Tula Oblast, Russia

Tula Region is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, part of the Central Federal District. The administrative center of the Tula region is the city of Tula. The region includes 22 districts and 2 cities of regional subordination.

The region is located in the center of the East European Plain, occupying the northeastern part of the Central Russian Upland within the steppe and forest-steppe zones. It borders in the north and northeast - with Moscow, in the east - with Ryazan, in the southeast and south - with Lipetsk, in the south and southwest - with Oryol, in the west and northwest - with Kaluga regions. It occupies an area of 25.7 thousand square meters. kilometers. The largest length of the territory of the region from north to south is 200 kilometers, from west to east - 190 kilometers.

The population is 1,479,294 people (2023), the share of the urban population is 74.16% (2022), which indicates a high level of urbanization of the region. The ethnic composition of the region's population is dominated by Russians. On the territory of the Tula region there is a polycentric Tula-Novomoskovsk million-strong agglomeration-conurbation.

The Tula region was formed on September 26, 1937, when the Moscow region was subdivided. Its predecessor, the Tula province, created by decree of Empress Catherine II, existed from 1777 to 1929. The current borders of the Tula region finally took shape in 1957.



Tula Zaochye
including Zaoksky district
The northern part of the region adjacent to the Oka with the historical cities of Venev and Aleksin.

Tula notches
The southwestern part of the region, where the notches are best preserved - strips of forests, part of the ancient Great Zasechnaya line.

Industrial centre
Industrial region in the vicinity of Tula and Novomoskovsk. The center of the Moscow Region coal basin with dying brown coal mining, as well as metallurgy and the chemical industry, among which Yasnaya Polyana, the museum-estate of Leo Tolstoy, is lost.

Upper Don
The south-eastern part of the region with the historical Kulikovo field, magnificent forest-steppe landscapes and rocky banks of the Beautiful Sword River.



Tula is the administrative center of the region; the city of gingerbread, samovars, gunsmiths and the ancient Kremlin
Aleksin is a city on the banks of the Oka with Cathedral Hill in the historical district of Zarechye
Belyov is an ancient, but poorly preserved city, which was located on the Zasechnaya line and is best known for the original apple marshmallow
Bogoroditsk - a well-preserved estate of the Bobrinskys and some pre-revolutionary buildings
Venyov is a historical border town on the Zasechnaya Line, which later retained its important transit function. Venev attracts with its preserved provinciality. A small population of the city, a compactly located center with regular historical civil buildings, which are well preserved, and in which dilapidated objects of temple architecture are harmoniously intertwined. The oldest building in the city is the archbishop's stone chambers of the 17th century, and the bell tower of the St. Nicholas Church, which majestically rises not only on the city, but also above the surroundings, attracts attention of temple architecture. Surrounded by the city, the Venevsky Monastery and the crumbling estate of von Mecca, which stand on the steep banks of the winding Osetr River, are of interest. The latter is interesting due to limestone outcrops to the surface.
Lipki - a reserve of Soviet architecture
Novomoskovsk is a large industrial city with Soviet architecture and the source of the Don
Plavsk is a pretty town with pre-revolutionary buildings


Other destinations

Epifan is a town with an ancient history and interesting churches
Krapivna - a former county town on the Upa River
Kulikovo Field is the famous place of the battle between the troops of Dmitry Donskoy and the Golden Horde. The field is located near the village of Monastyrshchino, near the museum.
Odoev - a former county town with an ancient monastery and a center for the production of Filimonov toys
Polenovo - the estate of V. Polenov, built according to the artist's own project
The Tula Zasek Reserve is defensive forests, beams and swamps on the border of the steppe and forest-steppe zones, which in the 15th-17th centuries were natural borders and served to prevent attacks by the steppe cavalry.
Yasnaya Polyana is the estate of Leo Tolstoy.

Pre-revolutionary urban development in the Tula region is not very well preserved, although authentic (including wooden) quarters can be found in Tula, Venev, Plavsk.
The forest-steppe landscapes are magnificent and diverse - from pensive silence and mysterious megalithic stones of the Kulikovo field to the rocks of the Ishutinsk settlement on the Beautiful Sword River.
Estate museums: the well-known Yasnaya Polyana, Tolstoy and Turgenev places in the vicinity of Cherny, the exquisitely original Polenovo and the Bunin Museum in Efremov.
Museum of Weapons in Tula.
Soviet architecture is widely represented in Tula and Novomoskovsk, as well as lesser known, but no less authentic industrial towns in the vicinity of Tula. Lipki is especially noteworthy, where a whole ensemble of post-war buildings, numerous sculptures and even original design elements have been preserved.
The Tula Kremlin is a fortress of the beginning of the 16th century.
The estates of the Tula region are mostly abandoned, but some are nevertheless restored and maintained in good condition: including the recreated estate in Bogoroditsk and the estate in Bogucharovo with a surreal bell tower - a copy of the Venetian campanile of San Marco.
Museum of Rear Admiral V.F. Rudnev in Savino, the village of Savino. ✉ ☎ 8 (48734) 4-15-29. Tue-Sun 09:00-17:00, open by appointment only. The main exposition and exhibition areas of the museum include two adjacent halls: a large round one and a small one, the so-called wardroom. The exposition is dedicated to the feat of the crews of the cruiser Varyag and the gunboat Koreets.


Getting here

By plane
There are no civil airports in the Tula region. The nearest airports are in Kaluga (international), Moscow (international) and Lipetsk (actually only domestic flights).

By train
The main railway lines Moscow-Orel-Kharkov and Moscow-Lipetsk pass through the Tula region, along which trains from Moscow and St. Petersburg follow to the cities of southern Russia and eastern Ukraine. With rare exceptions (see below), these trains only stop at Tula and/or Uzlovaya. Trains to Lipetsk also make a stop in Efremov.

By bus
Two main routes link Moscow with Tula and Novomoskovsk. From Tula, on average, buses leave for Kaluga once an hour, there is also a rare connection with the centers of neighboring regions and some remote cities (Tambov, Voronezh, Kharkov). Many cities in the region are connected by direct bus routes with Moscow.

By car
Federal highways M2 "Crimea" (Moscow, Orel, Kursk, Belgorod, Eastern Ukraine) and M4 "Don" (Moscow, Lipetsk, Voronezh, Rostov-on-Don), as well as interregional roads P132 (Kaluga, Ryazan) pass through the region. ) and 1Р92 (Kaluga, Oryol).


Getting around

By train
(Moscow) - Tula - Shchekino - Plavsk - Chern - (Eagle):
In the northern part of the region, it is served by Moscow trains to Tula (5 times a day), in addition, in recent years, some direct trains have been replaced by connecting Moscow-Serpukhov and Serpukhov-Tula (change in Serpukhov to an adjacent platform). To the south of Tula, suburban communication almost disappears: in addition to the only through train to Orel, two trains a day go to the Skuratovo station, and there another train appears to the same Orel. Long-distance trains do not usually stop at small stations. The exceptions are the Moscow-Oryol night train (No. 603M / 604M) and the Moscow-Kursk day train (No. 827Ch / 828Ch), which make stops in Shchekino, Plavsk and - only the Oryol train - in Cherni.
(Moscow) - Venev - Uzlovaya - Bogoroditsk - Efremov - (Lipetsk):
From Uzlovaya there are two commuter trains a day in northern and southern directions. Several long-distance trains (including daytime ones) make stops in Venev and Bogoroditsk. All trains stop at Efremov.
(Kaluga) - Aleksin - Tula - Uzlovaya - (Ryazhsk):
3-4 suburban trains per day on all sections except for the section east of Uzlovaya, where there is only one electric train, supplemented by the exotic Chelyabinsk-Brest train (No. 303B / No. 304B), which passes through the Tula region during the day and makes several intermediate stops.
(Kozelsk) - Suvorov - Tula:
From Tula, the only suburban train per day to the Cherepet station on the western border of the region, further towards Kozelsk, only the aforementioned No. 303B / No. 304B Chelyabinsk-Brest follows.
(Kozelsk) - Belev - Plavsk:
Three suburban trains a day between Kozelsk and Belev, there is no passenger traffic towards Plavsk.

By bus
Bus service is most developed in the industrial region around Tula: for example, flights to Novomoskovsk are more like city buses and depart every 10 minutes. There are many buses to Uzlovaya, Bogoroditsk, Shchekino, Yasnogorsk, Aleksin, Efremov. As elsewhere in Russia, the route network is radial; chord routes are rare.

By car
M2 "Crimea" (Moscow) - Tula - Plavsk - Chern - (Eagle). To Tula, it has four lanes and has the status of a highway (speed limit 110 km / h). The new Tula bypass breaks off somewhere in the middle of the road, resting on 1P132 without any clear signs. When driving in transit, it is better to turn to Tula, and then to the old bypass, passing closer to the city. South of Tula, the road is two-lane with a wide shoulder and practically four-lane traffic. Many settlements. Active traffic in the Shchekino area, after Plavsk the flow dries up. The condition of the asphalt is average.
M4 "Don" (Moscow) - Venev - Novomoskovsk - Bogoroditsk - Efremov - (Lipetsk). Throughout the Tula region, it has four lanes and has the status of a highway. Asphalt is in good condition. Lots of motels and roadside cafes.
P132 (Kaluga) - Tula - Venev - (Ryazan). Everywhere two-lane; between Tula and Venev is narrow and winding. The condition of the asphalt is acceptable, but there are usually bad sections.



Tula is famous for its figured gingerbread, which are traditionally dry and are more of an aesthetic value. A less well-known - but perhaps even more delicious - product is Belyov's apple marshmallow.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The region is located in the center of the East European Plain, occupying the northeastern part of the Central Russian Upland (altitudes up to 293 m), within the zone of broad-leaved forests and forest-steppe. The zone of deciduous forests occupies the western, northern, and northeastern regions. Forest-steppe zone - southern and eastern regions of the region. The boundary between them is the boundary of the distribution of chernozems. Karst formations (craters, dips) are characteristic. The length of the territory of the region from north to south is 200 km, from west to east - 190 km. Moscow time operates in the region, the time zone is UTC + 3.



By the nature of the surface, it is a gently undulating plain with prevailing heights from 240–260 m, crossed by river valleys, gullies and ravines. There are karst relief forms - sinkholes, hollows, underground voids, caves (near Venev) with long passages, beautiful high grottoes covered with calcite deposits. River valleys are widely developed (canyon-like, asymmetric, combined). The highest point of the surface - 293 meters - is located in the village of Raevo in the Teplo-Ogarevsky district, this is also the highest mark of the Central Russian Upland), the lowest natural mark - 108 meters - is located on the banks of the Oka River on the border with the Moscow Region.



The mineral resource base of the region consists of deposits of solid, mostly non-metallic, minerals of federal and regional significance. In terms of the number of types of minerals represented in the region, it occupies a leading position in the Central Federal District. Minerals of federal significance are represented by fuel and energy raw materials (lignite), metallic minerals (iron, strontium) and a wide range of non-metallic minerals.

Fuel and energy raw materials are represented by numerous deposits of brown coal (34 deposits). About half of the ore deposits of the Moscow region coal basin, estimated at 1.5 billion tons, are concentrated within the region (deposits near the settlements of Ageevskoye, Smorodinskoye, Donskoy, Shchekino and Venev). Of all the coal deposits, only two are in the distributed subsoil fund and have been listed in the category of mines under construction for many years. There is no coal mining in the region.

Metallic minerals are represented by the only practically exhausted deposit of brown iron ore, which at the moment is not of industrial interest, and the only deposit of strontium ores. The remaining non-metallic minerals are represented by ceramic and refractory raw materials (refractory clays, refractory clays, flux limestones), chemical raw materials (carbonate rocks for the chemical and for the sugar and pulp and paper industries), mineral fertilizers (phosphorites), building materials (building stones, cement raw materials), other minerals (gypsum, molding materials), salts, therapeutic mud and allophane-halloysite rocks.

Almost all types of raw materials in the region, with the exception of building stones (43 deposits), are represented by single deposits, which are involved in exploitation to varying degrees. For certain types of raw materials, the Tula region occupies a leading or one of the first places in Russia. Thus, the reserves of 4 gypsum deposits located in the region account for 45.54% of all reserves in Russia, and the production of gypsum in one of these deposits is 21.6% of the country's production, the reserves of the only deposit of carbonate raw materials for sugar and pulp and paper industries account for 13.0% of Russia's reserves, and production - 28.3%. All other types of raw materials are not in demand for various reasons.

Common minerals are represented in the region by 94 deposits of building materials and 3 deposits of peat. All of them, except for carbonate rocks for lime firing, are in demand - 58 deposits are located in the distributed subsoil fund.

There are 9 deposits of mineral underground waters in the Tula region, 7 are in the distributed subsoil fund, 2 are in the undistributed. According to the chemical composition, sulfate calcium, sulfate magnesium-calcium, hydrocarbonate-sulfate, magnesium-calcium, chloride and sodium are distinguished. The oldest drinking and balneological resort is Krainka in the Suvorov region.



The climate is temperate continental, characterized by moderately cold winters with frequent thaws and warm summers. The average annual temperature is +5 °C (standard deviation is 11 °C), the average temperature in January is −10 °C, in July +20 °C. The duration of the period with positive temperatures is 220-225 days. Climatically, the region can be divided into two parts: the northwestern, which is characterized by slightly more moisture, milder winters and cooler summers, and the southeastern, characterized by less moisture, hotter summers and colder winters. Annual rainfall varies from 575 mm in the northwest to 470 mm in the southeast. During the frost-free period, 70% of precipitation falls (maximum in July). By the end of winter, the thickness of the snow cover reaches 0.3-0.7 m, the soils freeze to a depth of 0.6-0.9 m.

The radiation balance for the Tula region is about 40 kcal/cm2. Its territory is located in a zone where the distribution of heat for evaporation and heating is uniform. To the north, most of the solar radiation is spent on evaporation, to the south - on heating.

Most often (60%) a year winds blow from the continent and bring the corresponding air masses, the remaining share (40%) falls on the sea. Air masses formed over the Atlantic Ocean bring cloudy and rainy weather in summer, and thaws and snowfalls in winter. Cold comes from the Arctic, which in winter is expressed in increased frosts, in transitional seasons in frosts, returns of cold weather.

There are seven meteorological stations in the region (Tula, Efremov, Volovo, Uzlovaya, Suvorov, Plavsk, Aleksin) of Roshydromet.



1,682 rivers and rivers flow in the region, both constantly flowing and drying up, with a total length of 10,963 km. Rivers with a length of less than 5 km predominate, which is about 77% of the total number of watercourses. Most of the rivers (80%) belong to the Oka basin - the largest and only navigable river in the region, a small part (20%) - to the Don basin. The Oka flows along the western and northwestern outskirts of the region; the main tributaries are Upa, Osetr, Zusha. In the eastern part of the region there are sources and a section of the upper reaches of the Don River; its main tributaries are the Nepryadva and the Beautiful Mecha. The average density of the river network is 0.4 km/km². The total volume of surface water is 1.74 km³.

The rivers are fed mainly by snow (60-80%) with the participation of rain and ground feeding. All rivers of the region are characterized by significant seasonal fluctuations in the water level and uneven flow throughout the seasons. All rivers of the region belong to the flat type. They have a calm current and a small fall. This is due to the fact that the height difference between the sources and mouths of the rivers is insignificant. The most full-flowing rivers are in spring, when they provide about 75% of the annual flow. In summer, despite the increase in precipitation, the flow decreases sharply, the rivers become shallow, and the smallest rivers often dry up completely.

Almost all the few lakes in the region by their origin are either river-type lakes or karst-type lakes. The largest of them are Shilovskoye and Zhupel, of karst origin. The largest reservoirs in the region are reservoirs, which were created mainly for the water supply of industrial enterprises - Pronskoye, Shatskoye, Cherepetskoye, Shchekinskoye and Lyubovskoye. Artificial ponds are widespread, many of which were created in the 17th-18th centuries at metallurgical plants.

Floodplain swamps on the territory of the Tula region occupy the largest area - up to 85% of the total area of the region's swamps. Active swamping of the floodplains and the formation of swamps is typical for the Don and its tributary Nepryadva, as well as for the Upa, Oka and some of their tributaries. The swamps are fed by wedged groundwater, as well as alluvial (less often - deluvial) waters.



Occupying a transitional position from the forest to the steppe zone, the Tula region is characterized by a complex soil cover. In the zone of deciduous forests, gray forest soils predominate (33.9% of the territory), which occupy wide watershed spaces. They occur mainly in the central, northern, northeastern, western and southwestern parts of the region - in the basin of the Oka River and its tributaries: Upa, Vashany, Skniga, Besputy, Osetra. These soils were formed on heavy mantle and moraine loams. The humus content in them is 2.3-6%, the thickness of the humus layer is 25-45 cm.

Soddy-podzolic soils (16%) are confined to the right bank of the Oka and its tributary, the Upa, mainly in the western and northwestern parts of the region. The humus reserve in these soils is 1.2-3.4%, the thickness of the humus layer is 15-23 cm. Depending on the degree of manifestation of the podzol-forming process, sod-podzolic soils are divided into 3 subtypes: - strongly podzolic. The latter are of limited distribution in the region. On the border with soddy-podzolic soils, light gray and gray forest soils are common, on the border with chernozems - gray and dark gray.

In the forest-steppe zone, the predominant type of soils are podzolized and leached chernozems (46.4%), medium-humus (humus content from 6 to 9%), medium-thick (humus horizon 60-80 cm). Their soil-forming rock is carbonate loess-like loams. The most valuable are the soils of the central floodplain (2.7% of the area), in which the content of humus reaches 7%. Bog and semi-bog soils are also found in river floodplains. Soil asymmetry is observed in the distribution of the main zonal soils of the Tula region: soils change not from north to south, but from west, northwest to east.

One of the negative processes for the soils of the region is erosion. Its manifestation largely depends on the degree and nature of economic development and land use. As a result of human activity and geological processes (mainly water activity), about 43% of the total area of agricultural land in the Tula region is currently subject to intense erosion. In the Tula region, about 88% of soils are acidic, of which 72% are agricultural land. All these soils are in dire need of liming, but in recent years, work to improve soil fertility has practically ceased. Due to a sharp decrease in the volume of organic fertilizers, the rate of decrease in the humus content in the soil has increased significantly.

In recent years, the area of agricultural land has decreased by 19 thousand hectares, the area of arable land - by 29 thousand hectares. The main reasons for the decrease in the area of agricultural land are land acquisition for non-agricultural purposes, overgrowing with shrubs and forests, and soil erosion. Currently, anti-erosion measures in the region are carried out in insignificant volumes. Exogenous geological processes are quite widely manifested on the territory of the region. The dissolution of limestone layers causes karst disturbances in the relief. Cases of soil subsidence in the locations of old coal mines have become more frequent.

As a result of the Chernobyl disaster, soils on the area (in thousand hectares) were contaminated with cesium-137: agricultural land, in total - 870.2, including arable land - 729.9; hayfields and pastures - 140.3. Like radiocesium, the distribution of heavy metals in soils is uneven, there is spotting or a kind of mosaic, expressed in the alternation of areas with different contents. Of all heavy metals, the highest concentrations were noted for lead, copper, zinc, vanadium, manganese, arsenic and some other elements.



In the flora of the Tula region, there are more than 1420 species of vascular plants, of which about 1020 are native. The general list of flora objects listed in the Red Book of the Tula Region consists of 293 species, including 158 species of vascular plants, 48 species of moss, 34 species of lichens, and 53 species of fungi. Specially protected natural areas in the Tula region include 53 objects of regional importance, including 50 natural monuments, 1 nature reserve, 1 natural park and 1 specially protected natural area of local importance (Malinovaya Zaseka). In addition, on the territory of the region there is the "Likhvinsky cut" - a natural monument of the ice age deposits. The total area of specially protected natural areas, including protected zones, is 11,208.10 ha.

The diversity of the vegetation cover is determined both by the landscape features and the position of the region at the junction of two natural zones - the forest zone (broad-leaved forest subzone in the western, northern and northeastern regions) and the forest-steppe zone (southern and eastern regions). Forests occupy about 386.6 thousand hectares or 14.3% of the territory, 283.0 thousand hectares of forests make up the state forest fund, performing sanitary and recreational functions. 27.12 million m of wood is suitable for exploitation. The estimated cutting area is 471.8 thousand m and is used by 25 - 30%.

In the center of the region, within the basins of the Plava, Zushi, Upa, there is a forest-steppe region in which all watershed areas are plowed up, and the forests are small in size and are found mainly on the slopes of ravines in the form of birch groves or oak forests. Due to livestock grazing, shrubs are practically absent, but its fauna is rich in plants of chernozem soils: leafless iris, spring adonis, kachim highest, hairy holly, hairy feather grass, spirea, perennial flax, etc.

On the border with the forest-steppe there is a strip of broad-leaved forests, known as the "Tula Zasek", which are classified as especially valuable objects of nature with the appropriate forest management regime in them. In the XVI-XVII centuries, the notches served as the protection of the southern borders of the Russian state and were under special protection. The predominant type of vegetation in this area is the common oak, common ash, small-leaved linden, pine, birch, aspen, poplar, maple, elm, and others.

Coniferous forests are widespread in the north-west of the region. They are characterized by sandy soils in river valleys, for example, Aleksin-Bor near the Oka River, covering an area of 790 hectares. Among the shrubs in these areas, juniper is common, and there are also lingonberries, blueberries, and blueberries along the edges of the swamps.

In the south-east of the region, massifs of broad-leaved forests (mainly oak forests) have been preserved in the basin of the Mokraya Tabola River and along the banks of the Beautiful Mecha. This area is characterized by plant species distributed on rocky and rocky-scree outcrops of Devonian limestones: Robertov's golokuchnik, protozoa protozoan, narrow-leaved saltwort, squat skullcap, Alaunian cotoneaster, Don violet, silky wormwood. In areas with a close occurrence of groundwater enriched with salts, edible watercress, strawberry clover and sword grass are common.

In the eastern regions, the landscape of which was transformed as a result of the extraction of coal and other minerals from the coal basin near Moscow, almost no natural complexes have been preserved.


Animal world

The Tula region is located on the border of the forest and forest-steppe zones, which determines the features of the formation of its animal world. However, at present, most of the natural habitats of the Tula region have been heavily modified by humans, which could not but have an impact on the local fauna.

Wolf, fox, elk, wild boar, roe deer, otter, polecat, hare, squirrel, ground squirrel, European mink, Canadian beaver, red evening and other species of animals are found on the territory of the region. The region is inhabited by 200-250 species of birds, 163 species of which nest in the region, eight species are found only in winter, 60 species during migration and seasonal migrations. The most common are rooks, starlings, swallows, swifts, sparrows, ducks, waders, partridges, magpies. In the reservoirs of the region there are 38 species of fish, of which the most common are roach, perch, bream, pike, burbot, white crucian carp, red crucian carp. Of the reptiles, there are the viper, and the copperhead.

The Red Book of Animals of the Tula Region (2013) includes 13 species of mammals, 56 species of birds, 4 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 4 species of fish and 2 species of cyclostomes, as well as 202 species of invertebrates. At the same time, 39 species belong to the objects of the animal world listed in the Red Book of Russia.

The area of forest hunting grounds in recent years has increased from 381.5 thousand hectares to 394.2 thousand hectares due to the overgrowth of previously cultivated fields, pastures and hayfields with trees and shrubs. The leading objects of sports and amateur hunting in the Tula region include 9 species of animals and birds - these are elk, wild boar, European roe deer, fox, European hare, white hare, woodcock, gray partridge, ducks. Public hunting grounds include 30 hunting grounds located on the territory of 17 districts of the region, in which individuals have the right to freely stay for the purpose of hunting.



The Tula region is one of the most industrial in the central region of Russia. The region is characterized by a high level of air pollution, the main part of the flowing rivers belongs to the classes of "polluted" and "dirty", severe pollution of the territory after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the state of about a third of all soils in the region is close to catastrophic. According to the environmental organization "Green Patrol", a number of cities in the Tula region are among the most unfavorable cities in the Russian Federation.

The Tula region, as a result of radioactive fallout after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, fell into the zone of contamination with radionuclides, the half-life of which is up to 30 years. Of all the precipitated radionuclides, the main contribution to the formation of the radiation situation was made in the initial period by short-lived iodine-131, and in the subsequent period by cesium-134, cesium-137 and, to a lesser extent, strontium-90. A radioactive cloud spilled over 2036 settlements in Arsenyevsky, Plavsky, Shchekinsky, Kireevsky, Teplo-Ogaryovsky, Uzlovsky, Belevsky and Novomoskovsky districts. The total population of the Tula region, living on the territory contaminated with cesium-137, amounted to over 900 thousand people (an absolute record for Russia). At present, the indicators of the radiation background are at the level of the average values of long-term observations within the limits of natural fluctuations characteristic of the middle latitudes of the European territory of Russia and average 0.09 - 0.15 µSv/h.

As of January 1, 2021, the amount of emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air from stationary sources amounted to 116 thousand tons, which is 30.5% less than in 2010. The largest amount of harmful emissions is provided by ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises. The second place in terms of the scale of release of harmful substances into the atmosphere is occupied by chemical industry enterprises. Mechanical engineering, thermal power engineering and pollution from vehicles are in third position. The most common substances in the list of air pollution sources in the Tula region are gaseous substances: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and hydrocarbons.

The largest amount of pollutants enters the atmosphere with emissions from industrial enterprises of the urban district of the city of Tula - 60.76 thousand tons, which is 52.5% of the total emissions. The following in terms of emissions are the urban district of the city of Novomoskovsk - 13.54 thousand tons (11.7% of the total emission) and the urban district of the working settlement of Novogurovsky - 12.0 thousand tons (10.4% of the total emission). The largest sources of emissions into the atmosphere are: Tulachermet JSC, Shchekinoazot JSC, HeidelbergCement Rus LLC, Cherepetskaya State District Power Plant named after D. G. Zhimerin branch of JSC INTER RAO - Electric Power Generation, JSC NAK Azot, PJSC " Kosogorsky metallurgical plant.

Within the framework of the national project "Ecology" in the Tula region, four main programs are being implemented aimed at eliminating the already accumulated environmental damage, creating an industrial complex for processing, recycling and disposing of municipal solid waste, protecting forests and creating specially protected natural areas. The amount of recycled and neutralized production and consumption waste from 2010 to 2021 increased by 7.7 times - from 1066 to 8211 thousand tons. The discharge of polluted wastewater over the same period decreased by 1.5 times - from 196 to 135 million m³. Agreements have been concluded with large industrial enterprises on the implementation of environmental protection measures to minimize the discharge of waste into the environment. In addition, activities are planned in the Tula region to clear the entire Don River, which will be completed in 2030. The work began in 2019 and the clearing of the Oka River in Belev and the Upa River in Odoev has already been completed. It is planned to clear the Upa River in Tula, raise the level of the channel and build new treatment facilities.



Ancient history

The early settlement of the territory of the Tula region is associated with the end of the Paleolithic (about the 10th millennium BC). Also found are Mesolithic (VIII-VI millennium BC) and Neolithic (V-III millennium BC) sites, as well as Bronze Age settlements (III-II millennium BC).

In the early Iron Age (I millennium BC), the tribes of the Upper Oka archaeological culture appeared.

Over time, people from the territory of the river basin. The gums influenced the development of the local population and formed a new culture by the 4th century AD. e. "Moshchinskaya" (the name is given in the place in the Kaluga region, where the settlement was first excavated) - in terms of language, its representatives were, in all likelihood, the Balts. The easternmost grouping of the Balts, which occupied in the IV-VII centuries. n. e. the basin of the upper Oka and the upper reaches of the Dnieper, in ancient times it was called golyad.

To replace the Balts around the 8th century AD. e. The Slavic tribe of the Vyatichi came to the Tula region. Like the golyad, the Vyatichi were good metallurgists and blacksmiths. Archaeologists discovered sites (VII-IX centuries, mainly in the southern part of the settlement of the Slavic ethnic group), where the number of stoves reached 25-30. Vyatichi became part of the Old Russian state. At the beginning of the 10th century (907), the Vyatichi took part in the campaign of Prince Oleg against Tsargrad.

In 910-915, the Suprut settlement on the Upa River was destroyed. In 981 and 982, Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich fought with the Vyatichi. A century later (1082-1083), Vladimir Monomakh went “to Vyatichi”, which he himself mentioned in his teaching to his sons.


Fragmentation period

After the collapse of the united Old Russian state, the Vladimir-Suzdal and Chernigov princes entered the struggle for the lands of the Vyatichi. Negotiations with the elders of the Vyatichi (a tribe that has preserved the remnants of the tribal organization of society for so long) are conducted by the founder of Moscow, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. But in the end, the territory of the region goes to the Chernigov princes. At this time (XII century) the Christianization of the region began. The pagans did not accept the preaching of the monk Kuksha and killed him. The city of Lopasnya stood on the border of Suzdal and Chernihiv lands. Within the borders of the Chernigov principality, by the middle of the 12th century, the specific principalities of Belevskoe, Novosilskoe, Odoevskoe, Tarusskoe stood out. Aleksin belonged to the Tarusa principality from the end of the 13th century. The structure of the same principality included the specific principality of Volkonskoe (From the ancient family of which, by the way, the mother of Leo Tolstoy came).

The smoothing of tribal features led to the disappearance of the tribal name Vyatichi by the 13th century.

Tula in the middle of the XIV century was "in charge of the Baskaks" of the Tatar queen Taidula.

In 1380, in the southeastern part of the modern region, at the confluence of the Nepryadva River with the Don, the historical Battle of Kulikovo took place, which marked the beginning of the liberation of Russian lands from the Horde yoke. Separated from Chernigov, the Belevsky Principality gravitated towards Moscow, but later it went to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Russian, Zhemoytsky and others.

In 1503, the Tula lands were annexed to the Moscow Grand Duchy.


As part of the Moscow principality

In 1382, in a treaty charter between the Moscow prince Dmitry Donskoy and the Ryazan prince Oleg, Tula belonged to the Moscow principality. But for a long time the princes of Ryazan still claimed it, to which after half a century (in 1432) she moved away. Only the hoards of Horde coins (they were found in the vicinity of Tula) and, perhaps, the names of ancient villages: Baskakovo, Yakshino, Yamnoye, remind of the cruel conquerors.

In the XVI-XVII centuries, the Tula land was the outskirts of the Muscovite state, which was constantly subjected to Crimean-Nogai raids from the south. To protect against these raids, the Great Barrier was organized, which included 40 cities. Among them, one can distinguish Likhvin, Belev, Venev, Krapivna, Odoev, who had fortifications even before the 16th century. They became strongholds with the defense system of the Zasechnaya line.


Ancient cities of the region

Tula was first mentioned in the Nikon chronicle under 1146, when describing the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav on the way from Kozelsk to Ryazan. However, at the present stage, researchers argue that the first mention, more reliable, can be considered an agreement between the Moscow prince Dmitry Donskoy and the Ryazan prince Oleg of 1382.

In 1507, the Brief Cyril-Beloozersky chronicler reports: "A stone city was set up on Tula." However, in reality, in 1507, an oak fortress (fort) was founded, and in 1514, inside this fortress, the “stone city” was the Tula Kremlin, which was built by 1520.

In the 12th century, the city of Dedoslavl appeared (presumably the modern village of Dedilovo in the Kireevsky district) - a fortified craft and trade center, a gathering place for the elders of the Vyatichi.

Belev was first mentioned in the Ipatiev Chronicle in 1147. In the 16th century, under the specific prince Vasily Romanovich, an oak fortress was built, on the approaches to which the Oka with scree and a deep artificial ditch served as a natural barrier.

Aleksin was founded in the 13th century (in 1236 it was called the city of Metropolitan Peter) on the right elevated bank of the Oka, on both sides of the river Mordovka flowing into it.

Venev under the name of the village was mentioned in the XIV century, and as a city it was first mentioned in the annals in 1494. In 1571, the oldest description of the fortress was compiled, which testified to the military purpose of the fortified settlement.

Likhvin has been known since 1565. According to legend, it existed before the invasion of the Tatars in the 13th century, who, for desperate resistance, gave it the name Dashing. At the end of the 16th century, it was part of the Zasechnaya line, it was the center of the Likhvinsky Zasek. The city was surrounded by an oak wall and four blind towers. Likhvin was renamed Chekalin in 1944.

Krapivna was first mentioned in the will of Dmitry Donskoy, who gave it to his wife Evdokia. It is known that from the end of the 16th century Krapivna became one of the fortresses of the Zasechnaya line. In 1641, the Efremov fortress was built south of Epifan.

Bogoroditsk was founded in the spring of 1663 as a fortress to protect against the raids of the Crimean Tatars.


As part of the Russian Empire

According to the first division of Russia into provinces in 1708, the current cities of the Tula province were distributed as follows: Tula, Aleksin, Bogoroditsk, Venev, Epifan, Kashira and Krapivna entered the Moscow province, Belev and Novosil - in Kiev, Efremov and Chern - in Azov and Odoev in the Smolensk province. In 1719, the Tula province was formed with the cities of Tula, Aleksin, Bogoroditsky, Venev, Epifan and Krapivnaya; the cities of Belev, Novosil and Chern entered the Oryol province, Efremov entered the Yelets province, Kashira entered the Moscow province, and Odoev withdrew to the Kaluga province.

On March 9, 1777, the Tula province was formed. The governor of Kaluga, Krechetnikov, took up the organization of the province. On September 19, 1777, the Tula vicegerency was formed. In 1796 the governorship was abolished, but the province was preserved. The Tula Regional Museum of Local Lore has a special boundary sign installed on the border of the Moscow and Tula provinces, on which the date is indicated: “1777”.

The industrial development of the region began in the 17th century. In 1694-1695, the Tula blacksmith Nikita Demidov built his first ironworks at the mouth of the Tulitsa River. This was a big step in the development of metallurgical business in Tula. The city became one of the centers of Russian metallurgy and metalworking. In 1712, by decree of Peter I, the Imperial Tula Arms Factory was founded in Tula, which produced first-class weapons for the Russian army.

At the end of the 18th century, the production of samovars, gingerbread, and harmonica was developed in Tula.

With the commissioning of the Malevskaya Mine (south of Bogoroditsk) in 1855, regular coal mining began in the Moscow Region Basin, the oldest coal-producing region in Russia, whose deposits were discovered as early as 1722 by serfs I. Palitsyn and M. Titov. The development of industry in the region was facilitated by the construction of the Moscow-Kursk railway in 1864-1868 and the Syzran-Vyazma railway in 1870-1874.


Soviet period

By the Decree of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee “On the formation on the territory of the RSFSR of administrative-territorial associations of regional and regional significance” dated January 14, 1929, from October 1, 1929, the Tula province was abolished. The Tula District was formed as part of the Central Industrial Region (since June 3, 1929 - the Moscow Region) with the center in the city of Moscow. On July 23, 1930, the Tula District was abolished, and its districts became directly subordinate to the Moscow Region. The Tula region was formed on September 26, 1937, when the Moscow region was subdivided.

During the Great Patriotic War on the territory of the Tula region from September to December 1941 there were fierce battles with the Nazi invaders as part of the Tula defensive operation. For the courage and steadfastness shown by the defenders of Tula during the heroic defense of the city, which played an important role in the defeat of enemy troops near Moscow, Tula was awarded the honorary title of "Hero City".

On December 27, 1957, the Tula region was awarded the Order of Lenin for the successes achieved in increasing production and delivering agricultural products to the state.

In the postwar years, the machine-building, chemical, metallurgical, and coal industries were further developed in the Tula region. Research institutes and design bureaus were established.

In 1986, the Tula region suffered greatly as a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The lands were contaminated with radioactive fallout and became unsuitable for agricultural use on an area of 11.8 thousand km², which amounted to about half (46.8%) of the region's territory. The density of radioactive contamination of the soil with caesium-137 averaged from 1 to 15 Ci/km². 27% of the lands of forest plots as part of the lands of the forest fund were subjected to radioactive contamination. The area of forest contamination with cesium-137 radionuclides is 78.388 thousand ha. According to some reports, the city of Plavsk still has an increased radiation background of about 20 microroentgens per hour.

In 1997, 1306 settlements of the Tula region were within the boundaries of radioactive contamination zones due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. In 2015, in the Tula region, the number of settlements within the boundaries of the zones of radioactive contamination decreased to 1215, of which 27 are located in the zone of residence with the right to resettlement and 1188 - in the zone with a preferential socio-economic status.



General information

The population of the Tula region, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, as of January 1, 2022 (taking into account the results of the 2021 census) was 1,479,294 people, including urban - 1,097,096 people (73.3%), rural - 399,594 people ( 26.7%. The female population of the total population of the region was 820,019 people (54.8%), and the male population was 676,671 people (46.2%). The population density is 55.7 people / km² (excluding the results of the 2021 census).

The Tula-Novomoskovsk agglomeration was formed in the region, with a population of more than 1 million people. There are 19 cities in the region, the largest of which, in addition to Tula and Novomoskovsk, are cities with a population of over 50 thousand people: Donskoy, Aleksin, Shchekino.

In the national composition, the absolute majority are Russians (94.10%), and the remaining groups are represented mainly by Armenians (0.70%), Tajiks (0.46%), Ukrainians (0.44%), Uzbeks (0.39% ), Azerbaijanis (0.33%) and Tatars (0.31%).

As of January 1, 2022, 5,379 disabled children and 138,085 disabled people over 18 live in the Tula region, which is about 10.1% of the total population of the region. The number of pensioners in the region for the same period is 508.7 thousand people, that is, 35.5% of the total population, the average size of pensions for which is 16,655.5 rubles. In the Tula region, since 2013, the number of orphans and children left without parental care has decreased by 1.6 times, and as of January 1, 2022, 3,211 people live in the region. The share of children in this category in the total child population in the Tula region at the beginning of 2022 is 1.32%. As of January 1, 2022, 87.5% of orphans out of the total number of children in this category are being raised in foster families. The transfer of children for upbringing in families contributes to a reduction in the number of children registered in the state data bank on children, which has decreased by 3.6 times since 2013.

Until 2018, in the Tula region, there was a migration increase in the population from the subjects of Russia and the CIS countries, which by 2022 began to decline annually. In 2021, 24,616 migrants arrived in the region, including 9,246 from neighboring countries (Tajikistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Uzbekistan).

The current age and sex structure of the population in the Tula region can be assessed as uniquely bad in terms of its impact on demographic dynamics. This uniqueness lies in the fact that it simultaneously contributes to a decrease in the number of births (the active reproductive age includes small generations born in the 1990s) and an increase in the number of deaths (the age limit of 75 years in the coming years will be overcome by relatively large generations of those born in the post-war years ), that is, it negatively affects the natural population growth on both sides. In addition to the demographic consequences, the increase in the number and proportion of the elderly population increases the burden on health, social security and social services.

Of the urban districts, the relatively young age structure of the population is in Donskoy, and of the municipal districts, in Plavsky and Chernsky. On the contrary, there are high rates of population aging in Aleksin and Efremov, Dubensky, Kimovsky, Kurkinsky and especially Suvorovsky districts.


Vital movement of the population

The Tula region is one of the regions with a high natural population decline, which is primarily due to the age structure of the population: a third of the region's residents are of retirement age. From 2010 to 2021, the population of the region decreased by 117.7 thousand people (7.6%). The migration increase, which at the end of 2021 amounted to 3,951 people, does not compensate for the natural population decline, which amounted to 20.5 thousand people over the same period.

The overall birth rate in the Tula region has been declining in recent years, both under the influence of a decrease in age and total fertility rates, and due to a decrease in the proportion of women of active reproductive age. At the end of 2021, the birth rate in the region was 7.0 births per 1,000 inhabitants.

The region is characterized by a high mortality rate against the background of low life expectancy. Life expectancy at birth in 2021 is 69 years, with males at 64 and females at 74. This indicator has significantly decreased compared to 2019, when life expectancy was 72.2 years. The number of registered deaths in 2021 was 21.3 per 1,000 inhabitants, which resulted in a natural population decline of −14.2 per 1,000 inhabitants.

The main causes of death, as in the rest of Russia, are diseases of the circulatory system - this is about half of all registered deaths (Tula region 43.5%, Russia - 46.7%). The Tula region is one of the five regions with the highest mortality from oncology, and the region is also characterized by relatively high mortality rates from diseases of the endocrine system, respiratory organs, digestive organs and from external causes (traffic injuries, accidental alcohol poisoning, suicides). In the Tula region, as in the whole country, the proportion of the population of working age continues to decline and the proportion of the population younger and older than working age is increasing. Predictive calculations based on the hypothesis of maintaining the same age-specific fertility, mortality and migration growth rates show that under these conditions, the proportion of the working-age population may decrease by 2025 to 52.6%. According to the operational headquarters, 5,266 people died from COVID-19 in the Tula region during the pandemic.

In 2021, 8828 marriages were registered in the Tula region, which is 127.2% more than in 2020 (6935). The number of divorces was 6176 and exceeded the figures of the previous year by 110.8% (5573).



The total workforce (15 years and older) of the Tula region in 2021 amounted to 794.2 thousand people, which is 14.3 thousand people less than in 2010. The largest share of employees is employed in manufacturing (22.3%), wholesale and retail trade (17.9%), construction (8.2%) and education (7.6%).

The number of unemployed according to the sample labor force survey at the end of 2021 amounted to 30.1 thousand people. This indicator decreased by 16.9 thousand people (36%) compared to 2010, however, the situation that developed in 2020 in connection with the introduction of restrictive measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 had a negative impact on the labor market of the region and led to including a slight increase in the number of unemployed citizens. In order to ensure the employment of unemployed citizens in the region, active employment programs are being developed and implemented in accordance with the state program of the Tula region "Promotion of employment in the Tula region".

The number of unemployed citizens registered with the employment authorities of the Tula region, as of the end of 2021, amounted to 4 thousand people, the level of registered unemployment is 0.5% of the workforce. The need for workers, declared by employers to the employment authorities, amounted to 27.8 thousand units of vacancies (19.6 thousand units (70.5%) - for working professions), the coefficient of tension in the labor market was 0.2 people per 1 vacancy, which varies from 0.03 in the Shchekinsky district to 1.5 in the Arsenevsky district.

The largest number of vacancies in 2021 was announced for such working professions as “seamstress”, “car driver” (of various categories), “food seller”, “stacker-packer”, “fitter”, “cook”, “electric and gas welder”, "locksmith", "operator of pig-breeding complexes and mechanisms", "operator of mechanized and automated warehouses", "tractor driver of agricultural production", "electrician for the repair and maintenance of electrical equipment", "turner", "mason", "boiler house operator", "communication operator", "postman", "storekeeper", "cashier". At the same time, professions that did not require qualifications were in demand: “cleaner of industrial and office premises”, “auxiliary worker”, “loader”, “janitor”, “territory cleaner”, “fish processor”, “picker” and others.

In the Tula region, the pace of the aging of the labor force is accelerating: the small generation of the 1990s and 2000s is entering working age, and the working life of older generations is being extended due to the increase in the retirement age. As a result, the region is expected to see a gradual decline in the labor force.

From October 1, 2021, all public sector employees have their wages indexed by 3.9%. In terms of wages for all categories of workers, the Tula region generally occupies 4-6 places among the constituent entities of the Central Federal District. As of January 1, 2022, the average per capita cash income of the population of the region was 31,815.9 rubles, and the average monthly nominal accrued wages was 44,725.5 rubles. In August 2022, the Tula region took 16th place in the ranking of regions in the labor market among 85 constituent entities of Russia. From January 1, 2023, the subsistence minimum in the Tula region per capita is 14,231 rubles.


Demographic policy

To improve the demographic situation and the standard of living of the population of the Tula region, a social program "People: the quality of daily life" was adopted, which included five projects. The My Family Center project helps families find jobs, choose the best way to borrow money, confirm their right to a benefit or subsidy, improve their living conditions, and resolve conflict situations. Within the framework of the project "My Opportunities" they provide assistance to all categories of people with disabilities. The Tula Longevity project provides assistance to older people in resolving difficult life situations. The Migration and Employment project offers a range of services and solutions for the employment of residents of the region and migrants. The pilot project "Reproductive Health" provides for combining the efforts of health care and social protection systems to create a comfortable family-oriented environment in the region. The project includes medical preventive measures for reproductive disorders and social support for low-income families.

As part of the implementation of the program "Providing additional resettlement to the Russian Federation of compatriots living abroad" in 2021, 8.7 thousand compatriots arrived in the Tula region (of which 3.4 thousand program participants and 5.3 thousand members of their families).