance from the seas and
oceans, east of the Ural ridge.
The city’s climate is moderate, according to general characteristics, refers to a moderate continental (transition from moderately continental to sharply continental). The air temperature depends on both the influence of the air masses entering the territory of the region, and on the amount of solar energy received. 2066 hours a year, the sun shines in the region. The amount and distribution of precipitation throughout the year is determined mainly by the passage of cyclones over the territory of the region, their annual amount is 410-450 mm. The wind regime in the territory of Chelyabinsk and the region depends on the peculiarities of the placement of the main centers of the atmosphere and changes under the influence of orography. In January-May, winds of the southern and southwestern trend at a average speed of 3-4 m/s prevail. With snowstorms, the maximum speed increases to 16-28 m/s. In June-August, the wind blows from the west and north-west, the average speed does not increase, but with thunderstorms there is a short-term squalling wind strengthening to 16-25 m/s. In September-December, the wind turns to the southern and southwest, the average wind speed is 3 m/s, the maximum is 18-28 m/s.
Winter is long, moderately cold and snowy. Constant snow cover is formed on November 15-18 and lasts 145-150 days. The height of the snow cover is 30-40 cm, but in low-snow winters it happens 10-15 cm less. Blizzards are observed for 30-35 days, with a total duration of 220-270 hours. The average temperature of the January is from - 15.5 to −17.5 ° C. The absolute minimum of air temperature reached −49 ° C. Spring is long and moderate. Summer temperatures begin to rise in May. Summer is moderately warm and dry, rainy in some years. The average air temperature in July is from 18 to 19 ° C. Absolute maximum temperature was noted in 1952 - +39.2 ° C. The largest amount of precipitation falls in July.
Late spring (in the first half of June) and early autumn (at the end of August) frost, in some years with snowfall are characteristic.
The length of the daylight hours varies from 7 hours 08 minutes to 17 hours 24 minutes (during winter and summer solstices).
Due to the fact that Chelyabinsk is an industrial city with a large
number of factories, the environmental situation in the city is
especially acute. According to the statements of the former governor of
the Chelyabinsk region, Boris Dubrovsky, in Chelyabinsk there is a
crisis of control over the quality of the air, and the environmental
capacity of Chelyabinsk has been exhausted, which is why it is
impossible to create new production. According to the Ministry of
Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, in Chelyabinsk
in 2020, the volume of emissions increased by 13 % relative to the
indicators of 2019. The special representative of the President of the
Russian Federation on environmental protection, ecology and transport
Sergei Ivanov said that Chelyabinsk is unfavorable for living by the
city due to pollution of the atmosphere. Member of the Council of Human
Rights under the President of the Russian Federation Ivan Zasursky, who
visited Chelyabinsk in February 2018, said that "Chelyabinsk is a city
with the strongest smell in Russia, you can’t live in Chelyabinsk." In
the environmental rating of the Green Patrol public organization, the
Chelyabinsk region for the period of winter 2021–2022 took 80 out of 85.
According to a study by the Chelyabinsk branch of the 2017 RANEPA, 93 % of the city’s inhabitants believe that the air is polluted. Due to the critical situation with air pollution, Chelyabinsk became the object of Internet memes and jokes, in which the theme of Smog and air touches, and on Twitter the city received its own hashtag "#Chelyabinskdyshi".
In the reports of Roshydromet and the Ministry of Ecology of the Chelyabinsk Region, for 2020 it is noted that the level of air pollution in the city is increased. The average annual maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was recorded by formaldehyde and hydrogen fluoride, and periodic excess of norms was fixed in nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzapiren, phenol, hydrogen sulfide, ethylbenzene, benzene, lead, manganese and weighed substances. In 2016–2020, an increase in the concentrations of carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, xylolov, ethylbenzene, toluene, nickel, chromium. The ecology of Chelyabinsk is characterized by a constant announcement of days with adverse weather conditions (NMU), which arise with a rod and low wind, which is why there is an accumulation of emissions in the lower layer of the atmosphere. There is a negative trend, since in 2021 52 % of days (190 days out of 365) were accompanied by NMU, and in 2020 - 180 days.
There are several lakes within the city: Smolino, the first and second, Shelyugino and the Shershnevsky reservoir. The Shershnev reservoir - a source of drinking water for the city, according to the report of Rosprirodnadzor, has high organic pollution, and the quality of the source water does not correspond to 8 out of 12 samples taken in 2021. Rospotrebnadzor said that bathing on all reservoirs of Chelyabinsk is dangerous. The Miass River, flowing through the city, is influenced by wastewater of urban treatment facilities and enterprises, which was expressed in 2020 in the periodic excesses of the MPC for ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, phosphate nitrogen (phosphorus), general gland, nickel, arsenic, copper , zinc, manganese, oil products.