Mikhaylov, Russia


Description of Mikhaylov

Mikhaylov or Mikhailov is a city (since 1778) in Russia, the administrative center of the Mikhailovsky District of the Ryazan Region.


Travel Destinations in Mikhaylov

1  Bridge across the river Pronya. The arch bridge was built according to the project of the architect Bantle in 1898. Now the bridge is pedestrian, but during the Great Patriotic War, according to the diorama from the local museum of local lore, heavy equipment also moved along it.
2  Cathedral Hill. The location of the chic St. Michael's Cathedral, blown up in 1930. Now there is a cross in its place, next to a modern church and the ruins of a school. But the mountain also serves as a viewing platform. Recently, a new park appeared on it - the Burma Garden. The park got its unofficial name in honor of the first beautifier of this place - the head of the local fire brigade V.P. Burmin, who served in the city in 1909-1927.
3  Memorial of Military Glory, Red Square. The memorial, which has grown greatly in recent years, began in 1966 with a T-34 tank.
4  Statue of Michael the Archangel. Modern work (Ryazan sculptor Oleg Sedov), honors the heavenly patron of the city of Mikhailov. There are also memorial signs nearby: one was erected in honor of local participants in the Ryazan militia (1812), the second is dedicated to the participants in the ten-day defense of Mikhailov in August 1618.
5     Tax hut. The oldest building in the city was built in 1727. According to rumors, there is also a debt hole nearby. But is it worth looking for - the question.
6 Museum of Local Lore, Marshal Golikov Street, 6. The building was built in 1912 according to the project of the architect Bantle and before the revolution served as a refuge for the county treasury. According to local legend, even before the revolution, an accountant hung himself in the attic of the building, missing a whole million budget rubles. However, they say that he just made a big mistake in the zeros and the real shortage was only one penny, so he hanged himself completely in vain.
7  The building of the zemstvo council, st. Pronskaya, 19. The most remarkable civil building of the city was built in 1912 by the same Bantle. Now, of course, the city administration is located here.
8 Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, Nizhnyaya Zarayskaya street. The graceful tent church, built in 1756, is all that remains of the Nativity Vysotsky Monastery, which arose in the 16th century. Over the years of its existence, the church has managed to work as a fire station with a bell tower that has been shattered as a fire tower. But now the tent has been restored.
9 Intercession Church, Leshchenko Street. The stone church in the former Leshchinskaya Sloboda was built in 1813 on the site of a wooden church built in 1620.
10  Lenin Square. The former trading square turned into Lenin Square when in 1933 a monument to the leader of the world proletariat was erected on it. The current version of the monument from the 1980s looks trite, but before it, Lenin stood on the square on the globe, where the continents were shown, and the country of the USSR was painted red. The author of this monument, preserved only in photographs, was a local sculptor Nikolai Ushakov.
11  Monument to the Unknown Soldier. The current monument of 1985 was erected on the site of a mass grave.
12  Water tower. The late 19th century tower is located next to the railway station built in 1900.
13 Church of Michael the Archangel, st. factory, 1.
14  Church of the Nativity, Prudskaya street. The church in the former Prudskaya Sloboda was built in 1798-1817 according to the project of V.P. Stasov.
15 Labor Square. The former Spasskaya Square was named after the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior, which was demolished during the Soviet era. Now, in memory of the 19th-century church, a chapel has been erected on the square.
16  Monument "To the Warriors of the 10th Army". It was installed on the spot where the troops of the 10th army stood, which liberated Mikhailov from the Nazis.
17  Protection Monastery (on the highway). Restored cathedral in the style of classicism.


What to do

Museum of the factory "Mikhailovskaya lacemaker", Truzhenits street, 5.


History of Mikhaylov

Prehistoric period

Mikhailov is one of the oldest cities in the Ryazan land. In the first millennium of our era, the Finno-Ugric tribe Meshchera lived on the banks of the Pronya River. At the same time, Slavic tribes, mainly Vyatichi, began to penetrate here. Part of the Meshchera tribes moved north, beyond the Oka, part mixed with the Slavic tribes.

During excavations in the Mikhailov area, a bronze comb with a Finnish ornament, a vyatich temporal pendant, a whorl and numerous objects from Slavic ceramics were found. Obviously, in ancient times, on the territory of modern Mikhailov, there was a settlement of Meshchers, and then the Vyatichi settled here, as evidenced by the excavations of barrows of a purely Vyatichi type and the names of some settlements. So, for example, the current Gladkie Vyselki were called Meshchersky Vyselki until the beginning of the 20th century.


Foundation of the city

The time of Mikhailov's appearance is not exactly known. The data on this issue are extremely contradictory.

N.V. Lyubomudrov attributed the founding of the city to the Novgorod prince Rurik Rostislavovich, relying on the message contained in V.N. "in the name of old Rostislav, and in holy baptism Michael" and founded on that place "a city in his name and the church of St. Michael." Objecting to N.V. Lyubomudrov, A.L. Mongait points out that, firstly, V.N. way from Novgorod to Kiev.

Vozdvizhensky T. Ya. believed that the city was named after the church. According to legend, the church was built simultaneously with the city and was consecrated in the name of the Archangel Michael, the invincible leader of the heavenly host, whose icon was found when clearing the place for the church.

Attempts to connect the name of the city with some prince named Mikhail proceed from the unsaid assumption that the settlement existed long before the 16th century.

Some researchers associate the name of the city with the name of the Pronsky prince Kir-Mikhail Vsevolodovich (1206-1217). Borrowed from the Greek language, the word kir ‘lord’ was used in relation to persons holding the highest church positions. However, such a name of the city as Kir-Mikhailov, contrary to the assertion of V. A. Nikonov, is not noted in the written monuments.

In the Resurrection Chronicle, dating from the end of the 14th - the beginning of the 15th century, Mikhailov is also indicated in the list of Ryazan cities. However, it is impossible to assume with certainty that this is the same Mikhailov on Pron, although, as A. L. Mongait notes, the ceramics found on the territory of the Mikhailovsky Kremlin dates back to this time and later - until the 17th century.

Various sources also indicate other dates of the possible foundation: 1172 and 1238.

The county town of Mikhailov is mentioned under the name "Mikhail's Field" as a fiefdom granted in the 14th century by Grand Duke Oleg Ryazansky to Ivan Miroslavovich.


16th century

In the 16th century, Mikhailov was an important defensive point. Chain mail, iron arrowheads and sabers found here speak of the heroic struggle of the Mikhailovites against numerous enemies.

So, in 1534, near Mikhailov, near the Krasnaya Gorka tract, between the current city, Streltsy Vyselki and Kumovaya Gora, a battle took place between the troops of the Crimean Khan Sahib Gerai, who annually devastated Russian possessions on the river. Prone, and the Moscow troops led by the princes Mikulinsky S.I. and Tatev F.I. The bloody battle, which lasted several days, ended in the complete defeat of the Tatar hordes.

In 1546, Mikhailov was already mentioned among the fortified cities of the so-called "notch line".

The decree of Ivan the Terrible of 1551 on the founding of the fortress city of Mikhailov refers to the period of active measures to strengthen the southern borders of the Moscow state.

The Nikon Chronicle contains the following entry:
The same summer (1551), August, was placed on Pron, on the river, Mikhailov city, and its governors were Prince Alexander Ivanovich Vorotynskoy, and Mikhailo Petrov son Golovin

Tsar Ivan the Terrible was pleased with the place, convenient "from the spray of the enemy." The choice of a place on the sunny (left) bank above the river (the so-called "red side") is in many ways similar to the Moscow Kremlin, the ancient centers of Vladimir, Kostroma, Kaluga and many other cities of Rus'.

The city had a good natural defense against enemies. From the high hill where the fortress was located, the surroundings are far visible. From the south, a full-flowing river blocked the enemy, from the east - the river and the Black Mountain, from the west - a deep ravine and the Blue Mountain. The city is surrounded by a deep moat. The ditch was surrounded by an oak palisade in the form of logs dug into the ground. There were seven deaf (without gates) towers in the wall of the fortress: one watchtower, the rest were of defensive value.

Where the descent from Red Square to the bridge is now, the Tainichnaya Tower stood; from here there was a secret passage to the river for water in case of a siege. All military supplies - weapons and potion (gunpowder), cannon supplies - were stored in barns and cellars. The garrison of the fortress was armed with squeaks, pistols, spades, self-propelled guns, armor, iron and stone cannonballs, lead, combustible sulfur, oak stakes and others.

The population of the city mainly consisted of archers, gunners, carpenters, Cossacks, blacksmiths, collars, coachmen for sending ambassadors, messengers, officials and district people. All of them, one way or another, were engaged in the protection of the southern borders of the state, carried out guard duty, and maintained the fortifications of the fortress in due order. At the same time, they were engaged in agriculture and did not shun trade.

Over the years, Mikhailov grew and expanded. Posad settlements gradually arose outside the city walls - Streletskaya, Kazachya, Okhotnaya and others. In the center of ancient Mikhailov, on both sides of the Cathedral Hill, the remains of a once powerful rampart have been preserved.


17th century

During the Time of Troubles, the Mikhailovites, together with other cities of the Ryazan Territory, took part in the Bolotnikov Uprising.

In 1612, Zarutsky, one of the chieftains of the Cossack army, took possession of the city, who became close to Marina Mnishek and wanted to put her son on the Moscow throne. Having devastated Mikhailov, Zarutsky left the city for Epifan, leaving his governor here. But soon the townspeople in peace seized this governor and his free Cossacks, put them in prison and turned to Zaraysk and Ryazan for help. But Zarutsky never returned to Mikhailov.

In 1618, the Polish prince Vladislav, claiming the Russian throne, moved to Moscow with an army. One of his detachments under the command of the Zaporizhzhya hetman Sagaidachny, having plundered Livny, Yelets, Lebedyan, approached Mikhailov. The siege and the struggle for the city continued for 10 days. But all the attacks were repulsed by a small garrison of the fortress and the inhabitants of the city. Sahaidachny was forced to lift the siege and withdraw from the walls of the city.

In February 1640, the ambassadors of the Polish king, Stakhorsky and Raetsky, arrived at Tsar Mikhail Romanov and presented him with the "Difficult Article" about the Zaporizhzhya Cherkasy. It contained a complaint against the traitors of the Cossacks, who illegally settled the new settlements of the Tsar's Majesty in the steppe near Mikhailov, near Gremyachy. The Muscovite tsar left the protest of the Polish ambassadors unanswered. He considered it right to provide asylum to the Cossacks fleeing the persecution of the Poles. So the Cossacks appeared in Mikhailov, who were called Cherkasy, after the name of the city of Cherkasy. In Mikhailov, Cherkasy Sloboda was formed. It was located approximately where the street is now Beregovaya and Karl Marx.

In the 17th century, Mikhailov was part of the Vladimir Chet.


18th century

With the growth of the power of Russia and the expansion of its borders, Mikhailov lost its strategic importance as a border fortress. In 1708, as a result of the Petrovsky regional reforms, Mikhailov became a county town of the Moscow province, and since 1719 - one of the four county towns of the Pereyaslav-Ryazan province of the Moscow province.

Under Peter I, instead of 20 guns, only one remained in Mikhailovo. Former service people became arable soldiers (state peasants). Later, the descendants of former soldiers began to move out of the city settlements closer to their fields and formed 14 villages and villages: Vilenki, Izheslavl, Novopanskoye, Pushkari, Rachatniki, Serebryan, Streltsy Vyselki, Stuble, etc. Estates arose there, mansions were built, estates expanded. New counts and princes became the masters of these places. The city of Mikhailov itself began to be rebuilt according to a new plan, approved by Catherine II, who wrote on it: "To be according to this."

In 1778, the Pereyaslav-Ryazan province became known as the Ryazan governorship, and in 1796, the Ryazan province. At the same time, Mikhailov did not lose the status of a county town.

According to the general plan of 1780, Mikhailov received the shape of a square with each side approximately 900 m. The layout of the streets according to this plan has mainly been preserved in the city center to this day.


19th century

One of the largest horse-drawn routes from Voronezh and Yelets to Zaraisk and Kolomna passed through Mikhailov. Horse-drawn transport required the preparation of fodder for horses, accommodation and allowances for people, stocks of transport devices and workshops for their manufacture and repair. All this supported the trade and industry of the urban population.

The construction of railways that connected the black earth belt with Moscow dealt a strong blow to the city, its turnover was significantly reduced. The most enterprising and wealthy merchants hastened to transfer their activities to the railway stations, and only those merchants who could not take an active part in trade remained in Mikhailov. Stagnation in business led the city to a significant decline.

Only with the passage of the railway through Mikhailov, trade and industry began to revive in it again, the purchase of bread developed, shastalks and other industrial enterprises appeared, a branch of the Russian commercial and industrial bank was opened, and others.

In 1860, there was a paper and weaving factory in Mikhailov.

On the eve of the abolition of serfdom (1861), in the uyezd, as well as throughout the gubernia, peasant protests against the arbitrariness of the landowners and unbearably heavy dues and payments became more frequent. Ryazan vice-governor M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin went to investigate the causes of pogroms and arson of landowners' estates in the Mikhailovsky district.

At the end of the 19th century, a new type of craft appeared in the city and nearby villages - lace-making. Mikhailovsky laces adorned the outfits of residents of the Tambov, Tula, Oryol provinces, southern Russia and Little Russia. By the beginning of 1880, there were 2 thousand lace makers in the county, in 1896 - more than 3 thousand, by 1914 - 10 thousand. In 1882, lace products appeared in Moscow at an exhibition and received prizes.

The burghers of the city took pictures of the gardens.

Mikhailov's commercial and industrial turnover reached 1.6 million rubles with 144 enterprises; of this amount, 1.5 million rubles fall to the share of trade at 167 enterprises. The city's industry was limited to a small tannery.

In 1897 there were 9 churches in the city. The venerated icon of the Archangel Michael, found in 1551, during the construction of the city fortification and clearing the site for the construction of the church, was kept in the cathedral church.


20th century

With the Bolsheviks coming to power in Russia, on December 29, 1917, the first county congress of the Soviets of Workers and Peasants took place, which took power in the city into its own hands.

In 1918, during the difficult time of the civil war and the onset of economic devastation, a teacher's seminary was opened in the city, and in the fall of 1919, a children's state music school. The further fate of Mikhailov and the region in the 1920s and 1930s differed little from the fates of numerous cities in the country.

Collectivization in the city began in the autumn of 1929. The first tractors appeared in the region in 1928, the first harvesters - in 1934, the first MTS was created in 1930.


The Great Patriotic War

In the first months of the Great Patriotic War, Mikhailov acquired the importance of an important strategic point in the plans of the German command. The troops of the fascist army "Center" were to seize it and break through Kashira to Moscow. The fascist German invaders dropped hundreds of tons of deadly cargo from the air on peaceful towns and villages. In early October, the evacuation of grain, livestock, machinery, equipment to the rear began from Mikhailov.

The city was surrounded by anti-tank ditches, gouges and hedgehogs appeared on the streets and squares, loopholes for machine guns and anti-tank rifles, bomb shelters were equipped in the basements of buildings, pillboxes and bunkers were erected. Teenagers, women, old people participated in their construction. On November 24, the first motorcyclists, armored personnel carriers, and tanks appeared. The occupation lasted 13 days.

On December 6, 1941, the Tula offensive operation began. And by 9 a.m. on December 7, the city was completely liberated from the Nazis by the 10th Army (parts of the 328th and 330th rifle divisions) under the command of Lieutenant General F. I. Golikov. The first to break into the city were units of the 328th Infantry Division, which also included soldiers of the 330th Division. It so happened that the mounted signalman Kogtin, sent to the headquarters of the division, with a report on the capture of the city, did not find the headquarters of the division, and the report returned. At this time, the 330th division on the radio reported to the army headquarters about the capture of the city, allegedly only by its units. This further affected the accuracy of coverage of events outside the city of Mikhailov


Getting here

By train
The main line of the Paveletsky direction passes through Mikhailov, serving long-distance trains in the direction of Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan. Unlike the Uzunovo station to the north, where AC and DC lines join and therefore all trains stop, only a few stop at Mikhailov. From Moscow by long-distance train it takes 3.5 hours.

Suburban trains 3-4 times a day to Uzunovo (1 hour) and Pavelets (1 hour). If Moscow electric trains go to Uzunovo, then Pavelets is an unpromising place, although long-distance trains stop there more often than in Mikhailov.

Train Station.

By bus
A couple of times a day there are direct buses from Moscow to Mikhailov. There is also a steady flow of Moscow buses on the highway (direction to Volgograd, Elista, Astrakhan), but all of them do not have an official stop here and, at best, will agree to drop you off at the side of the road.

Buses from Ryazan, on average, every hour, travel time from 1 hour 15 minutes to 1.5 hours. Some of these buses then go to Novomoskovsk or Tula.

Bus station, st. Marshal Golikov. ☎ +7 (49130) 2-18-81.

By car
Near Mikhailov there is a two-lane highway R-22 in the direction of Moscow (210 km) and Tambov (250 km). The local road leads northeast to Ryazan (70 km), and west to Venev (70 km). This is the largest road connecting the Ryazan region with the Tula region.



1  Bar-restaurant "Nostalzhi"  , pl. Victory, 1. 10:00–2:00. As visitors write, “a restaurant with pretensions”: there is an extensive Japanese menu and other delights of Russian provincial cuisine.
2  Pizzeria Amore Italia  , st. Marshal Golikov, 17a. 11:00–20:00, Fri and Sat: until 21:00. Pizza, sushi, rolls and apparently nothing else.
3  The most delicious shawarma, Proletarskaya st. 1 (near the bus station). around the clock. Stall of the Tula network.
4   Cafe "Prival", 214 km of the R-22 highway (Prudskie Vyselki village). around the clock. Roadside diner, good reviews.



1  Hotel "Daria", Proletarskaya st. 89. ☎ +7 (920) 976-97-45. A hotel at the construction market, which the guests describe as a hostel-hostel.
2  Mikhailovskie Dvoriki Hotel, pos. Electrician (highway R-22, 8 km from the city). Roadside motel, rooms with and without amenities. Conflicting reviews. There are several cafes around, within the Ryazan region, this is the largest accumulation of roadside infrastructure on R-22.



1 Estate of A.P. Yermolova, Village of the sanatorium "Krasnoe". Manor in pseudo-Gothic style. Its best building is the Animal Farm, stylized as a fortress with four graceful turrets. The classicist Kazan Church was built in 1785-1810 according to the project of V.I. Bazhenov. Now the restored estate is occupied by the courtyard of the Moscow Sretensky Monastery.
2 Church of St. John the Evangelist, Zhokino. The church of the middle of the 19th century is good both for its unusual three-dimensional composition, and for the grandiose bell tower topped with a tent of a rare shape, and for its two-color decor.
3  Zhokinskoye settlement. On the bank of the river with the sonorous name of Zhrak there is a medieval settlement in which you can discern the outlines of three lines of defensive embankments and ditches. Around what it was built, scientists do not know. Botanists will also find something to do here: rare plants listed in the Red Books of the region and the country are found here.
4 Church of the Nativity of the Virgin (1838), Vilenki. Church in the Empire style with a two-tone bell tower.
5 Church of the Transfiguration, Vnukovo. Ruins of a church from the end of the 18th century.
6 Church of the Resurrection of Christ, New Kirkino. Spectacular ruin of a church from the middle of the 18th century. Mar 2021 edit
7 Church of Sergius of Radonezh, Polovnevo. Ruins of a church from the early 19th century. In a space that was once an interior, one can still discern disappearing murals.
8 Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, Pomozovo. Miniature church of the middle of the 18th century. Refurbished.
9 Church of the Intercession of the Virgin, Stublö. The ruins of an eclectic church attract with two-tone decor.
10 Assumption Church, Firyulevka. Wooden church of the early 20th century.


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position

The city is located at the eastern foot of the Central Russian Upland on the banks of the Pronya River (a tributary of the Oka); 68 km southwest of the city of Ryazan.

The city covers an area of 8 km². The average height of the city center is 166 m above sea level. The city is located south-west of the R-22 Kaspiy Moscow-Astrakhan highway and on the R-132 Ryazan-Kaluga highway.

The main river of Mikhailov is the river. Pronya, flowing from west to southeast through the whole city. In the city, several streams flow into it.



The climate is temperate continental, characterized by warm but unstable summers, moderately cold and snowy winters. The wind regime is formed under the influence of circulating climate factors and physical and geographical features of the area. Atmospheric precipitation is determined mainly by cyclonic activity and is unevenly distributed throughout the year.

According to the statistics of the nearest large settlement - the city of Ryazan, the average January temperature is -7.0 °C (day) / -13.7 °C (night), July +24.2 °C (day) / +13.9 °C (night).

Precipitation is about 553 mm per year, maximum in summer.

The growing season is about 180 days.


Official symbols

Coat of arms

Mikhailov's coat of arms was approved on March 29 (April 9), 1779. At that time, the coats of arms of all county towns acquired a special two-part form, reflecting the administrative structure of the state: the emblem of the viceroy was placed in the upper, dominant half of the shield, and only the city’s own emblem was placed in the lower, subordinate half of the shield.

In the upper, dominant half of the shield there is a crossed sword and scabbard (the coat of arms of the Ryazan governorship). in the lower, subordinate, half of the shield - "in the blue field, by the name of this city, two wings of Michael the Archangel" the city's own emblem. Around the shield is a beautiful ancient Russian ornament.

Mikhailov's coat of arms also reflects a special heraldic technique, when, for brevity, only its symbolic part is depicted instead of the whole.

Therefore, in the upper half of the coat of arms, instead of the entire Ryazan prince, only his hat and weapons (crossed sword and scabbard) are depicted, and in the lower half, instead of the Archangel Michael, only his two wings, as they are usually depicted in iconography, stretched down. The need to place only wings in the Mikhailovsky coat of arms is also dictated by the fact that the full image of the Archangel Michael is already in the ancient coat of arms of the city of Kiev, of which he is considered the patron, and in the coat of arms of the city of Arkhangelsk. Such a symbolic similarity allows us to consider Mikhailov, in his own way, a twin of these ancient Russian cities.

In the 19th century, the upper half of the Mikhailovsky coat of arms with provincial attributes was gradually reduced to the size of 1/3 of the shield, and after the heraldic reform it was completely canceled and replaced by a “free part” - a special square in the upper corner of the shield, in which the coat of arms of the province was placed.

In 1862, a new coat of arms of the city was drawn up. The emblem of the coat of arms was preserved, but its style was changed: the wings were depicted in the European manner - outstretched upwards, with splayed eagle feathers.

The coat of arms turned out to be spectacular, but its symbolic fundamental principle, the image of the Archangel Michael, was lost. Emperor Alexander II did not approve the new designs of the Ryazan emblems, and they have come down to us in their original form.

The catalog of coats of arms contains a variant of the unofficial coat of arms of the Soviet era: black wings and crossed swords on a golden shield.



The words to the anthem of the city were written by N. B. Chenkina to the music of N. Makeeva.