Ryazan Oblast, Russia

The Ryazan Region is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation in the European part of Russia, part of the Central Federal District.

Administrative center: the city of Ryazan.

In the north it borders on the Vladimir Region, in the northeast on the Nizhny Novgorod Region, in the east on the Republic of Mordovia, in the southeast on the Penza Region, in the south on the Tambov and Lipetsk Regions, in the west on the Tula Region and in the northwest on the Moscow Region. area.

Formed on September 26, 1937.

On March 12, 1958, she was awarded the Order of Lenin for the successes achieved in the development of the national economy.



Administratively, the region is divided into 25 districts: Ermishinsky, Zakharovsky, Kadomsky, Kasimovsky, Klepikovsky, Korabinsky, Miloslavsky, Mikhailovsky, Novoderevensky, Pitelinsky, Pronsky, Putyatinsky, Rybnovsky, Ryazhsky, Ryazansky, Sapozhkovsky, Saraevsky, Sasovsky, Skopinsky, Spassky, Starozhilovsky, Ukholovsky , Chuchkovsky, Shatsky, Shilovsky districts



Ryazan is the administrative center of the region



Other destinations

The village of Konstantinovo (the birthplace of Sergei Yesenin)
Meshchyorsky National Park
Oksky Nature Reserve
Pronsky lands - an area south of Ryazan around ancient Pronsk; includes Pronsky, Starozhilovsky and Korablinsky districts



Russian and Tatar languages are widespread. Moreover, the latter is mainly in the northeast (on the territory of the former Kasimov Khanate).


Getting here

By plane
There are no operating airports in the Ryazan region. The nearest international airports are in Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod.

By train
Federal routes to the Urals, the Caspian Sea and the south of the country, as well as an international highway to Central Asia, pass through the Ryazan region. Passenger long-distance trains, passing from Moscow through the Ryazan region, depart from the Kazan station.

By bus
Interregional routes from Ryazan to Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Tambov, Belgorod. From Moscow to Ryazan can be reached by bus number 960. The bus station in Ryazan is located at the address: Moskovskoye highway, 31. There are regular bus services from Moscow (from the Schelkovo bus station) to most regional centers of the region.

By car
There are quite a few roads. The main route from the Moscow region is the M5 Ural highway, as well as:

Moscow region: continuation of the Egoryevskoye highway P105 (through Spas-Klepiki to Kasimov);
Nizhny Novgorod region: Р125 from Kasimov via Murom.
Vladimir region: P73 from Ryazan (via Gus-Khrustalny) and P125 from Kasimov to Murom.

On the ship
There is currently no regular passenger service on the Oka. Tourist boats run along it from time to time.


Precautionary measures

In the south of the region, common vipers live, the bite of which is fatal to a person if he does not receive first aid.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Ryazan region is located in the center of the European part of Russia, in a depression between the Central Russian and Volga uplands in the central part of the Russian Plain. It stretches for 220 kilometers from north to south and for 259 kilometers from west to east. The distance from the Moscow ring road to the regional border is 147 km. The time in the region is Moscow (UTC+3).


Relief and geology

In the northern part there is the Meshcherskaya lowland (120–125 m), dissected along the border with the Vladimir region by the Kasimovskaya moraine ridge (130–136 m); the eastern part of the region in the meridional direction, in the southwest - the spurs of the Central Russian Upland (height up to 236 m). The lowest altitude mark is located on the banks of the Oka near the border with the Vladimir region - 76 meters.



Significant reserves of high-quality peat lie in the humid flat north of the region and east of the Moksha and Tsna rivers. 1,062 deposits have been explored with total reserves of 222 million tons.

In the bowels of the southwestern part of the region there are layers of brown coal from the coal basin near Moscow. 23 deposits of brown coal have been explored with total reserves of 301.6 million tons. The largest available reserves are in the Skopinsky district. Coal mining has been carried out since the middle of the 19th century (in 1903, the mines produced more than 144 thousand tons of fuel) and completely stopped in 1989.

Sapropel reserves in 52 reservoirs amount to 81 million m³.

The region has explored deposits of phosphorites, gypsum, brown iron ore (of low quality in the Kasimov region), glass and quartz sands in the Miloslavsky and Kasimovsky districts.

From non-metallic minerals, 25 deposits of clays and loams (reserves 160 million m³), 19 deposits of building sands (116 million m³), 4 deposits of carbonate rocks for building lime (118 thousand m³), cement limestones in the Mikhailovsky district, deposits of marl.



The climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is −10.6 °С, in July +19.7 °С. Precipitation is about 550 mm per year, maximum in summer, 25-30% of all precipitation falls in the form of snow. The growing season lasts about 180 days. There are six meteorological stations of Roshydromet in the region (current weather by stations). The duration of the heating season is 212 days.



Most of the rivers belong to the Volga basin. The main river of the region is the Oka with tributaries Pra, Gus, Pronya (with Ranova), Para, Moksha (with Tsna). In the south of the region there are the sources of the Voronezh River (the Don basin).

There are many lakes in the Meshcherskaya lowland. A large group of Klepikovsky lakes stands out (Great, Ivankovsky, Shagara, Beloe, etc.). There are many oxbow lakes along the banks of the Oka.



To the north of the Oka, sandy loamy bog-podzolic soils with areas of peat-bog soils predominate, in the east behind the floodplains clayey soddy-podzolic soils prevail, in the southern part of the region gray forest soils and podzolized chernozems and leached on loess-like loams predominate. Extensive areas of alluvial-meadow soils in river valleys are especially favorable for dairy cattle breeding. In the south of the region there are areas of rich black soil.



The Ryazan region is located in the subtaiga (left bank of the Oka) and forest-steppe (right bank of the Oka) zones. Forests occupy about 1/3 of the territory, they are pine in the northwest, broad-leaved pine in the north and southeast. In the southwest there are areas of broad-leaved forests. In the extreme southwest - steppe vegetation.

The total area of the forest fund is 1053 thousand hectares, including coniferous species - 590 thousand hectares. The total timber stock is 130 million m³, the allowable cutting area is 1.333 million m³.

More than 1 million m³ of oak grows along the banks of the Oka, Moksha and Tsna.


Animal world

Wild boar, common fox, hare, beaver, common squirrel, dormouse, deer (spotted, noble, maral), roe deer, moles, steppe polecat, otter, raccoon dog, European mink, American mink, black polecat, bats, hedgehogs, martens, shrews, shrews, gray wolf, brown bear, hare, badger, Russian desman, lynx, weasel, ermine, muskrat, Siberian roe deer and others. Of the rodents - mice, rats, voles, dormouse, speckled ground squirrel, flying squirrel. ground squirrels, hamsters, jerboas.

From birds - teals, mallards, gray ducks, falcons, hawks, eagles, white-tailed eagles, blackbirds, woodpeckers, owls, nightingales, pigeons, turtle doves, corncrakes, gulls, lapwings, sparrows, crows (raven, gray crow), rooks, jackdaws, finches, goldfinch, swifts, swallows, nightjars, magpies, jays, orioles, waxwings, woodcocks, sandpipers, geese, black and white storks, herons, bullfinches, tits, quails, partridges.


Protection of Nature

There are 103.5 thousand hectares of specially protected natural areas on the territory of the Ryazan region, including: Meshchersky National Park, Oksky Reserve, 47 reserves, 57 natural monuments.



One of the most important environmental problems is periodic forest and peat fires in the northeastern regions of the region. High concentration of pollution of industrial origin in the air of Ryazan, Mikhailov and Skopin.

In the southwestern territories of the region, radioactive fallout spread from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant fell. These places today are a zone of residence with a preferential socio-economic status.



On the territory of the Ryazan region there are Upper Paleolithic sites Shatrishche-1 and Shatrishche-2. The Neolithic includes burials on Lake Shagara. The Bronze Age is represented by the tribes of Indo-European pastoralists of the Fatyanovo culture.

Before the arrival of the Slavs, Finnish tribes of the Gorodets culture lived on the territory of the Ryazan region - Meshchera and Murom, the memory of which was preserved in many Meshchera toponyms. On the middle Oka in the III-IV centuries, the culture of the Ryazan-Oka burial grounds appears. In the 5th century, the Ryazan-Oka tendencies began to spread to the area of the Gorodets-Dyakovo tribes.

Ryazan region is one of the oldest centers of Ancient Rus'. Under Prince Svyatoslav, the lands in Poochye were included in the Russian state, but after its collapse, they became part of the Chernigov principality. Then the powerful Ryazan principality was formed here, the ruler of which received the title of Grand Duke. The center of the state was the city of Ryazan, destroyed during the Mongol invasion. Later, the capital was moved upstream of the Oka, to the city of Pereyaslavl-Ryazansky. For hundreds of years, the Ryazan principality was the southeastern outpost of the Russian lands, repelling numerous raids of nomads and conquerors.

In 1521, the Ryazan principality became part of the Russian state as the Ryazan district. In the 16th century, the Kasimov Tatars settled on the territory of the Ryazan region, who were granted their own autonomy: the Kasimov Khanate. In 1708, the region became part of the Moscow province as a separate county, and under Catherine II an independent territorial unit was formed - the Ryazan province with its center in Pereyaslavl Ryazansky, which received a new name in honor of the ancient capital of the principality - Ryazan.

In the 19th century, railways were laid here.

The modern Ryazan region was created on September 26, 1937.



Economic indicators

According to the contribution to the region's GDP for 2005 (84.8 billion rubles), the following stand out: manufacturing - 22.6%, production and distribution of electricity, gas, water - 5.9%, wholesale and retail trade - 19.7%, agriculture - 12.8%, transport and communications - 12.3%.

The volume of gross regional product (in basic prices) for 2006 amounted to 103.2 billion rubles: 29.7% - industrial production, 19.5% - wholesale and retail trade, repair of vehicles, motorcycles, household products and personal items , 12.7% - transport and communications, 12.0% - agriculture, hunting and forestry, 5.3% - construction. In the structure of the gross regional product, the share of the sphere of material production is 47%, the service sector - 53%.


Foreign trade turnover

The foreign trade turnover of the Ryazan region in 2008 amounted to more than 3.5 billion dollars, which is 1.8 times higher than the corresponding indicator of 2007. Over 83% of this amount is exported. In terms of value, among the exported goods, the leaders are: products of the fuel and energy complex (gas and other oil products), machinery, machine tools and instrumentation, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, and the leather industry. Currently, the region trades with 80 states of near and far abroad. Among the countries - consumers of products, the main partners are: the Netherlands (28%), the USA (23%), Latvia (13%), Estonia, Singapore and Italy, 5% each.

The foreign trade turnover of the Ryazan region in 2015 amounted to 871.7 million dollars. Compared to 2014, the amount decreased by 19.5%



The banking sector of the Ryazan region, as of April 25, 2019, is represented by nineteen branches whose parent banks are located outside the region, including Rosselkhozbank JSC, represented in the region by 20 branches of the Bank in 17 regions. The Ryazan regional branch was opened in 2002. Over 17 years of work, more than 103 billion rubles have been invested in the region's economy, of which more than 85 billion rubles have been invested in the agro-industrial complex. The total loan portfolio of the Ryazan branch of the RSHB as of April 25, 2019 exceeds 23.5 billion rubles. More than 138 thousand clients use the bank's services.

Large independent credit organizations are represented in the region (Prio-Vneshtorgbank, Municipal Bank named after S. Zhivago, Rinvestbank, Vyatich), 25 branches of Sberbank of Russia



The region is an old industrial region with a diversified complex. The main industrial centers are the cities of Ryazan, Mikhailov, Skopin, Kasimov, Sasovo

In the sectoral structure of industrial production, a large share falls on mechanical engineering and metalworking, significant shares are oil refining, electric power, production of building materials and the food industry. The most important industries are oil refining and electric power industry.

Among the largest enterprises in the region is the Ryazan Oil Refining Company Joint-Stock Company (RNPC JSC), with a processing capacity of 18.8 million tons of oil per year. The plant produces high-quality automotive and straight-run gasolines, diesel fuels, aviation kerosene, boiler fuels (fuel oil), road and construction bitumen, and lubricating oils. The company is part of the holding of PJSC NK Rosneft.

In the south-west of the region there is a complex for the production of building materials - the Serebryansky cement plant of the BaselCement holding and the Mikhailovsky cement plant of the Eurocement group. Skopinsky glass factory and pottery factory were opened in Skopin. The production and processing of leather, non-ferrous (Kasimov, Ryazan and Skopin) and powder metallurgy, and the production of chemical fibers have been established in the region.

Sasovo has large enterprises for the production of dairy products, as well as the Sasta machine-tool plant, which produced parts for spacecraft in 2022.

The main volume of manufactured and shipped industrial products is provided by manufacturing enterprises (81%) and enterprises for the production and distribution of electricity, gas and water (18%). The share of mining is 1% of the total industrial output of the region.

Automotive components and assemblies are produced in the region (Skopinsk and Ryazan auto-aggregate plants), radio electronics (Ryazan radio plant, the plant of calculating and analytical machines, the Krasnoye Znamya plant), metal-cutting machines (Ryazan machine-tool plant). The Torfmash plant produces municipal and peat harvesting equipment, Tyazhpressmash produces forging and pressing equipment. Enterprises for the production of vans, boards, trailers and tow trucks: Tsentrtranstekhmash, Metkompleks, Vesta; gas equipment - "Gazkomplektservis", ventilation systems - "Era".



As of the beginning of 2021, 6 thermal power plants with a total capacity of 3715.2 MW were operated in the Ryazan region. In 2020, they produced 4247 million kWh of electricity.

Several power plants operate in the region. The largest - Ryazanskaya GRES (2710 MW) and GRES-24 (420 MW) in the city of Novomichurinsk (both are part of OGK-2), Novo-Ryazanskaya (400 MW) and Dyagilevskaya (110 MW) combined heat and power plants are part of the Kvadra holding and are located in the city of Ryazan. There is a small generation in the form of two gas turbine power plants in Sasov and Kasimov with a capacity of 18 MW each. The total capacity of the region's power plants is 3.676 GW.

The total productivity of boiler plants is 4800 Gcal/h, incl. in Ryazan there are 108 boiler houses with a total heat output of 310 Gcal/h (2005).

In 2006, 12.6 billion kWh of electricity was generated (internal consumption is about 5 billion kWh), and 10 million Gcal of thermal energy was supplied.



The agro-industrial complex of the region includes 315 agricultural enterprises of various forms of ownership, 2538 farms, more than 200 enterprises of the food and processing industry. In total, the complex employs more than 32 thousand people.


Animal husbandry

The leading branch of agriculture is dairy and meat cattle breeding. Cattle, pigs, poultry, sheep are bred. Tribal horse breeding (2 stud farms).

In 2021, farms of all categories produced 557.5 thousand tons of raw milk, which is 8.3% more than in 2020 and is the highest result over the past 25 years. The largest volumes of raw milk were produced in agricultural organizations of the Ryazan, Shatsk, Rybnovsky, Pitelinsky, Aleksandro-Nevsky and Kasimovsky regions. The average milk yield per cow in 2021 was 8541 kg, which is 576 kg more than a year earlier. The leaders among the districts are: Pitelinsky - 10,913 kg per cow, Chuchkovsky - 10,484 kg, Shatsky - 10,229 kg, Kasimovsky - 9,588 kg and Pronsky - 9,097 kg. The average milk yield per cow in the Ryazan region is 16% higher than the average Russian level and 8% higher than the average milk yield in the Central Federal District. At the same time, not only the quantity, but also the quality of milk is growing. For 7 years, 27 investment projects have been implemented in the Ryazan region for the construction of livestock complexes in the amount of almost 15 billion rubles and the total number of dairy herds is more than 26 thousand heads. The construction of new farms made it possible to increase milk production in the Ryazan region over 7 years (from 2014 to 2021) by more than 1.5 times - by 53%.

As of April 1, 2022, there were 171,730 heads of cattle (+0.6%) in farms of all categories, including 71,497 cows (+0.6%), 334,421 pigs (+35.3%), 46,064 sheep and goats (-3.9%).

The breeding base of the region in dairy cattle breeding is represented by 15 farms: 4 breeding plants and 11 breeding reproducers. The breed composition of cattle in breeding farms is mainly represented by two breeds - black-and-white and Holstein. All animals are purebred and belong to the elite record and elite class. All breeding farms use automated zootechnical accounting - the program AWP "Selex". As of January 1, 2020, the number of dairy cattle in breeding farms is 49 thousand heads, including 21 thousand cows, thus, the share of breeding dairy cattle is 35.2%.

Beef cattle breeding is a developing industry and is represented by:
LLC SHP "Moloko-Tyrnovo" of the Pronsky district - cultivation of the Aberdeen-Angus breed.
LLC "Invest-Agro" of the Rybnovsky district - cultivation of the Kalmyk breed of cattle.
KFH Izekeev E.A. (Rybnovsky district) - cultivation of the Kazakh white-headed breed of cattle.
Ryazan Pig Complex JSC and Verdazernoprodukt LLC are breeding farms: the first for the large white breed of pigs, the second for the Landrace breed. Carry out the implementation of breeding and hybrid F1 pigs up to 1000 heads quarterly, bio-products from highly productive boars-producers.

The main enterprise for the production of chicken eggs is Okskoye JSC of the Ryazan region, where 894.2 million chicken eggs were produced in 2019 - 92.2% of the total egg production in the region.


Crop production

Barley, wheat, rye, oats, fodder crops, sugar beets, fruits and berries are grown in the region.

The Ryazan region is the leader in Russia in terms of buckwheat yield, yielding only to the Omsk region with an indicator of 12.9 centners per hectare.

In 2020, the harvest of grain crops without corn as of November 6 is 2 million 745 thousand tons. Corn for grain harvested from 68% of the area, received 120 thousand tons of grain. As of November 6, 82.9 thousand tons of soybeans were received. The grain harvest of 2020 was a record for the entire history of the region.

In 2021, grain crops will be harvested on an area of 673 thousand hectares in the Ryazan region, plus 24.9 thousand hectares - corn for grain. This is the largest area in the region for more than 20 years. The area of cereals, including corn for grain, is 16.7 thousand hectares more than last year. In 2020, the Ryazan region received a record grain harvest in history - 2.9 million tons.

The total land fund of agricultural enterprises, organizations and citizens engaged in agricultural production is 2556.2 thousand hectares, of which farmland occupies 2328.5 thousand hectares, arable land - 1470.6 thousand hectares, fodder land - 813.5 thousand hectares.



Ryazan is known for its apples such as Antonovka, Bogatyr and other winter varieties of apples. During the Soviet period, apples were grown in every district of the Ryazan region, and in most areas, at least two horticultural farms were engaged in this. Fruits, vegetables, berries went mainly to Moscow and the Urals.

As of 01/01/2019, the area of perennial plantings in the horticultural farms of the region is 1620.3 hectares, including:
seed orchards - 1361.5 hectares, of which 419 hectares are fruit-bearing and 232 hectares are young
berries - 258.8 ha, of which 222.3 ha are in fruit-bearing age and 36.5 ha are young.
The main share of fruits and berries falls on the households, where 82.9% of the total gross harvest is produced. In 2018, the gross harvest of fruits and berries in all categories of farms amounted to 20.6 thousand tons, including 2.4 thousand tons in agricultural organizations.



The region is located within the Moscow region coal basin. Brown coal (black lignite) and peat, glass and building sands, refractory (refractory) and low-melting clays, as well as non-metallic resources are common on the territory of the region.