Orenburg Oblast, Russia

The Orenburg region is a subject of the Russian Federation. It is part of the Volga Federal District and is part of the Ural Economic Region.

It was formed on December 7, 1934 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR by separating it from the Middle Volga region. In the period from 1938 to 1957 it was called the Chkalov region.

Historically, the region was preceded by the Orenburg province, formed by decree of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna in 1744.

The administrative center is the city of Orenburg.






Other destinations

Buzuluksky Bor National Park
Reserve "Orenburg"
Camel Mountain
Salt Lake Razval

Orenburgsky Nature Reserve


How to get there

By plane
Airports are located in two cities in the region:
Orenburg Airport (IATA:REN) accepts flights from Moscow and Orsk.
Orsk Airport (IATA:OSW) serves flights from Moscow and St. Petersburg.
By train
From Moscow from the Kazan station on trains traveling to populated areas of the region or on transit trains heading to Bishkek and Tashkent.


Physiographic characteristics


The area of the Orenburg region is 123,702 km², according to this indicator it ranks 29th in Russia. The region is located in the southwest of the country, in the center of Eurasia, at the junction of its two parts of the world - Europe and Asia. The region's territory covers the southeastern edge of the East European Plain, the southern tip of the Urals and the southern Trans-Urals. The length of the region from west to east is 760 km, from north to south - 445 km.

The total length of the borders is 3,700 km. In the west, the Orenburg region borders with the Samara region, in the north-west - with Tatarstan, in the north - with Bashkortostan (the northern border from the Ik River to the Ural River goes around Bashkortostan), in the north-east the region borders with the Chelyabinsk region, and in the east and south - with Kazakhstan. It borders the Saratov region at one point, which is located on the state border with Kazakhstan - the junction of the borders of the Orenburg, Samara and Saratov regions. The border with Kazakhstan is 1870 km, and it falls on three regions of Kazakhstan: Kostanay, Aktobe and West Kazakhstan. One of the largest and most beautiful rivers in the European part of Russia, the Ural, flows through the region. The “isthmus” of the region between its central and eastern parts in the most elevated low-mountain-high-plain part of the Orenburg region in the middle part of the Ural river basin and its main tributary, the Sakmara, is occupied by the Kuvandyk region.



The climate of the Orenburg region is characterized by sharp continentality, which is explained by the significant remoteness of the region from the oceans and seas. An indicator of the continental climate is the large amplitude of fluctuations in average air temperatures, which in the Orenburg region reaches 34-38 degrees Celsius. In this regard, there is insufficient atmospheric precipitation, the annual amount of which ranges from 450 mm in the northwest to 350 mm in the south and southeast of the region. About 60-70% of the annual precipitation occurs during the warm period. The duration of snow cover ranges from 135 days in the south to 154 days in the north of the region. The depth of soil freezing varies from 170 cm in the northwest to 200 cm in the east.



The modern relief was formed as a result of long-term erosion of the Ural Mountains and pre-Ural Syrt plains, as well as as a result of recent tectonic transformations. The highest point is Mount Nakas (667.6 m) on the Small Nakas ridge. The lowest point is near the Chagan River (27 m) near the village of Tyoploye, Pervomaisky district. The following large structures are distinguished in the relief: the plains of the Urals, the Ural Mountains, the Trans-Ural peneplain, the plains of the Turgai table country. Almost the entire western part of the region belongs to the General Syrt. The highest point is Mount Bear's forehead (405 meters). In the north it is adjacent to the Bugulma-Belebeevskaya Upland, in the south - the Caspian depression. The Pre-Ural Syrt is located south of the Urals. To the east of the Bolshoi Ik and Burlya rivers, the Ural mountainous country begins. Between the Sakmara and Ural rivers there is a mountainous plain called the Sarin Plateau. Along the Sakmara River and its tributaries, areas of mountainous relief can be traced: the Shaitan-Tau ridge, the Zyanchurinsky ridges, the Sakmara small hills, and along the Ural River the Guberlinsky Mountains. In the upper reaches of the Urals there is the Irendyk ridge. In the east of the region is the Ural-Tobolsk plateau.

The Orenburg region presents landscapes of the forest-steppe zone of Russia, the steppes of the Volga region and Turgai, the wooded low mountains of the Southern Urals, and the pine-birch forest-steppe of Western Siberia.



The region's land fund is 12,370.2 thousand hectares. Distribution of land fund by land (thousand hectares): agricultural land - 10840.5, land under surface water - 112.5, swamps - 14.9, land under forests and trees and shrubs - 799.8, other land - 602 ,5. Half of the region's territory is occupied by arable land, 38% by forage lands, 5% by forests, and 7% by other lands.

Soils are characterized by latitudinal zoning. From meadow steppes to desert ones, soil types and subtypes successively change: typical, ordinary and southern chernozems, dark chestnut, chestnut and light chestnut soils.

In the structure of arable land in the region, chernozems occupy 79%, the subtype of dark chestnut soils - 16%, gray forest soils - 4% of the area. Among chernozems, the largest area is occupied by southern chernozems - 44%, ordinary - 26%, typical and leached - 9%. In the subzones of southern and ordinary chernozems, 14 and 7% of the area are occupied by solonetzes, respectively. In the subzone of dark chestnut soils, the area of solonetzes is 36%. The issue of preserving soil cover from water and wind erosion and increasing agricultural productivity is an urgent issue. At the same time, the creation of protective forest plantations has sharply decreased.



The surface waters of the region form the river systems of the basins of the Urals (63% of the territory), Volga (31%), Tobol (2%) and the drainage zone of the Svetlinsky lakes in the east of the region. The most significant rivers are the Ural, with a length of 2428 km (of which 1164 km are within the region), Sakmara (798 km), Ilek (623 km), Samara (594 km).

Lake Shalkar-Ega-Kara is the largest natural reservoir with an area of 9600 hectares and a coastline length of 96 km. Lake Zhetykol has an area of more than 5000 hectares. Oxbow lakes in the floodplains of large rivers have become widespread. An integral part of the region’s water resources and its water management are artificial reservoirs. In terms of water reserves, the largest artificial reservoirs are: Iriklinskoye (3257 million m³), Krasnochabanskoye (54.6 million m³), Chernovskoye (52.7 million m³), Kumakskoye (48.0 million m³), Elshanskoye (23.6 million m³) and Ushkottinskoe (10.0 million m³) reservoir.


Specially protected natural areas (SPNA)

On the territory of the region there are three specially protected natural areas of federal significance: the Orenburg Nature Reserve, the Shaitan-Tau Nature Reserve and the Buzuluksky Bor National Park. The federal state budgetary institution “United Directorate of State Nature Reserves “Orenburg” and “Shaitan-Tau” (abbreviated as FSBI “Reserves of the Orenburg Region”) manages the state nature reserves “Orenburg” and “Shaitan-Tau”.



The Orenburg region is located in the MSC+2 time zone. The applied time offset relative to UTC is +5:00.



The oldest traces of human habitation on the territory of the modern Orenburg region date back to the Upper Paleolithic era: the sites of Labazy I and Labazy II in the lower reaches of the Buzuluk River in the north of the Kurmanaevsky region, the Idelbaevskaya site in the Mednogorsk region, the location of flint tools on the outskirts of the village of Novouzeli and in a ravine near the village of Internatsionalny in Matveevsky district, “Donguz plate” with an image of a deer on the Ilek plateau. The Starotokskaya site near the village of Ivanovka in the Krasnogvardeysky district belongs to the Mesolithic. The Staroyelshanskaya and Ivanovo sites date back to the Neolithic era. By the second half of the 5th - beginning of the 4th millennium BC. e. include monuments of the Khvalynsk-Berezhnovskaya cultural group (Turganikskaya, Ivanovskaya sites, Ivanovo dune burial ground). The settlements of sedentary pastoralists of the Srubna and Alakul archaeological cultures and metallurgists in the Kargaly mines date back to the Bronze Age.

In the XVII-XVI centuries BC. e. In the Trans-Urals, a whole network of fortified settlements with mound necropolises of the Sintashta type was created. The Sarmatian culture includes mounds near the village of Prokhorovka, Sharlyk district. The anthropomorphic “stone women” sculptures left on the territory of the Orenburg region by Turkic-speaking nomads in the 9th-12th centuries date back to the Middle Ages.

Since the 30s of the 18th century, after the decision was made on the voluntary entry into the Russian state of the Bashkir and Kazakh tribes, the territory of modern Orenburg began to be actively developed by settlers from the central provinces of Russia.

On August 15, 1735, the first Orenburg fortress was solemnly founded “with cannon fire” near the mouth of the Or River (from which Orenburg received its name). The city of Orsk is now located on this site. Over the next few years, Orenburg was moved several times until it was founded on its current location in 1743. Orenburg became the administrative center of the Orenburg province, established by a personal decree of Empress Anna Ioannovna in 1744. At the origins of the founding of the province stood famous statesmen and researchers of that era - V.N. Tatishchev, I.K. Kirilov, P.I. Rychkov and I.I. Neplyuev, who became the first Orenburg governor. The province united in its composition part of the modern territories of Kazakhstan, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chelyabinsk and Samara regions. Its southern border ran along the shores of the Caspian and Aral seas.

On August 26, 1920, the Soviet government (the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR) issued a decree “On the formation of the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic” as part of the RSFSR and established that the governing bodies of the KirASSR are local Councils of Deputies, the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars, and the Kyrgyz Republic was established to manage the military apparatus Military Commissariat. On October 4, 1920, the Founding Congress of Soviets of the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic took place in Orenburg. In 1920, from the Ural, Turgai and Semipalatinsk regions, the northern part of the Transcaspian region, the Bukeevskaya province and the southern part of the Orenburg province with the city of Orenburg, a new autonomy was formed within the RSFSR - the Kirghiz ASSR (from April 1925 year - Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). In February 1925, the capital of the Cossack Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was moved from Orenburg to Ak-Mechet, and the Orenburg province was removed from the Cossack Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and transferred to the direct subordination of the RSFSR.

By decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of May 14, 1928, as a result of the unification of the abolished Orenburg, as well as Samara, Ulyanovsk, Penza and part of the Saratov provinces, the Middle Volga region was formed with the administrative center in Samara. At the same time, the Orenburg district was formed, which included the former Orenburg and Orsk districts.

Since October 20, 1929, the Orenburg District was part of the Middle Volga Region.

On July 30, 1930, the Orenburg district, along with others, was abolished, and its districts were directly subordinated to the Middle Volga region.

On December 7, 1934, the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee adopted a resolution on the formation of the Orenburg region by separating it from the Middle Volga region. At the same time, the composition of the organizing committee for the elections of the Council of Deputies of the Orenburg Region was approved, the chairman of which was appointed K. E. Vasiliev. By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated December 26, 1938, the region was renamed the Chkalov region (the city of Orenburg was renamed the city of Chkalov by the same decree). The region was called Chkalovskaya until December 4, 1957.



The leading sectors of the economy are the fuel industry, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical, petrochemical and food industries. The Orenburg gas condensate field, the largest in Russia, is located in the Orenburg region. Oil is being extracted in the Cis-Ural region, iron (Khalilovskoye deposit), copper (Gaiskoye deposit) and nickel ores, asbestos (Kiembayevskoye deposit), rock salt (Iletskoye deposit). The largest enterprises in the region are the production associations Orenburgneft, Gazprom Dobycha Orenburg, Orsknefteorgsintez, Orenburg Minerals, joint-stock companies Ural Steel (Novotroitsk), Yuzhuralnickel (Orsk), Orsk Light Metal Structures Plant, Mednogorsk Copper sulfur plant, Gaisky mining and processing plant.

Agriculture in the field of grain and livestock production. The products of the Orenburg Down Shawl Factory are widely known throughout the world. Resort destinations include Salt Lake in Sol-Iletsk and Balneotherapeutic Mud Resort in Gay, etc.



Industry employs 25% of the economically active population and produces 55% of the gross regional product.


Hydrocarbon production

The region ranks fourth in the list of oil-producing regions of Russia. The share of production in the country is 4.5% (2011). The fuel industry is the leading industry in the Orenburg region. About 60% of oil is produced in the Kurmanaevsky, Pervomaisky, and Sorochinsky districts.

192 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the territory. Seismic exploration has prepared 165 structures for deep exploratory drilling with total promising oil resources of 222 million tons, free gas - 646 billion m³, condensate - 81 million tons. 524 structures with potential for oil and gas have been identified.

On the southeastern outskirts of Buguruslan, a memorial sign was erected in honor of the labor feat of Orenburg oil workers. At this place, in a settlement behind the Tarhanka River, at the end of Pionerskaya Street, on July 26, 1937, well No. 1 produced the first commercial oil in the Orenburg region.

The first oil wells appeared in the Orenburg region in the mid-thirties in the area of the city of Buguruslan.

In the post-war years, new oil and gas fields and deposits were discovered, including the Sultangulovsko-Zaglyadinsky, Tarkhansko-Tverdilovsky, Ashirovsky, Efremo-Zykovsky, Mogutovsky, Pilyuginsky and other areas. Currently, oil and gas exploration is carried out in the region over a vast territory covering Buguruslansky, Abdulinsky, Buzuluksky, Sharlyksky, Oktyabrsky, Pervomaisky, Sorochinsky, Novosergievsky, Orenburg and other areas.

The Orenburg gas condensate field is located near Orenburg (Volga-Ural oil and gas province). Opened in 1966. Deposits at a depth of 1.5-2.3 km. Initial reserves are 1780 billion m³. Methane gas. Condensate content 76 g/m³.


Mechanical engineering

Agricultural, transport engineering and machine tool manufacturing are developed. The main industry is heavy industry. The share of mechanical engineering products in industrial production is about 8.3%.

There are more than 70 large machine-building enterprises in the region, the main ones among which are OJSC MK ORMETO-YUMZ, Orsk Machine-Building Plant, Uralelectro, PA Strela, Orenburg Radiator, OJSC Buguruslan Radiator Plant, Buzuluktyazhmash, Construction Machinery and Non-Standard Plant equipment.



About 30% of the region's industrial output comes from metallurgy. Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises are city-forming enterprises. Steel from the Orsko-Khalilovsky Metallurgical Plant is used in the construction of gas pipelines, bridges, electric motors and cars, and agricultural machinery.

The main enterprise of ferrous metallurgy is OJSC Ural Steel; large enterprises also include:

LLC "Ural Scrap Metal Company"
LLC "Yuzhnouralsk Mining Processing Company"
LLC "Orenburg Vtorchermet"
Non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises account for about 8% of the region's industrial production volumes. There are 8 non-ferrous industry enterprises in the region: Yuzhuralnickel, Gai Mining and Processing Plant, Mednogorsk Copper-Sulfur Plant, Gai Non-Ferrous Metals Processing Plant, Yuzhnouralsk Cryolite Plant, Ormet, Orenburg Mining and Metallurgical Company and Buruktal Nickel Plant, Orsk Metal Structures Plant.



As of 2020, in the Orenburg region, more than 770 thousand people (39.3% of the population) live in rural areas.

Chernozems occupy 79% of arable land in the Orenburg region (in the chernozem zone there are 12% solonetzes), and dark chestnut soils occupy 16%, where the area of solonetzes is 36%. The issue of preserving soil cover from water and wind erosion and increasing agricultural productivity is an urgent issue. Therefore, the modern farming system, the so-called, is important for the Orenburg region. no-till system, also known as No-Till.

The highest effect on reclamation of solonetzic soils is achieved by combining gypsum with the application of organic and mineral fertilizers, cultivating phytomeliorative crops (clover), and carrying out measures to accumulate moisture. The efficiency of gypsum increases sharply when the gypsum is finely ground.

Mainly grain crops are grown, as well as sunflowers and fodder crops; potatoes and vegetables. There is meat and dairy cattle breeding and poultry farming. Downy goats and pigs are bred.


Crop production

About 40% of the total melon harvest in Russia is provided by the Orenburg region.

The Orenburg region is one of six Russian regions that provide 80% of the gross durum wheat harvest (Altai Territory, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Saratov, Samara and Volgograd regions are also on the list). In 2022, it is planned to sow 308.1 thousand hectares of durum wheat. In 2021, the sown area amounted to 305.6 thousand hectares (with an average yield of 6.6 c/ha). In 2020 - 263.9 thousand hectares (10.4 c/ha). Durum wheat grown in the eastern zone of the region has increased quality indicators.

In 2022, the plantings of vegetable crops, potatoes and alternative crops have been increased. Thus, flax, safflower, sorghum, and mustard were sown on 224.9 thousand hectares (110 thousand hectares in 2021). The potato planting area was increased to 1339.4 hectares (+180.5 hectares).

In 2021, the gross harvest of grains and legumes (including corn for grain) amounted to 1 million 571.3 thousand tons, with an average yield of 8.1 c/ha. Without corn, the harvest was 1 million 499.1 thousand tons, the average yield was 7.9 c/ha. 784.4 thousand tons of winter crops were threshed with an average yield of 12 c/ha, and spring grains - 714.7 thousand tons with an average yield of 5.7 c/ha. Sunflower was harvested from an area of 797.5 thousand hectares, the threshing amounted to 735.1 thousand tons with a yield of 9.2 c/ha.

One of the main directions for increasing grain production in the region is to expand the area sown with winter crops. In 2020, out of 3.6 million tons of threshed grain, more than 2 million are winter bread. The area of winter crops in 2020 increased by more than 100 thousand hectares and reached 800 thousand hectares, and for the 2021 harvest it is planned to increase to 904.8 thousand hectares. The spring sowing area remains at 3.232 million hectares.

In 2020, the gross harvest of grains and legumes amounted to 3,702.0 thousand tons (1,975.8 thousand tons in 2019). The average yield is 14.2 c/ha. Of these, winter crops - 2034.7 thousand tons with an average yield of 27.9 c/ha. The harvesting area for grains and leguminous crops is 2646.5 thousand hectares, including winter grain crops - 728.4 thousand hectares, spring grain crops and leguminous crops - 1918.1 thousand hectares.

The gross harvest of corn for grain amounted to 105.6 thousand tons, with an average yield of 21.2 c/ha.



As of July 1, 2020, farms of all categories in the region had 561.3 thousand heads of cattle, including 290.3 thousand heads on farms of agricultural producers. There were 239.2 thousand heads of cows in farms of all categories in the region, including 116.7 thousand heads in farms of agricultural producers. The number of pigs amounted to 282 thousand heads, sheep and goats 332 thousand heads.

The average milk yield per dairy cow for 2020 in the region was 3953 kg (+233 kg 6.3%) (the Russian average milk yield is 6486 kg per year). The productivity of cows in the farms of Krasnogvardeisky (8128 kg), Severny (7065 kg), Asekeevsky (4766 kg), Tashlinsky (4727 kg), Buguruslansky (4366 kg), Ponomarevsky (4332 kg), Ileksky (4159 kg), Oktyabrsky is higher than the regional average. (4085 kg) and Akbulak (4066 kg) regions.



The transport potential of the region includes railway, road, air and pipeline transport enterprises.

Railway transport
Two branches of Russian Railways OJSC are successfully operating in the Orenburg region: the Orenburg branch of the South Ural Railway and the Samara branch of the Kuibyshev Railway. The operational length of the South Ural Railway tracks is 1,643.3 km, including electrified lines - 511.7 km, and the operational length of the Kuibyshev Railway tracks is 115 km.

Also located in the Orenburg region is the enterprise OJSC Orenburg Track Repair Plant "Remputmash", which is part of the RPM Group, which carries out major repairs, modernization of track machines, manufacturing of mechanical engineering products and spare parts and production of a wide range of spare parts for track machines.

Automobile transport
The Orenburg region ranks fourth in the Volga Federal District in terms of road length and seventh in Russia. As of 01/01/2020, the total length of highways in the Orenburg region is 26,529.11 km, of which:

federal roads - 1263.51 kilometers are 100% asphalt concrete paved;
regional and intermunicipal roads - 11,897 kilometers, of which 41% are asphalt concrete, 56% are gravel and 3% are dirt.

The geographic location of the region determines its natural competitive advantage for the development of transport infrastructure. The Orenburg region has historically connected the European part of Russia with the countries of Central and Southeast Asia and currently provides transit of freight and passenger flows in the “Central-Central Asia” and “West-East” directions. In 2007, a protocol of interaction on the construction of the Western Europe - Western China transport corridor was signed in Orenburg. It is assumed that the transportation of goods will be carried out along the route: China - Kazakhstan - Russia - Ukraine with further distribution of goods to Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and subsequent transit to Italy and Portugal.

Aviation transport
Air transport in the Orenburg region is represented by the airline OJSC Orenburg Airlines, the state unitary enterprise (SUE) Orenburg International Airport and the state unitary enterprise (SUE) Orsk Airport. Orenburg International Airport (Central named after Yu. A. Gagarin) is not only the largest air terminal complex designed for receiving and maintaining aircraft, but also a center for intraregional air transportation with an aircraft fleet that includes AN-2, TU aircraft -154M and helicopters. The airport serves sectors of the regional economy: performs aeronautical chemical work in agriculture; carries out search and rescue operations, and performs air ambulance flights. In order to ensure the development of the airport network, the reception of modern aircraft and compliance with modern passenger service requirements, and increasing the level of safety of air transportation, measures for the reconstruction of the airports of Orenburg and Orsk are included in the federal target program “Development of the transport system of Russia (2010-2015)”.

Pipeline transport
The gas and oil pipeline systems of the Orenburg region are complex structures consisting of multi-line pipeline corridors, receiving and launching units, surface, underwater, beam crossings through roads and railways. The following pipelines have been laid in the region:

“Orenburg is the western border of Russia.” The gas pipeline stretches 2,750 km from the southern foothills of the Urals through the Kazakh and southern Russian steppes, across all of Ukraine, the Carpathians - to the borders of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
"Bukhara - Ural" with a branch to Orsk. The Orenburg section of the Bukhara-Ural gas pipeline is about 400 kilometers long and is served by the Dombarovsk Linear Gas Pipeline Production Department of Orenburggazprom LLC.
Also, about 5 thousand kilometers of process pipelines are serviced by the Directorate for Operation of Connecting Pipelines of Gazprom Dobycha Orenburg LLC. Another largest organization, which owns more than 9,680 km of various underground pipelines (oil, gas, condensate, process water), is OJSC Orenburgneft. Two supply oil pipelines pass through the territory of the Orenburg region, through which oil is supplied to OJSC Orsknefteorgsintez, including: Emba - Orsk and Ishimbay - Orsk.