Republic Mari El, Russia

Republic Mari El - the subject of the Russian Federation, the republic in its composition. It is part of the Volga Federal District, is part of the Volga-Vyatka Economic District.

The capital is the city of Yoshkar-Ola.

In the north and east, he borders on the Kirov region, in the southeast-with the Republic of Tatarstan, in the southwest-with the Chuvash Republic, in the west-with the Nizhny Novgorod region.

It was formed on November 4, 1920 as a Mari Autonomous Region. The republic since 1936.

State languages: Lugovomari, Mining, Russian.



Yoshkar-Ola - the administrative and cultural center of the republic.
There are many attractions. Pay special attention to the center where the national gallery and the main square of the republic is located; "local" Arbata, with monuments and a park of culture; newly -built Kremlin and embankment Bruges.

You can try national cuisine. Get acquainted with local culture.


Other destinations

Reserve "Big Kokshaga"
National Park "Mari Chora"
Sheremetyevs castle in the village of Yurino
Old city, in Kozmodemyansk



 Russian. But more than half of the residents of the republic know the second language. This is usually either Mari or Tatar. There are small communities of Chuvash, Ukrainians, Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Uzbeks, Georgians, Chechens and Dagestanis in their own language.


How to get here

The easiest way by train or plane. There are regular flights Moscow - Yoshkar -Ola. You can also get to Cheboksar or Kazan, and from there you can get to Yoshkar-Ola by minibus, by bus or in a passing car.


Local transport

In the republic, it is best to travel on minibuses or your car. The most "difficult" roads are in Yoshkar -Ola herself. In the republic, the roads are not bad. So the journey will be not difficult.


Things to do

Enjoying the nature. Local cuisine. And local culture.

The Mari are the only pagans in Europe, at the moment.



Locals are quite sociable.

Therefore, do not hesitate to ask.


Night life

In Yoshkar-Ola and, partly, in Volzhsk.

In two other cities and several villages of the republic there are practically no it.


Physico and geographical characteristics


Mari El is located in the east of the East European plain, in the middle reaches of the Volga. Most of the republic fall on the Left Bank of the Volga. The river network of Mari El consists of 19 pools and includes 179 rivers with a water -flower length of more than 10 km. Most of the rivers flows among forests and has a mixed type of power (50 % of them - due to melt snowwater).

The western part of the left bank is occupied by a marshy Mari lowland. In the west of the Republic, the Volga takes a large tributary - Vetluga. The left -wing tributaries of the Volga flow in the lowland east, originating on the southern slopes of Vyatka Vyalov: a small Kokshaga with tributaries of a small kundysh and a large one, a large Kokshaga with a tributary of a large kunddysh, a route. There are many forest lakes in their valleys.

The eastern part of the territory is located within the Vyatka Vyalov (height up to 275 m), there are karst forms of relief, the surface is divided by river valleys and ravines. Among them are the Vyatka Basin River: Nemda with tributaries Lazh, Tolman, Shukshan, etc., buoy, Urzhumka; The left tributary of the Volga with the tributaries of Shor, Irovka and Yushut.

On the right bank of the Volga, there is only one of the 14 regions of the republic - the Minormarian, which occupies the northern outskirts of the Volga Upland. Here, the tributaries of Sura, bag, jung, Malaya Jung, and the Sundor flow into the Volga.

On the Volga, within the republic, there are Cheboksarsky and Kuibyshev reservoirs.



Resources: peat, clay, construction stone, limestones, glass and silicate sands, mineral springs.



The climate is moderately continental with long cold winter and warm summer. The average temperature is +18 ... +19 ° C in July, which is the hottest month of the year. In the hottest days of some years, the air warms up to +37 ... +39 ° C. In the fall, the weather is cold and wet with a predominance of strong penetrating winds and rains. Early frosts and snow are possible. November is the most windy month. Winter, as a rule, begins in November. The average temperature of January, which is the coldest month, is −12 ... −14 ° C. Spring, in general, cool and dry.


Flora and fauna

Mari El is located in the stagnan zone. The soils are predominantly sod-podzolic, marsh, gray forest. Mixed forests (pine, spruce, fir, birch, aspen, oak, linden, maple, knit, alder, willow, very rarely ash) occupy more than 50 % of the territory (mainly in the west and central areas). In river valleys-oak-linden forests. A wolf, a brown bear, a fox, a moose, a lynx, a beaver, a mole, etc. have been preserved. Borovaya and waterfowl.

Particularly protected natural territories
On the territory of Mari El is the National Park Mari Chora, the Big Kokshaga reserve and other specially protected natural territories.


Recreational potential

The corners of nature remain in the republic, which are used by residents of the cities of the republic and neighboring regions for relaxation. There are many hiking tourist routes, horse -stands, water campaigns are regularly held on catamarans and kayaks along the small and large Kokshag, Yushuta, Ileti, Small and Big Kundysh, Nemda. On the lakes (Yalchik, Tair and others) and rivers, recreation centers, sanatoriums and summer camps were built.


Extreme points

The extreme western point is located near the village of Zinovievo, Yurinsky district; The extreme eastern near the village of Shurgunur, Mari-Tureksky district; The extreme north - near the village of Okulovo, Sernursky district; Extreme South - Volzhsk.



The Bronze Age is represented in the Mari Territory of the Ust-Vevezhsky burial ground, which belongs to the Seiminsko-Turba phenomenon and reflects the migration of Indo-European peoples.

Finno-Ugric tribes inhabited the territory of the modern European part of Russia from prehistoric times. On the territory of the Republic of Mari El, archaeological sources dating back to the first millennium BC are preserved. e. Since the Mari Writing-Tuste was used exclusively for the records of economic and economic information, and the Tatar written sources were destroyed by the capture of Kazan, almost all written information about the history of the Central Volga is associated with Russian sources.

Cheremis (modern name - Mari) is first reliably mentioned in the X century in a letter to the Khazar king Joseph, the dignity of the Kordovsky Khalifa Khasdai ibn Shafruta. The ancestors of modern Mari between the 5th and VIII centuries interacted with the Goths, later with the Khazars and Volga Bulgaria, which was located in modern Tatarstan and was destroyed in 1236 by the Mongolian troops of the Khan Baty. With the Golden Horde, which was formed after this, apparently consisted in allied relations. From the XIII to the 16th century, the Mari were part of the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate.

Since the 9th century, the Mari have come into contact with the Slavic population who founded the cities of Rostov, Galich, Yaroslavl, Suzdal, Vladimir and in 1221 Nizhny Novgorod. Thus, the Mari fell into the sphere of influence of Kievan Rus. Gradually, the Western Mari, on the adoption of Christianity, were glorified, unwilling to accept Christianity fled east. In the Middle Ages, Russian-Tatar clashes on the Mari lands became commonplace. In 1551, the lands of mountain Marie (the Right -Bank of the Volga) fell under the control of the Russian kingdom, and in 1552 the tsarist troops took Kazan, and the meadow Maries began to pay tribute to the Russian kingdom. The 30-year period of the Cheremissan wars began, which ended with the erection of fortified cities for the constant maintenance of military garrisons (in 1583, Kozmodemyansk was founded, in 1584-Tsarevokokshaysk-now Yoshkar-Ola, Yaransk, Sanchursk) and the subsequent settlement of the Russians of the region.

Forced Christianization led to the fact that the Mari went into the forests, leaving whole villages empty. Under Peter I, the Mari began to be drafted into the army, abolished the Tarkhan estate. Along with this, a scientific study of the territory began, the first written monuments of the Mari language on the Cyrillician appeared. The first Mari grammar of Putseck-Grigorovich appeared in 1775. The situation of the Mari remained quite difficult, and in 1775 they massively supported the uprising of Pugachev.

In 1872, the Kazan Teacher's Seminary opened, one of the tasks of which was the training of representatives of the Volga peoples, including the Mari. This gave a serious impetus to the development of education and culture (including national) in the region.

Before the October Revolution, the Mari (like most of the peoples of Russia) did not have their own statehood and were scattered as part of the Kazan, Vyatka, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Ufa and Perm provinces. And today out of 670 thousand Mari, only 324.3 thousand live in the Republic of Mari El. Historically, 51.7 % of Marie live outside the limits of their republic, including 4.1 % outside of Russia.

After the October Revolution, November 4, 1920, the Mari Autonomous Region was formed. In 1922, the region suffered greatly from the hunger that has gripped the Volga region. In May 1922, in the Mari Autonomous Region, according to official figures, 466,486 people were starving (of which 164,429 children).

In the 1920s, two equal linguistic literary norms were established: Lugovomari Language and the Mountain Mary. These years, as in other national republics, were marked by the active development of national-cultural construction.

On July 15, 1929, the Mari Autonomous Region became part of the newly formed Nizhny Novgorod (since 1932 - Gorky) Territory. On December 5, 1936, the Gorky Territory was abolished, the Mari Autonomous Region was transformed into the Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which is directly part of the RSFSR.

October 22, 1990 - Mari Soviet Socialist Republic (MSSR), without leaving the RSFSR. December 9, 1992 - the Republic of Mari El (the amendment to the law entered into force from the moment of publication in the Rossiya Gazeta on January 12, 1993). The name is by the ethnic self -support of its indigenous population - Marie (“Man, Husband”): Mar. Mari is a Mari word meaning “Mariean, Mari, Mari”, Mar. El is “country, land”, that is, the “country of the Mari”.

In 1936, it was decided to build a cellulose-paper plant on the territory of the republic, designed to ensure the import substitution of production goods. The All -Union construction site was announced in the Lopatinsky Zaton. On August 26, 1939, by a decision of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, Lopatinsky District was created with a district center in the village of Lopatino at the cellulose-paper plant under construction. In 1940, the village was renamed Volzhsk and he was assigned the status of the city. In connection with the renaming, the district was also renamed the Volzhsky district. The construction of machine-building enterprises gave impetus to the development of Volzhsk, which soon became a large industrial center along with Yoshkar-Ola.

During the war, over 130 thousand people were called up to the front. A little over 56 thousand people returned home. In the territory of the republic, workers evacuated from the western regions of the USSR were placed and employed. In the republic, enterprises relocated from Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa and other cities have joined operation. A number of research institutions of Leningrad were transferred to Yoshkar-Ola. In the post -war five -year periods in the republic, new large enterprises of machine -building, instrument -planning and other industries arose.

1972 - the opening of the first university in the republic (Mari State University - Margu).

In October 1990, a declaration of state sovereignty was adopted, since 1992 the modern name is the Mari Republic (Mari El).

1995 - the transformation of the Mari Polytechnic Institute (MPI) to the Mari State Technical University (in 2012 it was transformed into the University Complex Volga State Technological University - PGTU).

In the 2000s in the capital of the Republic of the city of Yoshkar-Ola, many objects of culture were built and reconstructed, such as the Tsarevokokshay Kremlin, the embankment, the Arkhangelsk settlement, the boulevard of the Chavaiva, the Boulevard of Victory, etc.



According to Maristat, gross regional product in the Republic of Mari El in 2020 amounted to 197 billion rubles.



There is one federal airport (Yoshkar-Ola) on the territory of the republic. In Mari El there is a railway station (Yoshkar-Ola) and two bus stations (Yoshkar-Ola, Volzhsk), 14 railway stations, 51 passenger bus station, a river port in the city of Kozmodemyansk on the river. The Volga, four ports of local significance, a device for unloading barges. Shipping on the Volga, Vetluga and Surah.

They carry out the activities of 66 tour operator and travel agencies, 44 hotels, guest houses and hostels, 30 sanatoriums, wellness complexes and boarding houses with treatment, 9 tourist complexes and 18 recreation centers, as well as 82 points of manufacture and selling products of folk art crafts and souvenirs.



The leading industries-mechanical engineering and metalworking (metal cutting tools, devices, automation equipment, equipment of trade and catering enterprises), forest, woodworking and pulp-paper, light and food (meat and dairy). The main industrial centers are the cities of Yoshkar-Ola, Volzhsk.



As of the beginning of 2020, three thermal power plants with a total capacity of 252.5 MW were operated on the territory of Mari EL. In 2019, they produced 885.3 million kWh of electricity.



As of January 1, 2021, the rural population amounted to 219,755 people, which is 33 % of the total population of the email.

The leading industry of agriculture is livestock (dairy and meat and milk cattle breeding, pig farming, sheep breeding, poultry farming, goat breeding). Ground cereals (barley, oats, rye, wheat) and fodder crops, long linen, hops, vegetables, potatoes.

The volume of agricultural products of all agricultural producers in 2020 amounted to 50.2 billion rubles, of which livestock products are 36.6 billion rubles, and crop production 13.6 billion rubles. Index 104.1 % by 2019 [39]. The share of livestock products is 72.9 %.

The share of the products of the agro -industrial complex in the GDP of the republic is more than 18 %. Over 5 years, agricultural production production increased 1.2 times. According to the main types of food, Mari El completely covers his own needs. Products are supplied in more than 70 regions of Russia, as well as beyond. For meat, the level of production is 405 %, in potatoes - 123 %, and 110 %in eggs. Complete Mari El provides himself with milk and vegetables.



As of January 1, 2021, the number of cattle amounted to 81.0 thousand heads (+5.3 %), including cows of 30.5 thousand heads (+3.1 %), pigs 319.4 thousand heads (+ 12.9 %), sheep and goats 34.5 thousand heads (-0.2 %), horses 1.0 thousand heads (+16.2 %), birds 13.738 million heads (+8.2 %).

In 2020, livestock and bastard slaughter amounted to 350 thousand tons (+4 %), eggs - 362 million pieces (+12 %). The trend of reducing the number of cows has been overcome. In 2020, it increased by 1461 heads. Due to this (including) there was a significant breakthrough for the production of milk - by 10 thousand tons, gross milk yield at the end of the year amounted to 186 thousand tons. The average milk yield is 7136 kg per cow (+673 kg). The highest productivity among farms was: CJSC Zemodvod "Semenovsky" Medvedevsky district 9358 kg per cow; SCPK-SHA (collective farm) "First May" of the Novotorsalsky district-9020 kg; LLC Agroofirm "Aquars" of the Mari-Tureksky district-8047 kg.


Crop production

The total sowing area of agricultural crops for the crop of 2020 in farms of all categories of 292.7 thousand hectares, which is 1.9 thousand hectares more (0.7 %) than was sown under the crop of the previous year. Compared to 2019, the sowing area of grain and grain -combat crops increased by 9.4 %, potatoes - by 0.4 %, vegetables - by 1.8 %, the sowing area of technical crops was reduced by 3.4 %, fodder crops - by 6 , 7 %. In the sowing wedge of 2020, grain and grain -combat crops occupy 46.2 %of the entire sowing area, feed crops - 45.3 %, potatoes - 4.1 %, technical crops - 3.1 %, the share of vegetables - 1.3 %.

In 2022, it is planned to sow about 300 thousand hectares. More than in 2021 sowed by winter grains - 47 thousand hectares (117 %), technical crops - 12 thousand hectares (111 %), potatoes - 12.3 thousand ha (102 %) and vegetables - 4 thousand ha of (111 %).

Due to a significant reduction in the volume of the use of organic and mineral fertilizers, as well as the complete cessation of work on chemical land reclamation, soil fertility began to deteriorate.



Secondary education

About 250 secondary educational institutions operate in the republic, about 5 of them regularly fall into the rating of the 500 best schools in Russia.

In the city of Yoshkar-Ola, in addition to ordinary schools, there are several lyceums and gymnasiums, in which there is an emphasis on physics and mathematics, Mari, English, German and French languages, Orthodoxy, humanities, computer science and programming, biology and chemistry. Also in some schools there are various cadet classes.


Higher education

There are four higher educational institutions in the republic:
Volga State Technological University (PGTU),
Mari State University (Margu),
Institute Ispring,
Interregional Open Social Institute (MOSI).
In addition, as of 2015, five university branches were formally represented, the head organizations of which are located in other constituent entities of the Russian Federation, but only one had the current license - the Volga branch of the PGTU