Ermak Travel Guide

 

Tula

Tula

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transportation

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

Interesting information and useful tips

 

Description of Tula

Tula - a city in Russia, the administrative center of the Tula region and the city district of Tula. Hero City (since 1976). Tula is located in the north of the Central Russian Upland on the bank of the Upa River, 193 km south of Moscow. The length of the city from north to south is 30 km, from west to east - 25 km.

According to the results of the All-Russian competition for the title of “The most comfortable urban (rural) settlement of Russia” held in 2014, Tula ranked third in the category “Urban settlements (urban districts), which are administrative centers (capitals) of the subjects of the Russian Federation”.

Tula is first mentioned in the Nikon chronicle of the XVI century under the year 1146. The cultural heritage sites located on the territory of the city are of great value and are an integral part of the world cultural heritage. On the territory of Tula there are more than 300 objects of cultural heritage: these are monuments of architecture and town planning, history, works of monumental art, archeology. In the tourism sector, Tula is known in three directions, rooted in the history of the city: arms, samovar and gingerbread. Each of them is represented in the city by the Museum of Weapons, one of the largest in Russia, the Museum of samovars and the Museum of Tula gingerbread. Also the hallmark of the city is the Tula Kremlin, the oldest building of the city, a monument of architecture of the XVI century. The house-museum of Leo Tolstoy Yasnaya Polyana is located 14 km south-west of Tula. It is a unique center of historical and cultural life in Russia, associated with the name of the greatest writer and thinker of the 19th — 20th centuries.

 

 

 

 

History of Tula

Tula was first mentioned in the Nikon Chronicle in 1146. As the chronicle was written in the 16th century, the date is disputed. The first confirmed mention of Tula dates to 1382.

In the Middle Ages, Tula was a minor fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan. As soon as it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a brick citadel, or kremlin, was constructed in 1514–1521. It was a key fortress of the Great Abatis Belt and successfully resisted a siege by the Tatars in 1552. In 1607, Ivan Bolotnikov and his supporters seized the citadel and withstood a four-month siege by the Tsar's army. In the 18th century, some parts of the Kremlin walls were demolished. Despite its archaic appearance, the five-domed Assumption Cathedral in the Kremlin was built as late as 1764.

In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades later, Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking center of Eastern Europe. The oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, and Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was also established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the center of their manufacture to the Urals, Tula continued as a center of heavy industry, particularly in the manufacture of matériel.

In the 1890s, Ivan Savelyev, a medical orderly, became the founder of social democracy in Tula and set up a workers' study circle.

The city grew rapidly in the early 20th century as a result of arms production during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Tula's factories also manufactured weapons for the Red Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921.

During the Great Patriotic War (World War II) of 1941–1945, the city was important in the production of armaments. Tula became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between Friday, October 24 and December 5, 1941. According to Erik Durschmied in The Weather Factor, The Day The Panzers Froze, 5th December 1941, one General Reached the South Western Outskirts of Tula on 29th-30th October 1941. The heavily fortified city held out, however, and Guderian's Second Panzer Army was stopped near Tula. The city secured the southern flank during the Battle of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976. It is home to the Klokovo air base and the Tula Arms Plant.

 

 

 


 

Transportation

 

 

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

 

 

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

 

 

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

 

 

Interesting information and useful tips