Yoshkar-Ola (Yoshkar - red, ola - city - Red City)
is a city in Russia, the capital of the Republic of Mari El. It is
the administrative center of the urban district "City of
Yoshkar-Ola". Until 1919, it was called Tsarevokoksha, in the period
from 1919 to 1928 - Krasnokokshaisk. In 1984 he was awarded the
Order of the Red Banner of Labor. It is one of the centers of
culture of the Finno-Ugric peoples.
Yoshkar-Ola (Yoshka among the local people) owes
its appearance to the Mari uprisings that often happened after the
conquest of the Kazan Khanate by Ivan the Terrible. For their
suppression, the royal troops needed fortified bases in the depths
of the Mari forests, and it was for this purpose that in 1584 the
“Tsaryov city on Kokshag” was built, or simply Tsaryokvokkshaysk.
For a while, city performed this function with varying success, but
when the uprisings stopped, the city was out of work: there was
practically no industry in it, and its population in the middle of
the 19th century was only a couple of thousand people, including the
exiles - for example Poles.
A new flourishing city
experienced only in the 1920s, having received the status of the
capital of the Mari autonomy and the appropriate national name,
which in Russian means “Red City” and is, in fact, the local version
of the name approved in 1919 by the name Krasnokokshaisk, which the
young Soviet The authorities tried to hide the monarchical
overtones. Until the end of the 20th century, Yoshkar-Ola remained a
city, no more fascinating than Maykop, Saransk and other capitals of
weakly expressed national autonomies, but in the early 2000s, the
Mari capital quite unexpectedly began to gain popularity among
travelers for an outsider. Under the leadership of the eccentric
governor Leonid Markelov, the city center was almost completely
rebuilt, and although the new style of Yoshkar-Ola echoes slightly
the neighboring republican cities, the scale and boldness of the
Yoshkar-Ola transformations are unparalleled. Now the architecture
of the capital resembles a dozen great cities in Europe, albeit with
a peculiar shtetl accent. It is not difficult to imagine that in
half a century the future mayor’s office of Yoshkar-Ola will take
the post-Soviet city, unique to Russia, under state protection.
History of Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584,
following the Russian conquest of the Mari region.
Soviet era, especially after World War II, the city was a regional
industrial and transport center and grew to its current size. The
collapse of the Soviet Union removed support for state enterprises,
and led to the shutdown of most manufacturing activity in the area.
Much of the city's economic activity was supported by shuttle
traders who would transport (often counterfeit) goods from the
bustling markets of Moscow to Yoshkar-Ola's bazaars. The sharp
decline in living standards led to the emigration of specialized
professionals to larger cities in Russia.