Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Nizhny Novgorod region (until October 22, 1990 - Gorky region) is a subject of the Russian Federation in the center of the European part of Russia. It is part of the Volga Federal District. The administrative center is Nizhny Novgorod.

One of the largest regions of Central Russia.

Area - 76,624 km², length from southwest to northeast - more than 400 km.

Population - 3,081,817 people. (2023). Population density: 40.22 people/km² (2023), proportion of urban population: 80.64% (2022).

Borders: in the north-west with the Kostroma region, in the north-east - with the Kirov region, in the east - with the republics of Mari El and Chuvashia, in the south - with the Republic of Mordovia, in the south-west - with the Ryazan region, in the west - with the Vladimir and Ivanovo regions.

Vehicle code - 52, 152, 252.



Nizhny Novgorod






Kitezh/Lake Svetloyar



Other destinations

On the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod region there are unique natural sites: the Kerzhensky reserve, the Ichalkovsky reserve, the natural monuments of Lake Vad and Lake Svetloyar, into the waters of which, according to legend, Kitezh-grad sank in the first half of the 14th century.

On the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod region there are unique natural sites: the Kerzhensky reserve, the Ichalkovsky reserve, the natural monuments of Lake Vad and Lake Svetloyar, into the waters of which, according to legend, Kitezh-grad sank in the first half of the 14th century.

In the Nizhny Novgorod region there is Boldino, the family estate of the Pushkins, in which the great Russian poet A.S. Pushkin lived and worked.

At the mouth of the Kerzhenets River is the Zheltovodsk Makariev Monastery, founded in the first half of the 15th century by the Venerable Wonderworker Makariy.

The Diveyevo Women's Monastery is a place of Orthodox pilgrimage, as a monastery under the patronage of the Holy Wonderworker Seraphim of Sarov, whose relics are in the Trinity Cathedral of the monastery.

Near the city of Dzerzhinsk on the left bank of the Oka there is a unique architectural structure: a 128-meter steel hyperboloid openwork tower, built by engineer Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1929. This is one of two high-rise multi-section hyperboloid structures preserved in Russia, the second - the famous Shukhov TV tower - stands on Shabolovka, in Moscow. The Oka Tower served as one of the supports of the unique 110 kilovolt transmission line crossing of the Nizhny Novgorod State District Power Plant across the Oka River.

The city of Arzamas is rich in its history and architectural monuments. The most famous is the Resurrection Cathedral, which is located on Cathedral Square. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, there were 36 churches and 4 monasteries.

In Vyksa, on the territory of the Vyksa Metallurgical Plant, there are unique monuments of industrial architecture and technical art, also built by V. G. Shukhov at the end of the 19th century. This is a workshop with the world's first sail-shaped steel mesh shells of double curvature coating and one of the world's first hyperboloid structures - a steel openwork mesh hyperboloid tower. The sail-shaped floors of the workshop are the only steel mesh shell floors that have survived in Russia out of more than thirty, built according to the designs of V. G. Shukhov. It is possible that a museum of steelmaking in Russia will be created in the building of this workshop.

In Gorodets, one of the oldest Russian settlements in the Middle Volga, founded in the 2nd half of the 12th century, there are museums dedicated to needlework and craftsmanship, the life and history of the peoples of the Volga region.

A large number of architectural monuments are located in the administrative center of the region - the city of Nizhny Novgorod, including the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Stroganov Church, Old Fair Cathedral and others.

The fairy tale by Mikhail Tatarinov is dedicated to the sights of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Nizhny Novgorod Fairy Tale



The Mesolithic era in the Nizhny Novgorod region includes the sites of Pustyn I and the settlement of Naumovka I, Krasny Bor 5, etc. Burial grounds of the Fatyanovo culture of the Bronze Age were discovered in the Chkalovsky, Vetluzhsky and Krasnobakovsky regions.

During the regional reform of Peter I in 1708, Nizhny Novgorod and the surrounding lands were included in the Kazan province. In 1714, the Nizhny Novgorod province was created.

The Nizhny Novgorod region was formed as part of the RSFSR on January 14, 1929. On July 15 of the same year, the region was renamed the Nizhny Novgorod Territory and on October 7, 1932 - the Gorky Territory.

On December 5, 1936, the region was transformed into the Gorky region (the Mari and Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics emerged from it).

On January 7, 1954, the Arzamas region was separated from the Gorky region. On April 23, 1957, the Arzamas region was abolished, and its territory was transferred to the Gorky region.

On October 22, 1990, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the region was renamed the Nizhny Novgorod region. On April 21, 1992, the Congress of People's Deputies of Russia approved the renaming of the region, amending Art. 71 of the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1978, which came into force on May 16, 1992.

In 1994, the Sokolsky district was transferred to the region.


Physiographic characteristics


The Nizhny Novgorod region is elongated in the meridional direction, its length from north to south is 403 km, and from west to east in the widest southern part - 274 km. The main differences in climate appear along the north-south line, between the forested Trans-Volga region and the elevated Right Bank.



In general, the region is located in a temperate continental climate zone. The average annual air temperature varies from 3.0 in the north to 4.5 °C in the south of the region. During the year, about 500-600 mm of precipitation falls in the Volga region and 450-500 mm in the Right Bank region, two-thirds of which falls in the form of rain. From September to May, south and south-west winds prevail in the region, and in the summer months - north-west. The average annual wind speed is 3-4 m/s.

Winter in the Nizhny Novgorod region lasts from the beginning of November to the end of March. The average monthly temperature in November is −3…−5 °C. The average monthly air temperature in January in the region is −10…−13 °C. The absolute minimum air temperatures are −45…−50 °C in the Volga region and −42…−46 °C in the Right Bank. Maximum temperatures during the winter months can reach positive values of up to +6 °C. Stable snow cover usually falls on November 14-21 in the Volga region and November 19-28 in the south of the region. Snow cover usually lasts 150-160 days. The height of the snow cover by the end of March reaches approximately half a meter, and in the forest - 70-80 cm. During the winter season, about 160-200 mm of precipitation falls in the region. Average monthly wind speeds in winter are higher than in warm periods and amount to 3.5–4.5 m/s.

Spring in the region proceeds relatively quickly, especially in the Right Bank. The increase in average monthly air temperature from March to April is usually 9...10 °C, and in separate years it can reach 15°-16°; in years with winter Marches it is always double. In early April, almost simultaneously throughout the entire region, the average daily air temperature passes through 0 °C in the direction of increasing it. The melting of snow cover usually occurs on April 8-13 in the south and April 16-23 in the north of the region. During the influx of Arctic cold air in the first ten days of May, the air temperature can drop to −3…−6 °C. Frosts are possible in late May - early June. The amount of precipitation in spring is 70-90 mm in the region. Average wind speed is 3-4 m/s. May in certain periods can be a real summer month and often with hot periods, so in 1906 the average May temperature reached +18.5° in Nizhny, and in the south of the region exceeded +19°, which is hotter than the average July of those years and almost equal to modern July, the maximum number of days with summer above +20 in May can also reach 25-26.

The beginning of summer is considered to be the transition of the average daily air temperature through +15 °C; this usually occurs at the end of May in the Right Bank and at the end of the first ten days of June in the Volga region. Summer in the Nizhny Novgorod region is relatively short and moderately warm, lasting about 70-90 days. The rate of temperature rise in the summer months slows down, and from the end of July its slow decrease begins. The average monthly temperature in July ranges from +18 in the north to +20 °C in the south of the region. July is the warmest month of the year. In summer, the temperature regime is more stable than in other seasons, and day-to-day variability is smoother. Maximum daytime temperatures rise to +28…+33 °С, and sometimes to +36…+39 °С. Even in July, noticeable daytime cold snaps are likely with a decrease in daytime temperatures to a noticeable coolness of +12°-+14°, as was the case in early July 2023. Precipitation falls unevenly throughout the year, most of it falls during the warm period and mainly in the summer season. The greatest amount of precipitation, 75-85 mm, usually occurs in July. Average monthly wind speeds in summer are 2.5–3.5 m/s.

The autumn period begins with frosts in the air and on the soil after the average daily air temperature passes through +15 °C towards its decrease, usually observed at the end of August in the north and at the beginning of September in the south of the region. The average monthly temperature in September is +10…+11 °C, and by November drops to −3…−4 °C. The frost-free period lasts 110-120 days in the north of the region, and 130-140 days on the right bank. The average monthly temperature in October is +3...+4 °C, in 2014 in the north of the region in Shakhunya it was less than 0°, October was actually winter, and in 2015 it was less than +1°. A stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0 °C towards a decrease occurs at the very beginning of November. Night frosts give way to frosts, warming up during the day leads to thaws, the duration of sunshine decreases, and the number of cloudy days sharply increases (from 1-2 in summer to 13-15 in October and November). In general, 110–130 mm of precipitation falls during the autumn season. Indicators of average monthly wind speed are growing, their values are 3-4 m/s. The growing season is 165-175 days.



The Nizhny Novgorod region is located in the central part of the East European Plain.

The Volga River divides the region into the low-lying Left Bank (Trans-Volga region) and the elevated Right Bank - a continuation of the Volga Upland (Mordovian Upland, Chuvash Upland, Dyatlov, Peremilovsky, Faddeev mountains, Mezhpyanye Upland).

The highest point of the region is located on the Mezhpyanye hill in the Sechenovsky district and is 252 m above sea level.


Geological structure

The region is located on the Russian Platform, the crystalline base of which consists of granites, gneisses, quartzites, hidden under thick layers of layered, more or less loose sedimentary rocks. During the Paleozoic era, the entire surface of the region was covered several times by seas. The average thickness of sedimentary rocks is from 1 to 3 km. The layers of sedimentary rocks are most clearly visible on the cliffs of the right bank of the Oka.

Karst landforms (caves, sinkholes, etc.) are developed.

On the territory of the region there is the Puchezh-Katun meteorite crater with a diameter of 80 km, formed 167 million years ago.



There are deposits of peat, phosphorus, and iron ores.

In the Piana River basin there is a large deposit of titanium-zirconium ores (“black sands”): Itmanovskaya placer (Itmanovo village, Lukoyanovsky district) total reserves are 67 million m³, of which off-balance reserves are 4.9 million m³, forecasted are 31.2 million m³. The deposit is one of the five largest alluvial deposits of titanium and zirconium in Russia.

There are loam deposits:
Sosnovskoye deposit (balance reserves amount to 788 thousand m³) north-west of the village of Sosnovskoye;
The Koverninskoye deposit (balance reserves amount to 361 thousand m³) northeast of the village of Chernoye.

In the deposits of the Ardatovsky region, reserves of quartz sand amount to 53.8 million m³, clay reserves - 17.8 million m³. To develop them, the former governor, Mr. Shantsev, allowed the construction of a new glass factory, but these statements did not have a sufficient economic basis, and their implementation was not started.



The region's river network is dense and includes over 9,000 rivers and streams. The largest rivers of the European part of Russia - the Volga and its right tributary Oka - flow through its territory. In the Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga region there flow the left tributaries of the Volga - Vetluga, Kerzhenets, Uzola, Linda. They carry their waters among dense taiga and mixed forests.

The tributaries of the Volga and Oka flow into the right bank. Among the tributaries of the Volga are the Sura, which flows along the border with Chuvashia, as well as the Kudma and Sundovik. Tesha carries her waters to the Oka. In the eastern part of the Right Bank flows the Piana.

The largest lake is Pyrskoye. The largest lake of karst origin is Bolshoye Svyatoe.

There are many swamps on flat watersheds and in lowlands.


Flora and fauna

The Nizhny Novgorod region is located in zones of southern taiga, mixed and broad-leaved forests, as well as forest-steppe. Southern taiga and subtaiga (mixed) zones are located in the Left Bank, and broad-leaved forests and forest-steppes are located in the Right Bank. The soils are predominantly soddy-podzolic, podzolic, and gray forest.

Forests occupy 3992.7 thousand hectares or 53% of the region's territory. Forest cover in the northern regions reaches 80%, in the southeastern regions it decreases to 1%. The total timber reserve is more than 550 million m³. In the Volga region, coniferous forests (spruce, fir, pine, and very rarely larch) and mixed forests (linden and birch) predominate. Floodplain tracts are covered with black alder, here and there small oak, willow, willow, willow, with a small admixture of viburnum, rowan and other similar trees. In some places you can find sedge.

On the Right Bank there are oak forests and meadow steppes. The forests of the mountainous side are distinguished by great diversity: centuries-old oaks, huge elms, oak groves, linden, maple, ash, bird cherry, rowan, even a wild apple tree, next to them are hazel, buckthorn, viburnum, honeysuckle and other shrubs.

In the Nizhny Novgorod region there are wild boar, elk, wolf, fox, brown hare, hare, brown bear, lynx, badger, marmot, spotted gopher, mole, hamster and others.


Protection of Nature

By resolution of the Legislative Assembly in 1996, the Red Book of the Nizhny Novgorod Region was established.

The Kerzhensky Nature Reserve and the Ichalkovsky Nature Reserve are located on the territory of the region.

In total, in the Nizhny Novgorod region there are 388 specially protected natural areas and 102 protective zones with an area of 72,622 hectares, which occupy 7.5% of the region's area.



The Nizhny Novgorod region is characterized by the multi-confessional nature of the population, the most widespread are Orthodoxy (73.5% of the number of religious organizations) and Islam (8.6% of the total number of religious organizations), there is a significant number of Old Believer communities of different directions (in total 3.9% number of religious organizations), as well as various Protestant communities. In Nizhny Novgorod there are Catholic and Lutheran communities, and there is a synagogue.


Education and culture

In the region, as part of optimizing expenditures in the budgetary sector, small-scale schools are being reduced. In 2009, 96 secondary schools were closed and 1,390 teachers were laid off.