Murmansk, Russia




Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat


Description of Murmansk

Murmansk (in 1916-1917 - Romanov-on-Murman, Kild.-Sami. Murman Lann, North-Sami. Murmánska) is a city in the north-west of Russia, the administrative center of the Murmansk region. Population - 270 384 people. (2021). A city corresponding to the category of regional significance forms an urban district.

Murmansk is the world's largest city located beyond the Arctic Circle. Murmansk is located on the rocky eastern coast of the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea. One of the largest ports in Russia. Thanks to the warm North Atlantic current, Murmansk is an ice-free port, which distinguishes it favorably among the ports of the North and North-West of Russia.

On May 6, 1985, Murmansk was awarded the title of Hero City for defense against German troops during the Great Patriotic War. He was awarded the Order of Lenin, the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor and the Gold Star medal.

From January 1, 2021, at the level of the municipal unit, the city district was named the Hero City of Murmansk.


Climate in Murmansk

In the Far North, Murmansk experiences cold winters with temperatures routinely dropping below −20 °C (−4 °F). The brief summer offers mild temperatures between 10–15 °C (50–59 °F). Strong winds are common, especially at the higher parts of the city.


Travel Destinations in Murmansk

1  Area Five Corners (Pyatina). Central square of the city. On the square is the 17-storey business center Arktika, the highest in Murmansk, and, as they say, beyond the Arctic Circle. Around the square, in particular along Lenin Street, you can find nice well-groomed buildings from the time of Stalin.
2 Sea trading port. Murmansk Commercial Sea Port occupies a special place among the northern ports of Russia. Unique natural and climatic conditions and geographical position beyond the Arctic Circle, a relatively close location to the ports of Western Europe, and it is here that access to the Northern Sea Route is made. After all, the Murmansk port, unlike other ports of the North-West region of Russia, does not freeze all year round. Also, all Russian nuclear icebreakers are assigned here, and if you are lucky, you can see one of them. Here you can take a walk, inspecting the ships standing at the pier and in the roadstead, observe the daily work of the port and take many wonderful photos.
3 Nuclear icebreaker "Lenin", Portovy pr-d, 25 (Pontoon berth of the Marine Station) You can get there on foot from the railway station via a pedestrian crossing over the railway track or by bus. ☎ +7 911 3456777, (8152) 55-35-13, 55-35-12. Adult 400₽, child 100₽. The nuclear icebreaker "Lenin" is the world's first surface vessel with a nuclear power plant, built in the USSR, at a shipyard in Leningrad. Put into operation in 1959. The ship worked for 30 years and in 1989 was put on eternal parking in Murmansk. In 2009, work began to transform the ship into a museum. This is the second most visited object in the Murmansk region; in a year, the first-born of the nuclear fleet is examined by about 50 thousand people. The organization of visiting the ship is inconvenient: you can get on the icebreaker only with excursions that are held at strictly defined times from Wednesday to Sunday - 12:00, 13:30, 15:00 (2023). The queue here is like a real Lenin in the Mausoleum, and the number of people is limited (no more than 20 people in a party, as a rule, up to three parties), so dress warmly and take a seat in advance. The tour is very informative and lasts about an hour.
4  Memorial "To the Defenders of the Soviet Arctic" ("Alyosha"). A huge sculpture on a 7-meter pedestal, commonly referred to as "Alyosha", the second highest sculpture in Russia (only the Volgograd "Motherland" is higher). The cape on which it is installed rises 173 m above sea level, thanks to which the monument can be seen from almost anywhere in the port part of the city, which makes a particularly strong impression. Near the monument there is an eternal flame, an alley of memorial plates of hero cities and two anti-aircraft guns - at the location of an anti-aircraft battery that protected the sky over the port during the war years.
5  Memorial complex in memory of sailors who died in peacetime. The central place in the complex is occupied by a lighthouse built in 2002. Inside the lighthouse there is a hall of memory: there are commemorative plaques and books of memory - everything about the sailors who died in peacetime. Near the lighthouse, there is a cabin of the infamous nuclear submarine K-141 Kursk, which crashed in 2000, with a commemorative plaque telling about all submarine accidents that occurred in peacetime. Above the memorial complex is the Church of the Savior on the Waters, and below you can find an excellent observation deck with views of the port part of the city.



6  Monument "Waiting".


 Civil architecture

7  Palace of Culture and Technology. S. M. Kirova, Pushkinskaya st., 3. The building on the site where Murmansk was founded
8  The building of the regional and city administrations (House of Soviets), ave. Lenina, 75. The building was filmed in an episode of the film "The Way to the Pier".
9  Rosprirodnadzor administration building, Kolsky prospekt, 24A. Original for Murmansk (and not only) a large two-story wooden log building with a turret, nice decor and loggias, next to two small log cabins-kiosks. The house is harmoniously surrounded by trees and shrubs, and among typical panels and other brick and concrete structures, it looks something incredible.
10  Okhotny Ryad, Kolsky Ave., 25A. Covered staircase from Kola Prospekt to Stone Plateau. In the 90s it was adapted for a shopping center.


Iconic architecture

Abram Cape. Abram-Mys is an urban-type settlement located on the western shore of the Kola Bay, opposite the main part of Murmansk. The most spectacular and complete panoramic view of the city opens from here, the port and all three districts of Murmansk are visible in all its glory. The distance from Abram-Mys to the central part of the city across the bay is only one and a half kilometers. Excellent viewing platforms are located at the memorial to the soldiers of the 1st Air Defense Corps, where at the same time you can look at anti-aircraft systems and other equipment. How to get there. By public transport: Abram-Mys stop, buses No. 24 (stops near the railway station) and No. 111 (departs from the bus station), the journey will take about an hour, they run from 7:00 to 24:00 approximately every hour. By car: the journey from the center of Murmansk will take about half an hour, there is parking in front of the memorial complex.
Bridge across the Kola Bay, Pervomaisky district. You can get there by bus number 19 to the stop "Post", st. Dostoevsky; by bus number 18 to the final stop, st. Bauman; trolleybus number 4 to the stop st. Bochkova; then walk to the Kola bridge. The bridge across the Kola Bay is the second longest bridge beyond the Arctic Circle, its length is approximately 2.5 kilometers. The bridge offers a beautiful view: to the north - the Murmansk port and the Kola Bay stretching into the distance, to the south - to the neighboring city of Kola, the hills. All in all, picturesque and definitely worth a visit. The most impressive bridge looks at night with illumination. Every year in the second half of June, the Murmansk Mile sports festival is held here, everyone can take part. This is a bright and unforgettable event in the life of the city - spectacular performances, sports competitions, biker rides, walrus swimming, food from the camp kitchen.

Semyonovskoe lake
Semyonovskoe lake.
Boat station, Murmansk, Semenovskoe lake. From May to October inclusive - daily from 12.00 to 24.00. Here you can rent a boat, a catamaran, a river bus and take a pleasant walk on the lake. There is a beautiful fountain in the middle of the lake and there are many, many ducks that will be happy to eat your bun :) Nearby there are children's attractions and a cafe "Grandfather Semyon's Hut", where you can have a bite (they cook quite edible shish kebab) and if you still have some strength left after refueling , then visit the oceanarium (50 meters) or make a march on foot to the memorial "Defenders of the Arctic" and from there admire the panoramic views of the city and port (≈1 km.)
House of the Murmansk Society of Walruses, ave. Heroes of the North Sea. House on the shore of Semyonovskoye Lake in the form of a log cabin.
Lamb's forehead near Semyonovskoe lake. Geological monument of nature.


What to do

Murmansk Regional Museum of Local Lore, 90 Lenin Ave. ✉ ☎ +7 (8152) 42-26-17. Sat–Wed 11:00–18:00. 100 rubles (2013). The oldest museum in the region, founded in 1926, is located on the main street of the city in a building that is a historical monument. There are 17 halls with various expositions on 4 floors - here you can see the only exposition of the seabed in Russia - a dry aquarium, a unique geological collection extracted from depths from 100 m to 12 km when drilling the Kola super-deep well and much more. Every year the museum organizes over 50 exhibitions. The museum library is one of the oldest in the region, it has 18 thousand books and magazines on local history, the museum regularly publishes its own publications.
Murmansk Regional Art Museum, st. Comintern, 13 ( tb. 2.4  avt. 1,5,33,29 to the stop "Privokzalnaya Square"). ✉ ☎ +7 (8152) 45-03-85. Wed–Sun 11:00–19:00. 100 ₽. The only art museum in the Russian Arctic, located in the oldest three-story stone building in the city, in the historical center of Murmansk on Komintern Street. The collection of the art museum contains about seven thousand items - paintings of the 18th and 19th and 20th centuries, a rich collection of graphics, a collection of sculptures of the 20th century, a collection of works by Murmansk artists, samples of Russian art crafts. Here you can get acquainted with the history of the cultural development of the city. There is a nice square next to the museum, you can also devote your time to it - just take a walk or sit and rest while examining the very first Murmansk monument - "The Monument to the Victims of Foreign Intervention of 1918-1920". Here in the square there is another interesting thing - a capsule of a message to posterity.
PINRO Museum (Polar Institute of Scientific Fisheries and Oceanography), st. Knipovicha, 6 trolleybuses No. 2,3,4,6 (stop "Knipovicha Street"). ☎ +7 (8152) 47-23-97. On weekdays from 9:00 to 16:00. Pre-registration by phone with Tatiana Efimovna).. free of charge. The exposition of the PINRO Museum, created in the mid-1950s, consists of several sections: the history of fishery research in the Russian North, the development of domestic fisheries in the northern seas, the basics of marine biology and commercial oceanography. The biological sections of the exposition are represented by invertebrates, ichthyofauna, marine mammals and a panorama of the bird colony. Technical sections of the museum - exhibits of industrial fishing, models of ships and underwater vehicles. Currently, the exposition is located in the main building of the institute and occupies two halls with a total area of about 120 m2.
Museum of the Fishing Industry of the Northern Basin, st. Podgornaya, 82, buses No. 19. ☎ +7 (8152) 45-03-38. The exposition of the museum, which includes several hundred exhibits, is located in one of the buildings of the Murmansk Higher Technical University (MSTU). The reconstruction of the building was liquidated, the museum's collection was scattered around the city. In May 1996, it was revived and, taking into account the profile and importance of preserving the exposition, was located on the territory of MSTU. The name of the museum, which speaks for itself, is supported by the corresponding exhibits - a step-by-step history of the formation and development of the fishing industry of the North is literally at a glance.
Naval Museum of the Northern Fleet, st. Tortseva 15 (in the building of the Murmansk House of Officers). ☎ (8152) 22-14-45. Daily 09.00-13.00, 14.00-17.00. Days off Tuesday, Wednesday. Currently, the museum's expositions contain materials related to the history of the development of nuclear submarines, surface ships and naval aviation, as well as the entire Northern Fleet as a whole, the museum's funds include about 65 thousand exhibits.
Museum of the History of the Murmansk Shipping Company, st. Volodarsky, 6 (Oktyabrsky district). ☎ (8152) 48-13-56. 09:00 - 17:00. adults: 10 p. pupils and students: 5 p. excursion (per group): 150 rubles. The Museum of the History of JSC "Murmansk Shipping Company" was opened in 1977. Today it is deservedly called the museum of the development of the Northern Sea Route. During this time, the museum has accumulated unique photo documents, a portrait gallery of polar captains, marine instruments, ship bells, a model of a nuclear reactor, stuffed penguins, etc.
Museum of the Murmansk Commercial Port, Port passage. ☎ +7 8152 48-01-11. Tue-Fri: 13:00 - 18:00, Sat: 11:30 - 17:00; Day off: Sun, Mon.
Cultural and Exhibition Center of the Russian Museum, st. Sofia Perovskoy, 3 (2nd floor of the regional philharmonic building). ☎ +7 (8152) 99-43-56; +7 (8152) 99-43-57. Wednesday-Sunday from 11:00-19:00.
Museum of Folk Life and Traditional Crafts, st. Safonova, 28.



Drama Theater.
Drama theater of the Northern Fleet.
Puppet theatre, st. Sofia Perovskoy, 21A (in the building of the regional library).
Murmansk regional center for the development of creativity of children and youth "Lapland".



Swimming pool, st. Chelyuskintsev, 2.
Ice Palace of Sports. Venue for sports and music events.
Central Stadium of Trade Unions, st. Chelyuskintsev, 1 (Sport Square).
Stroitel Stadium, Komsomolskaya st. Here in winter you can go ice skating or watch bandy matches.
Valley of Comfort. In the Valley of Uyuta you can go skiing in winter and watch the Festival of the North.


Festivals and holidays

Feast of the north
Fisherman's Day
Day of the city
Green Mile
sun festival



"Murmans", "Urmans" Russians called Norwegians, Normans. Later, this name was transferred to the land where events took place with the participation of foreigners. "Murman" began to be called the coast of the Barents Sea, neighboring Norway, and then the entire Kola Peninsula. Accordingly, the name "Murmansk" means "the city on Murman".

According to the Kola local historian, doctor of historical sciences, I.F. Ushakov, the word "murman" comes from the word "norman", which means "northern man" in Scandinavian languages. The sound "n" on Russian soil changed into "m" due to complex dissimilation-assimilation of nasal sounds in neighboring syllables: n-m-n > m-m-n. As for the pronunciation of the sound "o", it is still pronounced in this word as "u" in Norwegian and Swedish.


History of Murmansk

Plans for a port city beyond the Arctic Circle appeared in the 1870s. The first prospectors came to Murman to explore new places in 1912. Three years later, on April 3 (16), 1915, during the First World War, on the eastern shore of the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea, the Murmansk sea port was founded and, with it, the port village of Semyonovsky, named after the bay where the berths were built. The creation of the port was associated with the desire of Russia to get access to the Arctic Ocean through an ice-free bay in order to uninterruptedly deliver military cargo from the Entente allies in the conditions of the blockade of the Black and Baltic Seas. The idea of ​​creating the city of Romanov was voiced in the report of the Minister of Railways A.F. Trepov “On the establishment of a city on the Murmansk coast”, which was approved on June 29 (July 12), 1916 by Emperor Nicholas II. On July 6 (19), 1916, Nicholas II imposed a resolution to name the new city Romanov-on-Murman. The official founding date of the city is September 21 (October 4), 1916. On this day, on a low hill, where the Palace of Culture and Folk Art named after S. M. Kirov is now located, a solemn ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the temple in honor of the patron saint of navigators Nikolai Mirlikisky was held. The city became the last city founded in the Russian Empire. In the winter of 1916-1917. Entente warships anchored in the Kola Bay. On April 3 (16), 1917, after the February Revolution, it received its current name - Murmansk.


Revolution and intervention

In 1917, after the October Revolution in Petrograd, in Murmansk, a provisional revolutionary committee was created, headed by the Bolsheviks. But in connection with the conclusion of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in March 1918, an armed landing was landed from the military courts of the Entente - this was the beginning of the intervention. In 1919, power in the city passed to the Whites, and the Provisional Government of the Northern Region recognized the supreme power of Admiral Kolchak. In the autumn of 1919, the Entente troops were forced to evacuate from Murmansk. On February 21, 1920, an anti-White Guard uprising took place in the city, Soviet power was established in the city on March 13 with the arrival of regular units of the Red Army.


Pre-war years

By the early 1920s, Murmansk had less than 2,500 inhabitants and was in decline. The industry was represented mainly by handicraft artels, the fishing industry fell into decay. The urban landscape was made up of two or three streets of one-story houses, overcrowded workers' barracks, a disorderly cluster of shacks, railway cars adapted for housing, and "suitcases" abandoned by the interventionists - houses made of corrugated iron with a semicircular roof. One of the districts of the city was nicknamed the "Red Village" because of the red caravans adapted for housing.

In the 1920s-1930s, due to changes in the administrative-territorial division, the city changed its status several times. In 1921, Murmansk became the center of the province of the same name.

From the second half of the 1920s, the city began to develop rapidly, since the Soviet Union had a strategic need to equip a large port, transit through which would not depend on relations with neighboring countries. Streets were laid with wooden sidewalks and rows of one- and two-story log houses. In 1927, the first multi-storey brick building appeared, which has survived to this day. Since 1927, Murmansk has been the center of the district of the same name as part of the Leningrad Region. Since 1933, Murmansk has been one of the supply and ship repair bases for the Northern Fleet. In addition to military-strategic goals, sea communication was carried out through the port with the Norilsk MMC under construction, the development of the Murmansk port also pursued the task of increasing fish catches: in the city, on the site of the former military enterprise for fish processing and ship repair, a fishing port was created, which began to develop rapidly and after a few For years, it provided supplies to other regions of the USSR of two hundred thousand tons of fish annually.

In 1934, the first shuttle bus went through Murmansk - from the northern outskirts to the southern part of the city. At the same time, the Polar Arrow express train began to run to Leningrad along the railway line. Since 1938 Murmansk has been the center of the Murmansk region. In 1939, for the first time in the city, asphalt laying began on Leningradskaya Street.


Murmansk in the Great Patriotic War

By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, there were already several dozen brick and stone buildings in Murmansk, and the population of the city reached 120 thousand inhabitants. During the Great Patriotic War, Murmansk was repeatedly attacked from the air, starting on June 22, 1941. On June 24, anti-aircraft gunners of the army and the Northern Fleet opened their combat score by shooting down 2 German bombers. To protect the city, the port and the railway junction, the Murmansk Air Defense Brigade District was created. The 150,000-strong German army stationed in the Arctic had Hitler's directive to seize the city and the port of Murmansk, through which cargoes from the allied countries went to supply the country and the army under Lend-Lease. According to the calculations of the German command, Murmansk was to be taken in a few days. Twice - in July and September, German troops launched a general offensive against Murmansk, but both offensives failed. After the Soviet troops on the distant approaches to the city repulsed the offensive, the Germans proceeded to the methodical destruction of the city, the port and the railway junction by aviation forces, making up to fifteen to eighteen raids on separate days and dropping a total of 185 thousand bombs during the war years and making 792 raid. In terms of the number and density of bombings inflicted on the city, Murmansk is second only to Stalingrad among Soviet cities. As a result of the bombing, three-quarters of the buildings were destroyed, wooden houses and buildings were especially damaged. From June 1941 to the beginning of June 1942, every third administrative, industrial and residential building in the city was destroyed, 7 warships, 10 allied transports and 31 other ships were sunk in the port. Convinced that there were no hopes of capturing the city in the summer campaign of 1942 either, the Germans tried to completely destroy the city by undertaking 4 massive bombardments one after another. The heaviest bombing was on June 18, 1942, when about 12,000 incendiary and about 60 high-explosive bombs were dropped on the city. German planes dropped mainly incendiary bombs on the predominantly wooden city; in order to make it difficult to fight fires, mixed bombardments were used using fragmentation and high-explosive bombs. Due to dry and windy weather, the fire spread from the center to the northeastern outskirts of Murmansk. After these raids, over 80% of all buildings in the city were destroyed. In total, during the war years, 103 German aircraft were shot down over Murmansk (8 in 1941, 59 in 1942 and 36 in 1943).

On October 7, 1944, Soviet troops launched the Petsamo-Kirkenes offensive operation in the Arctic, and the threat to Murmansk was removed.


Postwar years

By the end of the Great Patriotic War, the city was almost completely burned down. Only port facilities and the central part of the city, consisting mainly of stone houses, have survived. In November 1945, by decision of the government, Murmansk was included among the fifteen cities of the country, along with Moscow and Leningrad, the restoration of which was declared a priority. 100 million rubles were allocated for the development of the city. In the first post-war years, industrial enterprises, mooring lines, social infrastructure facilities, and a television complex were built. The city was rebuilt by the early 1950s. On September 30, 1958, the working settlement of Nagornovsky was included in the city.

By 1952, the volume of living space in the city had reached the pre-war level, and ten years later the housing stock had tripled. After the house-building plant was put into operation in 1962, standard panel houses began to be built instead of brick houses.

A significant expansion of the territory of Murmansk occurred in the 1970s - early 1980s. The feat of volunteer builders who rebuilt the city during the war is immortalized in the monument "In honor of the builders who died in 1941-1945", opened in 1974.

The active construction of residential buildings in the city was interrupted in the early 1990s. During this time, the Eastern microdistrict was erected, the city expanded from three sides - north, east and south. Later, in the 2000s, large hypermarkets and supermarkets were built in empty places. In 2016, Murmansk celebrated its 100th anniversary.

In 2015, the urban-type settlement of Roslyakovo was included in the city from the ZATO of Severomorsk.



In 1971, the city was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor for the successes "achieved by the working people of the city in fulfilling tasks for the development of industrial production." In 1982, for the courage and steadfastness shown by the inhabitants in the fight against the German invaders during the Great Patriotic War, the successes achieved in economic and cultural construction, the city was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree. In 1985, for outstanding services in the Great Patriotic War, the city of Murmansk was awarded the title of "Hero City" with the award of the highest award of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal.

The city is marked on the alleys of hero cities in many cities that received this title, on the Alley of World War II Veterans in Washington (USA).



Get in

By plane
Murmansk Airport (MMK IATA). Has multiple daily flights to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and limited services to other Russian cities including Arkhangelsk, Sochi and Rostov-on-the-Don. There are also several flights per week from Tromsø and Kirkenes. Seasonal flights are available from Helsinki too.

The airport is about 40 km (25 mi) south of Murmansk, near the town of Murmashi. Taxis to the city center cost RUB600-700 and make the trip in about 40 minutes. Catching a taxi waiting outside the airport is more expensive, expect to pay up to RUB800, depending on your language and negotiation skills. For cheaper (and official) taxi service, you have to order a taxi, expect to wait up to 30–40 minutes for it to arrive, though. Bus 106 goes to the train station, stopping at Detsky Mir near the Poliarnie Zori Hotel on its way, is less expensive but much more sluggish than a taxi.

By boat
During the summer months, Murmansk Shipping Company offers occasional trips to and from Barentsburg on Svalbard. They also serve remote villages along the northern coast of the Kola peninsula, most notably the isolated naval base of Ostrovnoy, with 2-3 trips per month.

A few cruise lines also visit the city during the summer season. The pier facilities are nil, basically a bare pier in a freight handling area, but with areas for buses, taxis, etc. Any scheduled ship will be greeted by port and immigration/customs officials.

By train
Murmansk can be reached from most places in north-west Russia by train. Moscow is 35–40 hours away and Saint Petersburg 27–30 hours, depending on the train. The Arktika (Арктика) branded train is the fastest option, with first-class wagons and a restaurant on board. All long-distance trains make stop-overs in cities such as Kandalaksha and Petrozavodsk on their way. Other night trains reach Murmansk from cities as far east as Arkhangelsk or from Minsk and Brest in the west. Trains from Saint Petersburg and Moscow are daily, most others 2-3 times a week. During summer additional routes are added, mostly to Ukraine and the Black Sea.

Murmansk railway station is in the city center, one block downhill from Five Corners Square on ul. Kominterna (Коминтерн), 16. Tickets can be bought either at the station or online at the webpage of national operator RZD.

By car
Murmansk can be reached by the P21 (Kola) motorway connecting St. Petersburg and Norway. The road, in general, is not bad, work is constantly underway to replace the road surface in problem areas. From Murmansk you can get to Norway - in 3-4 hours via P21 (Borisoglebsk checkpoint), to Finland - in 4 hours via 47A059 (Lotta checkpoint) and in 5 hours via 47A001 (Salla checkpoint).
The East Bypass Road departs from P21 (in the common people - Leningradka), from which there are 5 exits to the city. 1st, 2nd, 3rd lead to Pervomaisky district of the city, 4th to Oktyabrsky district and 5th to Leninsky.
It is convenient to move around Leningradka to quickly get to another part of the city.

By bus
Bus station, Murmansk, st. Comintern, 16. ☎ +7 (8152) 45-47-26, 45-48-84. 6.00-21.00. Murmansk can be reached by bus from Karelia, Finland, Norway.
The bus station is located on the left side of the railway station, on the first floor of a neighboring building. Buses arrive and depart from two terraces - upper and lower, the ticket office is located in the bus station building.

On the ship
Marine station, Murmansk, Portovy proezd, 25. ☎ +7 (8152) 48-06-16. Monday-Friday 9.45 - 18.45, day off - Saturday, Sunday. From the seaport, boats go to the area of \u200b\u200bthe city of Abram-Cape, located on the other side of the bay. Boats run in the morning and evening.
Murmansk Shipping Company. During the navigation season, the Murmansk Marine Company offers tours to Barentsburg, and some villages on the coast of the Kola Peninsula, in particular to the 'Ostrovnoy' base, which departs 2-3 times a month.


Get around

On foot
Although Murmansk is long and thin, most sites of interest to visitors are within a fairly compact area in the city center. Prospekt Lenina is the main north-south thoroughfare through the city center and the central Five Corners Square. Avid walkers could cover the entire stretch of the central area from the Poliarnie Zori Hotel on the south end of the city center to the Alyosha Statue, on a plateau on the north side of the city, in less than two hours.

By bus
Trolleybuses are available on most larger streets and generally follows a north-south route, if you are heading east ("up the hill") you have to rely on the small mashtruka buses. Both buses and trolleybuses can be much delayed during rush hours due to traffic jams. A route planner showing real time location of trolleybuses on the most used lines is available online, the catch is it's in Russian only.

By taxi
Another option is to use taxis which are plentiful and cheap, few drivers speak anything other than Russian, so memorize the street or name of the place you are going to. A typical journey in the city centre will cost somewhere around RUB400. Unmarked taxis can be cheaper, but are generally a bit unreliable to use for those not fluent in the native tongue.


Shuttle taxi
The route network of Murmansk practically duplicates public transport routes, covers the city and some settlements in the region. The fare is 32 rubles.



Department store "Volna". Medium-sized shopping center right on the central square of the city, near the railway station and bus station. Grocery supermarket, catering points, souvenir shops and much more.
Murmansk Mall. 10.00-22.00. The largest shopping and entertainment center in the city. Five floors, many shops, food court, grocery hypermarket.
Shopping center "Lenta".
Shopping center "Forum".


Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Delicious - period, st. Leningradskaya, 20/3 (Volna shopping center, separate entrance). 07:00-00:00. An ordinary McDuck, but this one is the northernmost in the world, as evidenced by a sign hanging at the checkout.
Dining room "SchiBorschi", Lenina Avenue 19a (Shopping Center "Liga", second floor). Dining room with modern interiors and decent food. Lunch will cost about 300 rubles.

Average cost
Youth. One of the oldest and most famous restaurants in the city. Delicious desserts and pastries, including those with northern cloudberry filling. However, the inspection of the Revizorro institution did not pass.
Mug. A small network of several cafes in the city.


Night life

Night club "Slightly Single".



1 Bulldog Pub (Паб Бульдог), ul. Karla Marksa, 48 (up the stairs and right from intersection ul. Karla Marksa/ul. Poliarnie Zori), ☎ +8 8152-260017. Sports bar showing matches from the Barclays Premier League and more. A good selection of draft beer, including ales. Typical pub food is also served.
2 Club Marrakesh, ul. Shmidta 43, ☎ +8 8152-476464. F Sa 23:00-06:00. A swank club hosting many events. Has a fine selection of wines and even a cigar room. Open til early morning.
3 Moisey (Моисей), 9/1 Kominterna St. (downstairs in shopping complex across from the train station). There don't seem to be a lot of wireless internet hotspots so Моисей is a good option. With cheap draft beer and (uninviting) food, this is not a bad place to get one's bearings and check emails after arriving in the city.


Hotels, motels and where to sleep

1 Azimut Hotel Murmansk, Prospekt Lenina 82 (north side of the central Five Corners Square), ☎ +7 8152 550350. Located in the Arktika building, the tallest above the arctic circle, this former Soviet flagship hotel have finally reopened after years of renovation as the city's premier business hotel. Rooms on the upper floors have some fantastic panoramic views over the city and fjord. Free WiFi and breakfast included. Standard rooms from RUB5400 per night.
2 Hotel Ogni Murmanska, ul. Ogni Murmanska 1 (on the bypass road towards Severmorsk), ☎ +7 8152 554000. Hotel and resort complex overlooking the city from its eastern mountain slopes. This is a good option if you are exploring the surrounding nature and wildlife rather than Murmansk itself. Standards are good, there's 80 beds in 37 rooms as well as several cottages. The restaurant is very nice and popular, if somewhat overpriced. All major credit cards are accepted. From RUB3500 per night.
3 Meridian Hotel, ul. Vorovskogo 5/23 (south side of the central Five Corners Square), ☎ +7 8152 288800. Not related to the international chain of similar name. The lobby displays photos of notable former guests, including President Medvedev, which gives an indicator of class of service and of price. Beginning at RUB3500 for a single.
4 Park Inn Poliarnie Zori, ul. Knipovicha 17 (a short walk up the hill from the Detskiy Mir bus stop), ☎ +7 8152 289500. A clean, well-located hotel with helpful front desk staff. Includes the very popular nightclub Ledokol ("Ледокол") which often hosts live music performances. From RUB1300 for a basic single.



Finland Finland (Murmansk office of the General Consulate of Finland in Saint Petersburg), Karl Marks street, 25 A, ☎ +7 8152 445-382, fax: +7 8152 448-341, e-mail: M-Th 09:30-12:00.
Netherlands Netherlands (General Consulate), Sofyi Perovskoy street, 5 (at General Consulate of Norway), ☎ +7 (8152) 40-06-00 (common), +7 8152 40-06-20 (visas), fax: +7 (8152) 45-74-51, +7 8152 47-61-78, +7 8152 45-68-71, e-mail: M-Th 09:00-12:00.
Norway (General Consulate), Sofyi Perovskoy street, 5, ☎ +7 8152 40-06-00 (common), +7 8152 40-06-20 (visas), fax: +7 8152 45-74-51, +7 8152 47-61-78, +7 8152 45-68-71, e-mail: M-Th 09:00-12:00.
Sweden Sweden (General Consulate), Sofyi Perovskoy street, 5 (at General Consulate of Norway), ☎ +7 8152 40-06-00 (common), +7 8152 40-06-20 (visas), fax: +7 8152 45-74-51, +7 8152 47-61-78, +7 8152 45-68-71, e-mail: M-Th 09:00-12:00.


Stay safe

Some neighborhoods may be unsafe at night, particularly Rostu and Zhilstroy.

Flocks of stray dogs roam around suburban areas and have been known to attack humans carrying food. There are also bear sightings along the road leading to the airport. Although bears usually flee upon contact, mothers protecting cubs may be aggressive.



Waterfall on the river Lavna. Getting to the waterfall is not so easy, and in the off-season it can be dangerous. Nov 2018 edit
Kola is an ancient city on the southern border of Murmansk.

Severomorsk is a naval base 13 km northeast of the city (travel is limited - by passes).

Teriberka is a village on the coast of the Barents Sea, 120 km from the city. Known for the sensational film "Leviathan". It consists of two parts: the old Teriberka and the village of Lodeynoye (pronounced through E). In old Teriberka there are several camp sites and a shop. Housing is mostly settled and is preparing for demolition. There is a dairy farm, the products of which can be bought in a small shop near the main one. The majority of the population lives in Lodeynoye. There are several shops and even a bakery. A road passes through Lodeynoye to the shore of the Arctic Ocean (the only place in the European part of Russia that can be reached by road to see the open Arctic Ocean) and a waterfall.



Geographical position

Murmansk is the world's largest city located beyond the Arctic Circle, the largest city in the cultural and ethnic region of Lapland. The city stretches for more than 20 kilometers along the rocky eastern coast of the Kola Bay, 50 kilometers from the exit to the open sea. Murmansk is located 1490 kilometers north of Moscow and 1020 kilometers north of St. Petersburg. The city of Severomorsk, the base of the Northern Fleet, is located 16 km northeast of the city. Between Severomorsk and Murmansk is the satellite village of Safonovo, which belongs to the ZATO. The nearest neighbor from the south is the ancient city of Kola. Murmansk, expanding, has already reached the southern microdistricts of the outskirts of this city. From the west and east the city is surrounded by forests. The highest point of Murmansk is the Solnechnaya Gorka hill on the eastern border of the city, 305 meters high.



Murmansk is located in the MSK (Moscow time) time zone. The offset of the applicable time relative to UTC is +3:00. According to the applicable time and geographic longitude, the average solar noon in Murmansk occurs at 12:48.



The city is located in the Atlantic-Arctic temperate zone. The climate of Murmansk is formed by the proximity of the Barents Sea (below is the table of its water temperature), the influence of which is enhanced by the warm North Atlantic Current. This factor contributes to the strong difference between the climate of Murmansk and the climate of most cities located beyond the Arctic Circle. Unlike many northern cities, Murmansk experiences high winter air temperatures for the North. The average January-February temperature in Murmansk is about -10 ... -11 °C. Severe frosts are rare, and occasionally there are thaws. Due to the proximity of warm air masses carried by the Gulf Stream, the onset of cold weather in Murmansk usually occurs about one month later than in other northern regions. The wind in Murmansk has a monsoonal character - in winter, southerly winds from the mainland prevail, bringing dry frosty weather to the city, and in summer - northerly winds from the Barents Sea, bringing increased air humidity and rather cool summer weather to Murmansk. The change of winds occurs around June and September. The average July temperature is approximately +12…+13 °C, while rainy and cloudy weather lasts two thirds of the month, and the air temperature is highly variable. However, from time to time, hot continental air masses from the south or southeast reach the city, and then the temperature rises to +25 °C, very rarely - above +30 °C for a short time. Most of Murmansk's precipitation of about 500 mm per year falls from June to September, with the peak of cloudy and rainy days in August. Snow lies in the city for an average of 210 days and completely disappears by May (in the vicinity of the city, snow can lie until June). Snowfalls are not uncommon in the first half of June. The minimum temperature of -39.4 ° C was recorded in Murmansk on January 6, 1985 and January 27, 1999, the maximum temperature of +32.9 ° C - on July 9, 1972. The polar night at the latitude of Murmansk lasts from December 2 to January 11, the polar day - from May 22 to July 22.



The city is located on the eastern shore of the Kola Bay, on 4 terraces. The elevation changes are very strong. The highest point of the city is a nameless hill on the outskirts with a height of 305.9 meters. The lowest point in the city is the shore of the Kola Bay, which coincides with sea level.



In the city, forests occupy 43% of the area of the city, natural plantations prevail on the hills, in the Valley of Comfort and on the outskirts of the city. There the vegetation is spruces, pines and birches. There are many mountain ash plantations in the city, poplars, lindens, willows and larches grow in the city center. A maple grows near the railway station. Shrubs (honeysuckle, lilac, bird cherry) are also common. There are 4 square meters of landscaping per inhabitant. The grass turns green from May to October.



There are many lakes in the city (Semyonovskoye, Srednee, Bolshoy, Potyanoe, Okunevoe, Footcloth, Ice, Glubokoe, Quarry, Rogozero, Varnichnoe, Pure, nameless lake on Marata Street, etc.). Within Murmansk there are six springs and three streams: Varnichny, Trifonov and Fadeev, before the industrialization of the city, there were trout and salmon in them. A small river Rosta flows in the northern part of the city.


Planning and development

The city is located on the hills, with strong differences in height, which determines the features of planning and development. Many houses standing on slopes have a stepped foundation and a variable number of storeys. Most of the houses in the city do not exceed the height of 9 floors. The tallest building is the eighteen-story Arktika hotel and business center. The main buildings of the Pervomaisky district and the eastern part of the Oktyabrsky (informally allocated to a separate, "Vostochny" district) are nine-story panel buildings. The city center is dominated by Stalinist buildings, the main part of the Leninsky district consists of "Khrushchev", in some places you can find post-war wooden one-story and two-story semi-barracks. Nine-story panel buildings are often decorated with multi-colored mosaics, painted stones can be found on the streets of the city - this is how Murmansk residents fight color starvation: in winter in Murmansk, the main colors are white and black, and winter can last almost eight months.


Ecological state

The average radiation in the city is 8-13 microR/h, which corresponds to the norm. The main enterprises are located in the Industrial Zone and on the coast of the Kola Bay.

The level of air pollution in 1997: low. The content of dust in the atmosphere of the city is below the level of sanitary standards. The city's comprehensive air pollution index is 2.99, which is below the national average. The level of pollution is decreasing every year.




The main sectors of the economy of Murmansk are fishing and fish processing (until 2014, a fish processing plant operated). The home port of all nuclear icebreakers (Atomflot), maritime transport (Murmansk Commercial Sea Port), ship repair, sea, rail and road transportation, metalworking, food industry, marine geology, exploration work on the shelf of the Arctic seas. Other major enterprises of the city: - "Murmansk Shipping Company", "Union of Fisheries of the North", "Murmansk Shipyard of the Ministry of Marine Fleet" (bankrupt), "Sevmorput", "Arktikmorneftegazrazvedka", research and production enterprise "Morgeo" and the largest in the fishing industry "Murmansky trawl fleet.

The main types of products manufactured in the city include fish products, canned food, metal products, fishing equipment, containers and packaging material.

Trading networks
There are trading enterprises of many federal and regional retail chains in the city, including such large ones as Eldorado, Svyaznoy, Pyaterochka, Magnit, O'Key, DNS, Detsky Mir, M.Video”, “Sportmaster”, “BERSHKA”, “Reserved” and many others. etc. Large catering chains are also represented in Murmansk, such as Tasty - and the point, Burger King, Subway, etc.

The city has a well-developed hotel network. The largest hotels in the city include Azimut Hotel Arktika, Meridian, Park Inn Polyarnye Zori, Sailor, Lights of Murmansk, Parallel 69, Morskaya, etc.


The science

In Soviet times, the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute was established in Murmansk, where they study the state of the biological resources of the seas and conduct environmental monitoring, the Polar Geophysical Institute and the N. M. Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO). The main goal of the research of the scientific team of the latter is to develop the biological foundations for rational fishing in the seas of the East European Basin and the North Atlantic, to provide fishing organizations with scientifically based forecasts of the state of the raw material base and the conditions for fishing fish and invertebrates. PINRO participates in the activities of the bilateral Joint Commissions for the development of fisheries cooperation with Norway, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Within the framework of bilateral projects, cooperation is carried out with scientific centers in Norway, Finland, Canada, Spain, Germany, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands.



At the beginning of the 2005/2006 academic year, 188 educational institutions functioned in the city, including: 86 preschool institutions, 6 pre-gymnasiums and 56 general education institutions. In 2006-2007, there was a tendency to reduce general educational institutions: 4 educational institutions were closed in two years. The reason was the low birth rate and the outflow of the city's population to other regions of the country in the early 1990s and, as a result, a small number of students. Back in the late 1980s, some Murmansk schools worked in three shifts and had 9 classes in parallel, but now most schools work in one shift.

The polar night makes its own adjustments to the educational process: at the request of doctors from December to February, lessons are reduced by 5 minutes, additional "February holidays" are introduced.

Due to its proximity to the Arctic, Murmansk was chosen as the location of the Arctic Institute of Arts.

The training of specialists of various profiles is carried out by: 4 higher, 7 secondary, 7 elementary educational institutions and 13 branches of universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Today, about 30 thousand students study in them[8], half of them are at two universities in the city, Murmansk State Technical University and Murmansk Arctic State University.

On September 1, 2017, a branch of the Nakhimov Naval School was opened.