Smolensk Oblast, Russia

Smolensk region is a subject of the Russian Federation, part of the Central Federal District.

The administrative center is the city of Smolensk. The distance from Smolensk to Moscow is 365 km, to Minsk is 331 km.

In the west it borders on Belarus (Vitebsk and Mogilev regions), in the north - on the Pskov and Tver regions, in the east - on the Moscow region, in the southeast - on the Kaluga region, in the south - on the Bryansk region.

It was formed on September 27, 1937 on the territory of the Western Region.

She was awarded the Order of Lenin (1958).



Smolensk is the administrative center of the region. One of the most western and one of the oldest Russian cities
Vyazma is an ancient Russian city, which has preserved such a curiosity as a three-hipped church. There are several interesting noble estates in the vicinity of Vyazma, including Khmelita, the family estate of the Griboyedovs.
Dorogobuzh is an ancient city, known almost from the 12th century, but completely destroyed during the war. Its most interesting attraction is a huge globe made from a former gas tank. 20 km south of Aleksino is one of the largest noble estates in the Smolensk region.
Roslavl is an ancient city known since the 12th century on the road from Smolensk to Bryansk. Major transport hub. Monastery of the 19th century, fragments of pre-revolutionary buildings. The settlement of the XII century has been preserved.


Other destinations

Memorial "Bogoroditskoye field"
Village Krany
Historical and architectural museum-reserve "Khmelita" (closed Monday and Tuesday). Griboedov family estate.
Memorial "Bogoroditskoye field".
Holy Trinity Gerasimo-Boldinsky Monastery.
Smolensky Assumption Cathedral.
Smolensk fortress wall.


Things to do

The Smolenskoye Koltso racing track, where track days and official competitions are regularly held, incl. Russian ACG Championship and European Truck Racing Championship


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position

The Smolensk Region is located in the central part of the East European (Russian) Plain. Most of the region is occupied by the Smolensk-Moscow Upland, the Baltic Lowland is located in the northwest, and the Dnieper Lowland is located in the south. In the west, the region borders on Belarus (Vitebsk and Mogilev regions), in the north - on the Pskov and Tver regions, in the east - on the Moscow region, in the southeast on the Kaluga region, in the south - on the Bryansk region. The length from north to south is 300 km, and from west to east - 290 km. Part of the territory of the Smolensk region along the border with Belarus is included in the border zone, access to which is formally limited.



In general, the surface is undulating, with hilly areas and relatively deeply incised river valleys.

Most of the territory is located within the Smolensk, Dukhovshchinsk (up to 282 m) and Vyazemskaya uplands. The maximum mark of the region is 321 m (near the village of Maryino, Vyazemsky district). In the northwest there are moraine ridges (Slobodskaya (up to 241 m) and others), sections of the Vitebsk (up to 232 m) and Valdai uplands. In the east, a section of the Moscow Upland (heights up to 255 m).

Lowlands - Vazuzskaya, Verkhnedneprovskaya, Berezinskaya; The Dnieper lowland in the extreme south of the region with absolute elevations from 175 to 180 m and the Baltic in the northwestern part, where the lowest elevation is located - 141 m along the banks of the Western Dvina River on the border with Belarus.



About 30 types of minerals of sedimentary origin have been discovered on the territory of the region. The most common: brown coal, various clays and loams, peat, rock salt, sand and gravel materials and cobblestone, glass, molding and construction sands, calcareous tuffs, limestones, dolomites, chalk, marls, phosphorites, tripoli (olok), glauconite , gypsum, sapropels, therapeutic mud, mineral waters, brines, as well as various ores, ocher, sulfur pyrite, ratovkite, vivianite, silicon, rock crystal. Most of the deposits have been explored and are being exploited.

In the eastern and southeastern parts of the region, brown coals of the Moscow region coal basin occur. About 30 deposits have been explored in detail with a total reserve of 400 million tons.

Surface deposits of peat are widespread, there are 1154 deposits with total reserves of more than 300 million tons, especially massive ones are located in Dukhovshchinsky and Rudnyansky districts. There are 233 sapropel deposits with total reserves of 170 million tons.

Deposits of rock salt have been explored - seams with a thickness of 15 to 51 m with interlayers of potassium salts, phosphorites - total reserves of up to 10 million tons with a P2O5 content of up to 18% have been discovered.

Calcareous tuffs are ubiquitous, the total reserve of which is about 7 million tons, limestones (they are relatively shallow in the central and western parts of the region, the total reserves are 2.4 million m³); chalk (distributed in the southern part of the region, the maximum layer thickness is up to 36 m); refractory, fusible, bentonite and construction clays; dolomites, marl, tripoli, glauconite, gypsum, glass and building sands, sand and gravel materials.

In addition, there are therapeutic muds and high-quality mineral waters and brines.



The climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is −6…−9 °C, in July +17…+19 °C. For most of the region, the differences in temperature are small, only the southern regions have a higher temperature (by about 1 °). It belongs to excessively humidified territories, precipitation is from 630 to 730 mm per year, more in the northwestern part - where cyclones pass more often, maximum in summer. The average annual number of days with precipitation is from 170 to 190. The growing season is 129-143 days. The period with a positive average daily air temperature lasts 213-224 days. The average duration of the frost-free period is 125-148 days. The region is characterized by a significant variability of atmospheric circulation during the year, which leads to very noticeable deviations in temperature and precipitation from long-term averages. The distribution of precipitation during the year is also uneven - the largest amount falls in summer (about 225-250 mm). For the year as a whole, winds of the western, southwestern and southern directions prevail. Also, the Smolensk region is characterized by high cloudiness (the largest number of clear days in spring - up to 10%).

There are four meteorological stations of Roshydromet and the Smolensk Aerological Station in the region.



The main river of the region is the Dnieper with tributaries Sozh, Desna, Vop, Vyazma. The Volga basin includes the Vazuza River and its tributary Gzhat, as well as the Ugra River, a tributary of the Oka. In the northwest, a short section of the Western Dvina and its tributary, the Kasplya River, flows.

There are several hundred lakes in the region, of which the glacial lakes in the northwest are especially beautiful (more than 160 with a mirror area of at least 1 ha): Kasplya, Svaditskoye, Velisto, etc. The largest among them is Akatovskoe (655 ha), the deepest is Baklanovskoe ( 28 meters). The largest karst lake is Kalyginskoye.

Among the large reservoirs, one can emphasize the Vazuzsky and Yauzsky reservoirs supplying water to Moscow in the northeast, as well as the coolers of power plants - the Smolensk reservoir in the north near the village of Ozerny and the Desnogorsk reservoir in the south of the region near the city of Desnogorsk.

About 40 aquifers lie in the bowels. The total groundwater infiltration resources are estimated at 4.75 billion m³/year.



The predominant type of soils are soddy-podzolic (78% of the area) in the southern part of the region, mostly sandy, in the rest of the loamy types. Less common are typical podzols, soddy, various types of bog and floodplain soils. There is a low content of humus and degradation of fertility, and as a result of the cessation of melioration, water erosion of soils develops in places.



The Smolensk region is located in the subtaiga zone of mixed broad-leaved-dark-coniferous forests. The vegetation is represented by forests, meadows, swamps, aquatic vegetation, crops of cultivated plants. Forests (aspen, birch, spruce, etc.) occupy about 38.2% of the territory in the 2000s. High forest cover in Ugransky, Demidovsky, Dukhovshinsky and Kholm-Zhirkovsky districts (more than 50% of the districts are covered with forests). On the territory of the region, small-leaved and coniferous species predominate, among which the most numerous are birch of two species and spruce (approximately 35% of the total number of trees), pine and aspen also make up a large proportion (about 12% separately), two species of alder are less common. Broad-leaved species are also quite abundant: oak, linden, ash, maple, two types of elm, which make up a noticeable admixture in the forests, and in some cases dominate in the forest stand. The flora of the meadows is dominated by perennial species: meadow timothy, meadow fescue, meadow bluegrass, urchin, etc., and together with legumes (clover) form the basis of the vegetation cover. Annual semi-parasites are widespread in the meadows: small rattle, eyebrights, mytniki. There are up to 80 species of algae in meadow soils. Bogs occupy large areas in the region with a predominance of lowland bogs. Various types of sedges grow on them (sharp, vesicular, fox), common reed, marsh horsetail, riverine horsetail, etc .; on the ground are green shiny hypnum mosses. Of the woody plants in the swamps, you can find Scots pine, downy birch and some types of willows.

The total area of the forest fund is 2,100 thousand hectares, wood reserves are about 230 million m³, including coniferous species - 55 million m³. The reserves are distributed unevenly, mainly in the upper reaches of the Dnieper and in the south-southeast (along the valley of the Ugra river). Insignificant areas of broad-leaved-pine forests in the extreme south and pine forests in the Baltic lowland stand out.


Animal world

Representatives of 14 types of animals live in the region. Some species inhabiting the territory of the Smolensk region are listed in the Red Book of the region and Russia.

Of the mammals in the region, there are: a wild boar, a hare, an elk, a fox, a wolf, a marten, a brown bear, etc.

Of the birds - woodpecker, bullfinch, blackbird, capercaillie, eagle owl, stork, etc.

More than 45 species of fish live in the reservoirs of the region (common ruffe, crucian carp, carp, bream, perch, roach, rotan, pike, catfish), some of them are imported.

Numerous different insects. About 2,000 species have been reliably identified, which is only 10% of their actual number in the region.

Several species of reptiles live in the region - lizards (brittle spindle, nimble lizard) and snakes (common viper, common snake, copperhead).

Amphibians are represented by newts (common and comb), toads (gray and green) and frogs (grass, lake, pond, edible).


Nature protection and ecological state

On the territory of the Smolensk region, the national park "Smolenskoye Poozerye" has been created with a total area of ​​about 150 thousand hectares, which protects, among other things, significant forest funds from the spread of illegal logging. The park was created in 1992 on the basis of a special decree of the government of the Russian Federation. There is also a natural park Gagarinsky natural park with a total area of 55 thousand hectares, created in 2007.

Currently, 131 species of animals, 87 species of plants, 1 species of mushrooms and 2 species of lichens are subject to protection - all of them are listed in the Red Book of the Smolensk Region. The materials included in the Red Data Book are, to some extent, preliminary.

There are 13 state biological reserves in the region, with a total area of 293.655 thousand hectares: general species (Shumyachsky, Khislavichsky), muskrat (Solovyovsky), wild boar (Mezhdurechensky), roe deer (Ugransky, Velizhsky), capercaillie (Smolensky, Rudnyansky, Dorogobuzhsky), otter, beaver (Ershichsky, Sychevsky), deer (Elninsky), elk (Krasninsky).

Environmental problems of the Smolensk region:
pollution with toxic, household and other wastes (technogenic overload, irrational structure of production and nature management)
insufficient level of environmental awareness, education and culture
excess of the average annual level of atmospheric air pollution in cities and towns
water in many reservoirs does not meet regulatory requirements for quality
landscape degradation, soil fertility decline
environmentally imperfect technologies in industry, agriculture, energy and transport
The main contribution to pollution is made by the enterprises of Smolensk State District Power Plant and OAO Dorogobuzh. The most polluted areas: Dukhovshchinsky, Dorogobuzhsky and Smolensky.



The region got its name from the city of Smolensk. Historically, the region was preceded by the Smolensk province, and, earlier, the Smolensk principality.

At the turn of the 6th-8th centuries, the Krivichi Slavs appeared on the territory of the Smolensk region. Funeral rituals are present in the form of long mounds.

In the undated part of The Tale of Bygone Years, Smolensk is first mentioned as the center of the Krivichi tribal union. It is also mentioned in the Ustyuzhensky (Arkhangelsk) vault under the conditional year 863, when Askold and Dir, on a campaign from Novgorod to Tsargrad, bypassed the city, as it was heavily fortified and crowded. The reliability of this mention is doubtful, since the Ustyug code was compiled more than 600 years after the events of the 9th century. According to The Tale of Bygone Years, in 882 Smolensk was captured and annexed to the Old Russian state by Prince Oleg.

This early chronicle date is not considered as proof of the existence of Smolensk as early as the 9th century (the initial annalistic code was compiled only at the end of the 11th century), since there are no archaeological traces of the city on Cathedral Hill (the historical center of Smolensk) before the second half of the 11th century. 15 km west of the center of Smolensk, there is a large Gnezdovsky archaeological complex, which includes the remains of a trade and craft settlement and a large number of burial mounds. The main period of their creation is determined by the X - the beginning of the XI century. The details of the burial rite of the complex indicate the ethnic (Slavs, Scandinavians, etc.) and social (nobility, warriors, artisans, etc.) heterogeneity of the population. The central settlement arose at the beginning of the 10th century and was a craft and trade center on the so-called route "from the Varangians to the Greeks." Many researchers considered the Gnezdovsky complex as ancient Smolensk, then transferred to a new place, which should have explained the absence of archaeological layers before the 11th century in Smolensk itself. According to another point of view, Gnezdovo was a churchyard - the place of residence of the squad and the collection of tribute, and Smolensk existed at the same time and was the tribal center of the Krivichi.

Back in the first half of the 20th century, archaeologists found stucco ceramics on Cathedral Hill in the cultural layer that they dated to the early period, but these finds did not receive proper coverage. Field research, begun in 2014 by the expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the leadership of N. A. Krenke in the upper part of the northeastern slope of Cathedral Mountain, on the territory of the Trinity Monastery and in other places, provided a number of materials indicating the existence of a rural settlement of the end I millennium AD, which is part of a large complex of settlements. These datings were supported by a series of radiocarbon analyses.

In the 12th century, the independent Grand Duchy of Smolensk experienced its heyday, while occupying most of the territory of the Smolensk region.

In the middle of the 13th century, the principality began to lose its lands. Since 1404 it has been part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1514, Smolensk, and later other Smolensk lands, were annexed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. After the Time of Troubles, according to the Deulino truce of 1618, Smolensk land was returned to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Finally, Smolensk land became part of the Russian state in 1654 as a result of the Russian-Polish war of 1654-1667.

Smolensk province was formed in 1708.

On December 30-31, 1918, the Belarusian Provisional Revolutionary Workers' and Peasants' Government headed by D. F. Zhilunovich was created in Smolensk. On January 1, 1919, the Provisional Revolutionary Government published a manifesto proclaiming the formation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus (SSRB) as part of the RSFSR. The western part of the Smolensk province became part of the SSRB. On January 5, 1919, the government moved to Minsk, occupied by the red units, which became the capital of the republic. Smolensk province remained part of the RSFSR by decision of the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR and the Central Committee of the RCP (b), together with the Vitebsk and Mogilev provinces.

On October 1, 1929, by the decision of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, the Western Region was formed with the center in Smolensk, which included the territories of the Smolensk, Bryansk and Kaluga provinces, part of the territory of the Tver and Moscow provinces and the Velikoluksky district of the Leningrad region.

On September 27, 1937, the Western Region was abolished by the Decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR. The Smolensk and Oryol regions were formed from the Western and Kursk regions. On January 15, 1938, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the creation of these regions. Six months later, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR confirmed this decision. The Smolensk region with the center in the city of Smolensk again became an independent territorial-administrative unit within the RSFSR. Initially, the region had 49 districts, then 5 more districts were added before the war. In 1944, 13 districts were transferred from the Smolensk region to the newly formed Kaluga region and 3 districts to the Velikiye Luki region, and the Smolensk region acquired modern borders.



Gross regional product at current prices: RUB 234.7 billion in 2014; RUB 79.2 billion in 2006 year; RUB 68.4 billion in 2005.
GRP per capita: 242.9 thousand rubles in 2014 (53rd out of 85 among regions); 232.5 thousand rubles in 2013. The average per capita income of the population in December 2015 amounted to 34,347 rubles. per month.

Consolidated regional budget (2022):
revenues - 59 billion rubles;
expenses — 57.9 billion rubles;
surplus - 1.1 billion rubles.

The industrial complex forms about 38% of the GRP (2006), of which 23.1% are manufacturing industries (primarily the chemical and food industries), 8.3% - energy, 6.5% - the construction complex. 10% of GRP is created in the agro-industrial complex (2006).



In the volume of industrial production (55,946 million rubles (2004)) the jewelry industry (about 15%; JSC PO Kristall), electric power industry (about 13%; Smolensk NPP, Smolenskenergo), mechanical engineering (about 12%; " Auto-Aggregate Plant - CJSC Saaz AMO Zil, as of 2020 this enterprise has been liquidated), Roslavl Car Repair Plant (JSC Roslavl VRZ), food industry (about 10%) and chemistry (about 9%; PJSC Dorogobuzh) ).


Chemical industry

PJSC "Dorogobuzh" (city of Dorogobuzh) is a manufacturer of mineral fertilizers, synthetic ammonia, and weak nitric acids and catalysts. Included in the Akron holding.
Several enterprises on the basis of the former plastics plant (JSC Avangard, OJSC Poliplast, CJSC SP Kompital, Koltek-special reagents) in the city of Safonovo: production of plastic products, cable products, reagents for the oil and oil refining industries.
Vyazemsky plant of synthetic products - pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.
LLC "Confectioner" (production of corrugated paper and cardboard, paper and cardboard containers).


Building complex

The main manufacturers of building materials: Smolensk DSK, brick factories: Smolensk No. 1 and No. 2, Vyazemsky, Roslavl, Safonovsky; Vyazemsky mining and processing plant (crushed stone and sand for reinforced concrete products), Vyazemsky plant of reinforced concrete sleepers.


Food industry

The region ranks first in the Central District for the production of canned milk and milk powder, there are many cheese producers in the region, large producers of flour, meat, fat-and-oil and canned vegetables.

Main representatives:
Gagarinsky and Kardymovsky milk powder plants;
Smetanino-Broiler Poultry Farm LLC (Subsidiary of Smolensky KHP LLC, the main specialization of which is the production of ready-made feed for animals kept on farms);
Smolensk and Vyazemsky combines of bakery products;
Kellogg Rus LLC (Vyazemsky food processing plant), Smolensk Pasta JSC (In 2014, it was merged with Extra M OJSC as a branch);
Roslavl Zhirkombinat (JSC "Rastmaslo") processing linseed and mustard seeds, packing vegetable oil and producing natural drying oil "Oksol";
Smolensk cannery;
Krasninsky vegetable drying plant.


Mechanical engineering

The leading sub-sectors are: the automotive industry (22.3%) and instrumentation (20.8%), the electrical industry (10.8%), machine building for the light and food industries (7.2%), as well as aircraft manufacturing, production of energy equipment and metallurgy.

The main area of specialization of mechanical engineering is the manufacture of components, parts and spare parts for cars. The main enterprises of the sub-sector:

Roslavl auto-aggregate plant - brake equipment (as of 2020, Raaz AMO Zil CJSC is in the process of liquidation)
Other branches of mechanical engineering are represented by individual enterprises: Smolensk Aviation Plant, Izmeritel, Diffusion, Centaur, Proton, radio components, commercial equipment, Instrument, complex road machines, household refrigerators (Aisberg JSC), Dorogobuzh Boiler Plant (Verkhnedneprovsky Settlement), Vyazemsky Machine-Building Plant, Avangard JSC (Safonovo), Safonovsky Electric Machine-Building Plant, Roslavl Plant of Diamond Tools.

Repair enterprises: Roslavl car repair plant, Smolensk and Roslavl car repair enterprises. Metallurgy: State unitary enterprise of the city of Moscow "Casting and Rolling Plant" (Yartsevo).


Power industry

As of the end of 2020, four power plants with a total capacity of 3,995 MW were operating in the Smolensk Region, including one nuclear power plant and three thermal power plants. In 2020, they produced 24,606 million kWh of electricity. A feature of the region's energy sector is the sharp dominance of one power plant - the Smolensk NPP, which accounts for about 90% of all electricity generation.

The following power plants operate in the region:
Smolensk NPP (branch of Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC) with an installed capacity of 3,000 MW;
Smolenskaya GRES (branch of Unipro PJSC) with an installed capacity of 630 MW;
Smolenskaya CHPP-2 (production division of the branch of PJSC "Quadra - Power Generation" - "Central Generation") with an installed capacity of 275 MW;
Dorogobuzh CHPP with an installed capacity of 90 MW.



Agricultural enterprises of the Smolensk region in 2020 produced products worth 28 billion rubles, the proceeds from its sale reached 12.2 billion rubles, which is 14% higher than in 2019. This made it possible, among other things, to increase wages in the agricultural sector of the region by an average of 3.5 thousand rubles, at the level of 26.5 thousand rubles. Net profit exceeded 900 million rubles - almost 3.5 times more than last year's result.

animal husbandry
The dairy industry occupies a key place in the agro-industrial complex of the region - about 70% of all agricultural enterprises in the Smolensk region are engaged in the production and processing of milk.

As of January 1, 2016, the number of cattle amounted to about 72.8 thousand heads, including 32.1 thousand cows, the number of pigs - 219.6 thousand heads, the number of poultry amounted to 484.8 thousand heads. Production in 2015: milk - 218.1 thousand tons, meat - 49.2 thousand tons, eggs - 196.8 million pieces.

The number of cattle at the end of 2020 in agricultural organizations is 115 thousand heads - 6% more than last year, including the number of cows - 51 thousand, which corresponds to the level of last year. In all categories of farms, 90 thousand tons of livestock and poultry meat were produced, which is 1 thousand tons more than last year, and 68% of this volume is pig meat.

In 2020, 159.9 thousand tons of milk were produced (-1.9% compared to 2019)[41]. In 2020, the average milk yield per cow is 4818 kg (+176 kg per year), of which agricultural organizations 4955 kg (+216 kg), peasant farms 3766 kg (+52 kg), household households 5074 kg (+110 kg).

The average daily milk yield in 2020 in the region from a dairy cow was 9.5 liters (in the neighboring Kaluga region 22.5 liters, the average Russian figure is 16.9 liters). The number of dairy cows is 34661 heads. The best milk fat content was shown by the Rudnyansky district (3.9%). The average fat content in the region is 3.7%.

Beef cattle breeding
Agroholding Miratorg has the world's largest herd of Aberdeen Angus beef cattle in 2020: more than 800 thousand heads in the Bryansk, Oryol, Tula, Kaluga, Smolensk and Kaliningrad regions. The agricultural holding forms one of the world's largest reference databases of Aberdeen Angus cattle. The creation of a domestic genomic index of the breeding value of this breed and popular dairy breeds of cattle will increase the efficiency of livestock breeders, reduce production costs while improving the quality of meat and milk. Miratorg provides the opportunity to raise animals under the conditions of a particular region or at the request of a particular enterprise.

crop production
Agricultural lands of the region occupy 1.75 million hectares (1% of the area of agricultural land in the Russian Federation) or 35.2% of its territory. 1.3 million hectares fall under arable land; in the southern regions, plowing reaches 70%.

The gross harvest of grain and leguminous crops amounted to 286 thousand tons, with a yield of 27.4 c/ha (in 2019 - 319 thousand tons). Over 60% of grain crops are wheat: 115.9 thousand tons of it were obtained with an average yield of 30 centners per hectare. Also threshed 31.5 thousand tons of barley, the yield is 31.3 c/ha. In 2020, the entire sown area amounted to 380 thousand hectares, including the sown area of grain and leguminous crops grew by 10%, amounting to 143 thousand hectares.

In 2020, 20 enterprises sowed fiber flax on 5.3 thousand hectares (+600 hectares by 2019), 10% of the total sown area in the country (3rd place in the Russian Federation). Of the 20 flax companies, 6 have their own primary processing of flax. The gross harvest of flax straw in terms of flax fiber will be more than 4.5 thousand tons. The Regional Entrepreneurship Support Fund issues loans for the sowing of fiber flax at 1% with installment payments up to 3 years. The volume of investments for the construction of a flax mill for the processing of flax straw with a line for mechanical modification of flax fiber by Russian Len exceeded 2 billion rubles.

Crop production of the region specializes in fodder (44% of sown area) and grain (45%) crops, production of flax, potatoes and vegetables. Under grain occupied 160 thousand hectares. The development of the linen complex is planned for 2011-2015. It is required to allocate 12,000 hectares for growing flax.



In order to increase the revenue side of the budget in the Smolensk region, special attention is paid to attracting investment. As of 2016, the investment indicator of the region more than doubled compared to 2012. If in 2012 the region ranked 76th among other subjects of the Russian Federation, then in 2016 it was on the 33rd. In 2019, the Smolensk region took 52nd place in this indicator



The main transport hubs of the region are the cities of Smolensk and Vyazma.

The distance from Smolensk to Moscow is 374 km.

Pipelines and power lines
Four lines of the transit gas pipeline "Siyaniye Severa" of the Torzhok-Minsk-Ivatsevichi section were laid across the territory of the region, delivering Siberian natural gas to Western Europe and Belarus. The Yamal-Europe gas pipeline is being expanded, transit through which in 2006 amounted to 29.5 billion m³.

The main gas pipeline Bryansk - Smolensk - Verkhnedneprovsky with a compressor station in Smolensk and a total length of 365 km, it is designed to supply gas to Smolensk, Roslavl, Safonovo, Dorogobuzh, Verkhnedneprovsky. The total length of main pipelines within the region exceeds 1500 km (2002).

The region has an extensive network of high voltage power lines, their total length exceeds 45,000 km. The main main transmission lines (750 kV) were laid from the Smolensk NPP to the Tula (Mikhailovskaya substation), Bryansk (Novobryansk substation) and Kaluga (Kaluga substation) regions, as well as to Belarus. Electricity transmission outside the region exceeds 15 billion kWh/year.

The territory of the Smolensk region is served by the Moscow railway.

The main double-track electrified railway line Moscow-Minsk-Brest is of particular passenger and freight importance; it passes through Gagarin, Vyazma, Safonovo, Yartsevo and Smolensk. In addition to it, single-track diesel locomotive lines operate: the historical Riga - Orel (through Rudnya, Golynki, Smolensk, Pochinok, Stodolishche and Roslavl), Smolensk - Sukhinichi, Vyazma - Rzhev, Vyazma - Bryansk, Vyazma - Kaluga and Roslavl - Sukhinichi. In addition, there are internal branches Durovo - Vladimirsky Tupik (there is a passenger connection), Smolensk - Soshno (PPZhT Smolenskaya GRES, Ozerny settlement), Dorogobuzh and Verkhnedneprovsky (only freight traffic). The length of public railways located on the territory of the Smolensk region is 1259 km (2002), the length of access railway lines of enterprises is 672 km (2002).

Several operating (Roslavl peat enterprise and Redchinskoye peat enterprise) and many abandoned narrow-gauge railways of logging and peat processing enterprises.

The length of public roads within the region is 10.7 thousand km, 95% has a hard surface, over 60% is improved. The average density of paved roads is 204 km per 1000 km² of territory. The length of federal highways is 697 km (motorway Moscow - Minsk, highways Bryansk - Smolensk and Moscow - Maloyaroslavets - Roslavl), including 96 bridges and overpasses.

The main roads of the region:
M1 "Belarus" (length within the region - 298 kilometers, through Gagarin, Vyazma, Safonovo, Yartsevo and Smolensk);
P120 Orel - Vitebsk (221 km, through Roslavl, Smolensk and Rudnya);
A101 Moscow - Warsaw ("Old Polish" or "Varshavka"), 115 km long, through Desnogorsk and Roslavl).

Significant roads include:
P133 Smolensk - Nevel;
P136 Smolensk - Nelidovo;
P132 Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula - Ryazan;
R134 "Old Smolensk Road" Smolensk - Dorogobuzh - Vyazma - Zubtsov;
P137 Safonovo - Roslavl.

Freight turnover of road transport in the region is 0.6 billion t-km, the volume of cargo transportation is 19.2 million tons / year (2002).

Air transport
The Smolensk-Severny airfield, the Smolensk-South landing site are in operation. Several landing sites with unpaved runways (in Velizh and other cities) are used only by individual aviation enthusiasts.

On April 10, 2010, a plane crash occurred at the Smolensk-Severny airfield, which killed Polish President Lech Kaczynski, his wife Maria Kaczynska, well-known Polish politicians, almost all of the high military command, public and religious figures.

City electric transport
Smolensk has tram (since 1901) and trolleybus (since 1991) systems.



The main professed religion is Orthodoxy. The Smolensk and Vyazemsky diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church operates on the territory of the region, which has 140 parishes in all cities and districts of the region, as well as 8 monasteries. Large Orthodox monasteries are especially famous in the region: Avramiev in Smolensk, John the Baptist in Vyazma, Gerasimo-Boldinsky near Dorogobuzh, Spaso-Voznesensky in Smolensk, St. Demetrius in Dorogobuzh and Spaso-Preobrazhensky in Roslavl. The Smolensk region is one of 15 regions in which since September 1, 2006 the subject of the Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture (OPC) has been introduced as a regional component of education. In some schools of the region, the OPK has been taught since 1991.

In addition, the following are registered in the region:
2 Orthodox Old Believer communities (Smolensk, Sychevka)
1 parish of the Roman Catholic Church (Smolensk)
1 Evangelical Lutheran community
10 Jewish religious organizations (9 in Smolensk and 1 in Roslavl)
religious organization of Muslims of Smolensk and Smolensk region
21 religious organizations of Evangelical Christian Baptists (4 in the city of Smolensk, 1 each in the village of Igorevskaya in the Kholm-Zhirkovsky district, the city of Safonovo, the village of Kasplya, the city of Yartsevo, the village of Monastyrshchina, the city of Roslavl, the city of Yelnya, Vyazma, Dorogobuzh, Pochinok, Stodolishche village, Pochinkovsky district, Velizh, Desnogorsk, Gagarin, Demidov, Christian Mercy Mission "Nehemiah")
19 religious organizations of Evangelical Christians (Pentecostals) (7 in Smolensk, 2 in Yartsevo, 1 each in Demidov, Safonovo, Rudnya, Roslavl, Desnogorsk, Gagarin, Vyazma, village of Losnya, Pochinkovsky district, village of Kardymovo, Rehabilitation Mission of serving convicts "New Life")
7 religious communities of Seventh-day Adventists (Smolensk, Verkhnedneprovsky settlement of the Dorogobuzh district, Safonovo, Vyazma, Yartsevo, Desnogorsk, Gagarin)
2 religious organizations of evangelical Christians "Christian Charismatic Church" (Smolensk, Roslavl)
2 religious organizations of Jehovah's Witnesses (village Novoseltsy, Smolensk District, Dorogobuzh)
1 religious organization "United Methodist Church"
1 religious organization The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
1 congregation of the Western Regional Administrative Center of the New Apostolic Church
1 Vaishnava religious society (community) named after A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
1 religious organization "Smolensk Society for Krishna Consciousness"
1 religious organization "Buddhist Center of the Diamond Way of the Karma Kagyu School of Smolensk"
Interestingly, one of the currents in Judaism, Chabad, arose in Lubavitch.


Science, education and culture

The Smolensk region has a developed scientific complex.

The science
The main scientific and design institutions in the region:
NIPiKTI bases and underground structures. N. M. Gersevanova (branch of State Research Center "Construction")
GNII Mechanical Engineering
Machine-building design bureau, Smolensk branch
Design Bureau of OAO Smolenskenergo
OJSC SKTB Program Control Systems
Research Institute of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
ANO "NII UKS and PK" (in the process of liquidation)



Main educational institutions:
Smolensk branch of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute
Smolensk branch of the Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
Smolensk State University
Smolensk State Medical Academy
Smolensk State Agricultural Academy
Military Academy of the Air Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
Smolensk State Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism
Smolensk State Institute of Arts
Smolensk Orthodox Theological Seminary
Smolensk Academy of Professional Education



The main natural recreation area is the Smolenskoye Poozerye National Park. Hiking ecological trails, water routes, a children's ecological camp "Forest Republic" have been created in the park, the mineral spring "Holy Well" and the settlement of ancient Verzhavsk are especially popular.

There are many places of interest in the Smolensk region. Significant tourism destinations include:
Vyazemsky Kremlin and Smolensk fortress wall
Gnezdovsky archaeological complex
Historical and Artistic Reserve Talashkino
Katyn forest (State memorial complex "Katyn")
Popular recreation area Krasny Bor



The main football club is Dnepr, which plays in the second division of the Russian championship, SC Smolensk, Chernozemye MOA Championship.

Leaders of the regional championship: FC "Metallurg" Yartsevo, SC "Smolensk", "VF MGIU" Vyazma, "Kameya-SGAFKiT" Smolensk.

The largest stadium in the region is the Spartak stadium with a capacity of 9,000 people.

Hockey club "Slavutich" - the champion of the RHL season 2013-2014. He holds home matches at the Ice Palace of the Smolensk State Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism (SGAFKST) with a capacity of 1080 people.

The region has one 50-meter swimming pool, located in Smolensk at SGAFKST, and 22 25-meter swimming pools, there are 5 children's sports schools in swimming.



In the Smolensk region there are many musical groups, groups of various kinds. Concerts and festivals are held in Smolensk and the region. One of the largest and most famous is the annual all-Russian rock festival "Safony" in the city of Safonovo. The annual music festival named after M. I. Glinka is the oldest in Russia.

Monuments of history and culture
In 1974, in the Smolensk region, there were monuments and memorable places subject to state protection, in the amount of 1996 items, including:
a) archeological monuments - 574;
b) historical monuments - 1160;
c) architectural monuments - 250;
d) monuments of monumental art - 12.



There are more than 25 museums in the region, two of which are of regional subordination: the Smolensk State Museum-Reserve, the United Memorial Museum of Yu. A. Gagarin and one federal subordination: the State Historical, Cultural and Natural Museum-Reserve of A.S. Most museums are concentrated in the city of Smolensk. The oldest museum is the Smolensk State Museum-Reserve, founded in 1888, it includes 12 exposition departments in Smolensk and 4 branches in the region, occupies 38 buildings (28 of them are monuments of history and culture)