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Chelyabinsk is the seventh by the number of
inhabitants, the fourteenth in terms of area occupied by the city of
the Russian Federation, the administrative center of the Chelyabinsk
region, a city district with intracity division. The population is
1,202,371 people (2018). Chelyabinsk is located on the geological
border of the Urals and Siberia, on the eastern slope of the Ural
Mountains, on both banks of the Miass River (Tobol Basin).
Founded in 1736 as a fortress, by the XIX century Chelyabinsk became one of the largest shopping centers of the Urals, and by the end of the century and all of Russia due to the appearance in 1892 of the city’s railway connection with Moscow. In connection with the active construction of industrial enterprises in Chelyabinsk during the first five-year plans, and then the evacuation of factories during the Great Patriotic War, the city became one of the largest industrial centers in the USSR. Because of the intensive production in the city of tanks and other combat vehicles during the war period, Chelyabinsk in 2015 was given the title of city of labor valor and glory, and the city itself was popularly called “Tankograd”.
According to the toponymic dictionary "Geographical Names of the World" edited by Evgeny Pospelov, the village was founded in the Chelebi tract, the name of which comes from the Turkic personal name Chelebi ("prince", "educated"). The descendants of the first settlers and old-timers said that the name of the Chelyaba fortress, given by the name of the tract, goes back to the Bashkir word “silәbe” (“depression”, “shallow pit”). This version is supported by the notes of the German traveler Johann Gmelin, who visited the Chelyabinsk fortress in 1742. Also, in his historical monograph, Vladimir Vitevsky wrote: “Chelyab is a Bashkir word, which means a bucket or a burak in translation into Russian. The location of Chelyabinsk is really a bucket-shaped basin. "
Subsequently, various alternative versions appeared:
According to the researcher A.V. Orlov, the Chelyabinsk fortress was named after the village of Selyaba, which stood on the river. Selyabka. This version was supported by V. A. Dolgorukov and V. A. Vesnovsky, who wrote in his reference book in 1909 that according to legend, at the time of the foundation of Chelyabinsk, there was the Bashkir village of Selyaba on this place.
According to some scholars (U. K. Safiulin, G. F. Satarov, Yu. G. Podkorytov), the village was founded by the legendary Turkic hero Selyambey.
GA Turbin believed that it was the village of the Bashkir tarkhan Taymas Shaimov, who had the honorary title of "chelyabi" .
It is quite possible that on the site of modern Chelyabinsk there were the patrimonial lands of the Turkic hero Selyabi-Chelebi.
Some researchers derive the name from the Türkic root "chelyabi" ("selyabi"), that is, noble.
There is a version of the origin of the toponym from the name of the river, since a considerable number of villages were named after the rivers near which they were built. Among the Turkic peoples, it was customary to name rivers by the names of the owners of those patrimonial lands where they flowed. Opponents of this version note that at the time of the appearance of the Russians in the South Urals (late 17th - early 18th centuries), no villages near the river. Miass did not exist, since it was the territory of the Bashkir peoples and it was unsafe to live next to them. During the time of the Mongol Empire and the Golden Horde, the honorary title of Chelebi (Chelubey) was spread. The anthroponym Chelebi in the Islamic world refers to the epithets with the meaning of a strong, influential person (translated from the Turkic - pretty, handsome, sun-like). In history, you can find many confirmation of the existence of this anthroponym. So, for example, according to legend, on the Kulikovo field in the previous battle with the monk Peresvet from the side of the Golden Horde, the hero Chelubey participated. Chelibir was the name of one of the batyrs who served the Chernigov princes. In the XV century. Sultan Mehmed I elebi ruled Turkey. The famous Turkish scientist of the 17th century. Haji Khalifa bore the pseudonym Kyatib Chelebi. His youngest contemporary was the largest Turkish traveler of the Middle Ages Evliya Чelebi. Translated from Turkish into Russian, "chelyab" means God, and "chelyabi" is divine, gifted by God.
The Chelyabinsk fortress was founded in 1736 on the site of the Selyabe tract. One of the reasons for the construction of the Chelyabinsk fortress, as well as the Miass (now the village of Miass) from Chebarkulskaya, was the attacks of the Bashkirs on the carts with food following from the Techenskaya settlement to the Orenburg and Verkhoyitsky fortresses.
On September 13, Colonel AI Tevkelev (Tevkelev Kutlu-Mukhammed) "founded the city in the Chelyabi tract from the Miyass fortress, thirty miles away." The fortress was founded with the consent of the owner of the land on which the construction was planned - the Bashkir tarkhan Taymas Shaimov; which ultimately led to the release of his Bashkirs from taxation. Later, on behalf of AI Tevkelev, Major Ya. Pavlutsky completed the construction of the Chelyabinsk Fortress. He, presumably, had searched for a place for the fortress several years earlier. Since 1736, the Chelyabinsk fortress was administratively included in the Ufa province.
On June 20, 1742, the German traveler I. G. Gmelin compiled the first description of the fortress: “This fortress is also located on the Miyass River, on the southern bank, it is similar to Miyasskaya, but larger and surrounded only by wooden walls made of lying logs. Each wall is approximately 60 fathoms. It was founded shortly after the Miyassk fortress, and it got its name from the forest nearest to it, located higher on the southern side of the river, in Bashkir Chelyabe-Karagai. "
In 1743-1781, the Chelyabinsk fortress became the administrative center of the Isetskaya province, according to the decree of the Orenburg commission of September 22, 1743, before that it was simply part of this province.
On March 23, 1748, the first stone church was laid in the Chelyabinsk fortress, which became the main cathedral of the Isetskaya province.
As of the 1760s, in the Chelyabinsk fortress there were a voivode and a provincial chancellery (transferred from the Techenskaya Sloboda in 1743), a poll tax, a spiritual government, a town hall, about 500 courtyards (of which about 100 courtyards are inside the fortress). Inside the fortress, on the right bank of the river, there was a fortification with 2 wooden towers. The fortress on both banks of the river was surrounded by a wooden fence (zaplot) with slingshots, nadolbami and three passable towers. Lived: irregular troops of 354 Cossacks led by the ataman and 8 foremen, a regular provincial company of the chancellery (infantry company), 192 merchants and workers, 42 peasants and household servants. In addition, 154 souls of residents who had moved from Shadrinsk lived 15 versts in the village of Balanchnoi. The fortress had a wooden church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, built before 1743 and built after a stone three-altar (Nativity of Christ, John the Theologian, Nicholas the Wonderworker). The postal road to Orenburg passed through the Zelair fortress and was 572 versts.
In 1774, thanks to the actions of the governor A.P. Verevkin, he withstood the siege of the Pugachevites, but in February 1775 the Pugachevites took the fortress. General IA Dekolong, who had arrived with reinforcements, helped in the liberation.
In 1781, the Chelyabinsk fortress became the city of Chelyabinsk and the center of the Chelyabinsk district of the Yekaterinburg region of the Perm governorship. Since 1782, Chelyabinsk, like the county, was administratively subordinate to the Ufa region of the Ufa governorship when it was created from the Orenburg province. On June 6, 1782, by the decree of Empress Catherine II, the coat of arms of the district town of Chelyabinsk, Ufa governorship, was approved. In the upper part of the shield is the Ufa coat of arms, and in the lower part there is a loaded camel, as a sign that trade routes passed through the city.
In the 1780s, Chelyabinsk was a quiet district town, but it was home to world-class events. So, in 1788, a group of doctors led by S. Andreevsky studied the symptoms and gave the name to anthrax, and were the first in the world to isolate serum against this deadly disease.
Since 1796, in connection with the abolition of the governorships, Chelyabinsk and the district are part of the re-created Orenburg province and a new coat of arms is approved: a loaded camel in the lower part of the provincial shield.
In the first half of the 19th century, a trade and craft layer began to form among the townspeople. By the middle of the 19th century, the city took a strong place in the fair trade of the Urals.
Until the end of the 19th century, Chelyabinsk was a small town.
The rebirth of Chelyabinsk took place in 1892 thanks to Emperor
Alexander III. It was associated with the completion of the
construction of the Samara-Zlatoust railway, which connected
Chelyabinsk with the European part of the Russian Empire. It was
thanks to the intervention of the emperor that the previously
proposed project was canceled, which was supposed to lead the
railway through Kazan - Yekaterinburg - Tyumen. Since 1892, the
construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway continued further to the
east of the country. The further development of the city was
facilitated by the commissioning in 1896 of a branch of the Ural
Mining Railway connecting Chelyabinsk with Yekaterinburg, as a
result of which the entire freight traffic from the previously
isolated railway flowed through Chelyabinsk to the European part of
the country, in addition to the flow from Western Siberia. In just a
few years, the city has taken a leading position in the country in
the trade in bread, butter, meat and tea. The Chelyabinsk Exchange
of the late 19th century is the first in Russia for trading in
bread, and the second for trading in imported tea. This was also
facilitated by the introduction by the government of the country of
the so-called "Chelyabinsk tariff break" (1896-1913). The unofficial
honorary name “Gateway to Siberia” is assigned to Chelyabinsk.
From 1893 to the 30s of the XX century in Chelyabinsk, near the railway station, the largest medical and nutritional resettlement center in Russia appeared and exists as part of the Resettlement Administration, through which at that time almost all migrants to Siberia and the Far East passed. In the same year, the Chelyabinsk branch of the State Bank of the Russian Empire was opened in the city.
In 1898, next to the railway station, the first plant in the city "V. G. Stoll & Co ”, which produced agricultural tools and implements.
For several years the population of the city has grown significantly (in 1897 - about 20 thousand people, in 1910 - more than 60 thousand, in 1917 - about 70 thousand), and the territory has increased by a third. Many settlements appeared around the railway station. A religious school (1830, a new building was built in 1878), a women's gymnasium (1870), a real school (1902, from 1905 in its own building), and a trade school were opened. A people's house and a railway meeting club were built. There were about 1,500 commercial and industrial establishments in the city with an annual turnover of up to 30 million rubles. Trading offices, agencies, representative offices of foreign companies selling machinery and equipment were opened. For its rapid growth at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, similar to American cities, Chelyabinsk was sometimes called the Trans-Ural Chicago.
During the first five-year plans
After the October Revolution. The armed rebellion of the Czechoslovak corps after the events of May 14, 1918 at the Chelyabinsk railway station and the capture of the city on the night of May 26-27, 1918, led the neutral corps of many thousands to participate in the civil war on the side of KomUch and later A. V. Kolchak. Despite the political instability, the Chelyabinsk elevator was commissioned in 1918. After the capture of the city in July 1919 (Chelyabinsk operation), the Bolshevik authorities began to form by the Reds: a revolutionary committee was created, elections to party committees were held. On September 3, 1919, Chelyabinsk became the center of the Chelyabinsk province, created by the decision of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, transformed on November 3, 1924 into the Chelyabinsk District of the Ural Region.
On January 17, 1934, by a resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the Ural region was divided into three regions - the Sverdlovsk region with the center in Sverdlovsk, the Chelyabinsk region with the center in Chelyabinsk and the Obsko-Irtysh region with the center in Tyumen.
In 1937, the issue of renaming the city of Chelyabinsk into Kaganovichgrad was considered.
During the first Soviet five-year plans, Chelyabinsk became one of the country's largest industrial centers. If by 1919 there were only two enterprises in the city, then from the beginning of the 1930s a tractor, abrasive, ferroalloy, electrode, machine tool, and zinc factories began their work. Here is what Louis Aragon wrote about this period, who visited Chelyabinsk in the summer of 1932 on his way from Sverdlovsk as part of a delegation of progressive writers from Europe and the United States:
“… Chelyabinsk suddenly opens. We skirted whole kilometers of new houses, white with gray stripes. At the foot of them there are still huddled black dugouts, in which they used to live ... ... there is not a single tourist who would not ask first of all: “What is this? This is Chelyabtraktorostroy. And this is the power station - ChGRES “. And still at home, still at home ... "
- Letters from Lausanne. Literary essays. A. A. Shmakov // Chelyabinsk: South Ural Book Publishing House. - 1980
Chelyabinsk and repressions did not bypass, one of such reminders
is the mass graves on the "Golden Mountain" and the biography of the
first heads of the South Ural Railway.
During the Great Patriotic War
During the Great Patriotic War, Chelyabinsk played an important role as a rear city. Chelyabinsk received thousands of evacuees. The city's population has grown from 270 to 650 thousand people. On the basis of more than two hundred enterprises evacuated in 1941, which merged with local industries, the giants of the industry ChKPZ, ChMK, ChTPZ were created. The Moldavian and Izmail offices of the USSR State Bank were evacuated to the Chelyabinsk office of the USSR State Bank (by that time there were also regional offices of the USSR Industrial Bank and the USSR Agricultural Bank). From 1941 to 1945, the People's Commissariat of the Tank Industry, one of the largest industrial commissariats of the USSR, was located in Chelyabinsk. In addition, the city housed the People's Commissariat for Ammunition, the People's Commissariat for Medium Machine Building, the People's Commissariat for Power Plants and the People's Commissariat for Construction. Since August 21, 1943, Chelyabinsk has been a city of republican (RSFSR) subordination.
Already at the beginning of the war, Chelyabinsk acquired a second, unofficial name - Tankograd. After connecting the capacities of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant with two evacuated enterprises - the Leningrad Kirov and the Kharkov Motor-Building, huge production switched to the production of tanks. The plant has been producing heavy KV-1 tanks since 1940 (since 1943 it has been producing the IS-2). Also, it was mastered in just 33 days, the mass production of T-34 tanks. For the first time in the world practice of tank building, the assembly of a medium tank was put on the conveyor at ChTZ, later taken over by Uralvagonzavod. During the Great Patriotic War, 60 thousand tank diesel engines were produced in Chelyabinsk. Since 1943, ChTZ has produced SU-152 self-propelled artillery mounts, and then ISU-152. In total, over the war years, the plant produced 18 thousand combat vehicles, which is one fifth of all produced in the country. At the plant them. Kolyuschenko mastered the production of the BM-13 installation - the famous "Katyusha". During the war, the city's enterprises produced diesel engines, ammunition (cartridges, mines, bombs, land mines, rockets), electrical equipment for combat vehicles, parts for tanks and ZIS vehicles, armored glass for aircraft and other products necessary for victory. By the end of the war, every third tank and combat aircraft had Chelyabinsk steel.
On July 30, 1941, the formation of the Chelyabinsk Tank School began. It trained tank commanders (crews), military technicians, senior driver-mechanics for heavy tanks and heavy self-propelled artillery installations. The training was combined with practical training in the ChTZ workshops in the production of tanks. In total, from 1942 to 1945, 37 graduates of military specialists in various specialties were produced at the school. A total of 6,863 officers were trained for the armored forces. Before the Battle of Kursk, graduates of the school, as well as residents of the city and the region, participated in the formation of the 30th Ural Volunteer Tank Corps (later the 10th Guards Ural Volunteer Tank Corps), tank brigades and in the formation of 16 heavy self-propelled artillery regiments. In particular, in Chelyabinsk, the following were formed: the 96th Tank Brigade named after the Chelyabinsk Komsomol (formed in May 1942, the honorary name Shumenskaya was awarded for military services); 97th Tank Brigade (formed in June 1942, later the 52nd Guards Tank Brigade, Fastovskaya); 99th Tank Brigade (formed in June 1942, later the 59th Guards Tank Brigade, Lublin); 244th Chelyabinsk Tank Brigade (formed as part of the Ural Volunteer Tank Corps, later the 63rd Guards Chelyabinsk Tank Brigade, Petrakuvskaya); 119th Tank Brigade (formed in the spring of 1942, later, due to losses, was reorganized into the 7th Guards Breakthrough Regiment, Elninsky); 166th Tank Brigade (formed in the spring of 1942, later, due to losses, was reorganized into a tank regiment); 360th separate Ural volunteer tank regiment (formed in the summer of 1942); 1536th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 378th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment, Novgorod); 1529th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 333rd guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment, Polotsk-Vitebsk); 1548th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 367th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment, Oder); 1544th heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (formed in 1943, later the 377th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment).
In the locomotive depot of the city's railway station in
1941-1942, 5 armored trains were built, formed and sent to the front
as part of the 38th separate armored train division and the 39th
special armored train division. More than ten ski battalions were
also formed in Chelyabinsk (in particular, the 39th, 40th, 43rd,
44th, 155th, 157th, 217th, 218th, 242nd, 243 th) and the 15th ski
In Chelyabinsk, during the war years, 10 evacuation hospitals were deployed for seriously wounded requiring long-term treatment (a total of 118 evacuation hospitals were deployed in the region, until 1943, including in settlements of the present Kurgan region), as well as the departments of a number of large hospitals in the city, to which it was delivered from front about 220,000 people, 78% of whom were healed and returned to the front. Not without lethal outcomes, amounting to 0.3% of the total. The wounded and sick who died in hospitals were buried mainly in the Lesnoye and Uspenskoye cemeteries in mass graves. The 4251st and 4253rd infectious diseases, 5153rd mobile field hospitals were formed in the city and sent to the front. In 1941-1944, the Kiev Medical Institute was in evacuation in Chelyabinsk, which produced doctors for the front; in 1944, the Chelyabinsk Medical Institute was created on its basis.
During the war, the city hosted the Chelyabinsk camp No. 102 of the UNKVD in the Chelyabinsk region for interned prisoners of war of the foreign army and the Chelyabmetallurgstroy forced labor camp (originally Bakalstroy-Bakallag, later Chelyablag) of the GULAG system of the NKVD of the USSR.
In the postwar period, Chelyabinsk became a supplier of equipment, machinery, human resources for the restoration of Stalingrad, Donbass, DneproGES and others. The importance of Chelyabinsk is also evidenced by the fact that it was included in the number of 20 cities of the USSR subject to atomic bombing, according to the first post-war plan of war against the USSR (Plan "Totality") developed in the United States already in 1945, and was also included in subsequent similar plans.
In 1947, a new development plan was approved, which provided for multi-storey buildings in the city center and areas adjacent to industrial enterprises. This radically changed the panorama of Chelyabinsk. Enterprises were built, new industries appeared.
Automation was actively introduced at the enterprises, production was modernized. So, since 1954, cars with the brand name of the Kolyuschenko plant entered the world market and were supplied to 40 countries of the world. In 1956, the first stage of the world's largest electric pipe shop was put into operation at the pipe-rolling plant. In a decade, 18 new workshops were commissioned at the metallurgical plant, and in 1958 blast furnace No. 5 was launched - the first All-Union shock Komsomol construction project in Chelyabinsk was completed. During this period, ChMP (now ChMK) became the flagship of the ferrous metallurgy of the USSR.
By 1960, there were already about 15 thousand students in Chelyabinsk. The first classical university in the South Urals - ChelSU was founded in 1976. By the 1980s, the capital of the Southern Urals had become a major scientific center of the country: 7 universities and about 40 research and design institutes operated here.
Since June 3, 1958, Chelyabinsk is again a city of regional subordination.
In the early 1970s, the first visitors were received by the sanatoriums and dispensaries of ChTZ and ChTPZ, a city student hospital appeared, and large medical institutions were built. In a short time, the north-western part of the city was built up, new quarters of high-rise buildings appeared at ChTZ and the north-east. On October 13, 1976, a millionth resident was born in Chelyabinsk, while 3 newborns were included in those at once.
By 1980, the city's enterprises provided more than half of the all-Union production of stainless steel, a fifth of pipes produced in the USSR, a third of ferroalloys, and up to 40% of road vehicles. At this time, a new building of the drama theater for 1200 seats was opened, the Chelyabinsk puppet theater acquired all-Russian fame. In 1986, Chelyabinsk celebrated its 250th anniversary; in honor of this, a geological museum, a chamber and organ music hall, monuments to Igor Kurchatov and To a New Way were opened.
The first half of the 1990s became difficult for Chelyabinsk, resulting in bankruptcy of enterprises, non-payment of salaries, and underfunding of social programs. In the second half of the decade, industry resumed its work in Chelyabinsk, and many combines and factories entered the world market with their products. In 1996, the zoo was opened, and in 2004 - the pedestrian street Kirovki, which has become a favorite walking place for Chelyabinsk residents and guests of the city. In 2006, a new building of the State Historical Museum of the Southern Urals was opened, and in 2009 the Traktor ice arena with a capacity of 7,500 spectators.
In the 2010s, after the economic downturn of the 1990s, the
construction and commissioning of new housing intensified in the
city, large microdistricts were built from scratch (in turn,
consisting of smaller microdistricts and housing complexes) with all
infrastructure in the eastern and northern western outskirts, for
which the boundaries of the city were expanded by transferring the
land of the Sosnovsky district: "Churilovo", "Topolinaya Alleya",
"Academ-Riverside", "Parkovy"; whole residential complexes with
their own names, and sometimes comparable in size to small
On September 1, 2011, a bromine leak occurred in the city at the Chelyabinsk-Glavny railway station, which injured 102 people, and some areas of the city were covered with a suffocating odor. On February 15, 2013, a meteorite of the same name fell in the vicinity of Chelyabinsk, 7320 buildings and 1613 people suffered from the blast wave that occurred during the fall.
To Chelyabinsk by plane
Chelyabinsk Airport (IATA: CEK, ICAO: USCC) is an airport in Russia located 18 km north of Chelyabinsk. It services large airliners and can park up to 51 aircraft. It also serves as a secondary hub for Ural Airlines and Yamal Airlines.