Khabarovsk Krai, Russia

Khabarovsk Territory is a subject of the Russian Federation, located in the Far East of Russia. The administrative center is the city of Khabarovsk.

The Khabarovsk Territory was formed on October 20, 1938 by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On the division of the Far Eastern Territory into Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories.”

It borders in the north with the Magadan Region and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), in the west with the Amur Region, in the southwest with the Jewish Autonomous Region and the People's Republic of China, in the southeast with the Primorsky Territory.

It is washed by the Sea of Okhotsk from the northeast and east, and by the Sea of Japan from the southeast. Sakhalin is separated from the island by the Tatarsky and Nevelskoy straits. In addition to the main, continental part, the region includes several islands, among which the largest are the Shantar Islands. The total length of the coastline is about 2500 km, including the islands - 3390 km.

The region occupies an area of 787,633 km² - 3rd (4th) place among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Population of the region - 1,284,090 (2023)

Part of the southern border of the Khabarovsk Territory is the state border of Russia and the People's Republic of China.



There are 17 municipal districts in the Khabarovsk Territory.

Far North of Khabarovsk Territory: Okhotsk and Ayano-Maisky districts.
North of Khabarovsk Territory: Tuguro-Chumikansky, Nikolaevsky, Polina Osipenko district, Ulchsky, Verkhnebureinsky, Solnechny, Komsomolsky, Amursky, Vaninsky and Sovetsko-Gavansky districts. The last two are not the north at all, but the real geographic southeast of the coast of the region, but in terms of climate these areas are officially equated to areas with a particularly cold climate. And although the winter there is usually very good, not very cold and moderately snowy, the summer is not very good, because it can be very cool for a long time, and there are also regular fogs and prolonged cyclones.
South of Khabarovsk Territory: Nanaisky district, Khabarovsk district, Lazo district, Vyazemsky district, Bikinsky district.



Khabarovsk is the administrative center and largest city of the region, also a regional center. As journalists aptly noted, the Khabarovsk Territory is the region of one city.
Komsomolsk-on-Amur is the second most populous city in the region and a large industrial center.
Amursk is an industrial satellite city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, a regional center.
Nikolaevsk-on-Amur is a small port city on the Lower Amur, a regional center.
Sovetskaya Gavan is a small port city on the shore of the Tatar Strait, a regional center
Vanino is a large urban-type port village, a transport hub, a regional center, and a satellite of the city of Sovetskaya Gavan.
Vyazemsky is a small town in the south of the region, a large railway station, and a regional center.
Bikin is a small town on the border with the Primorsky Territory, the southernmost city in the region. Regional center.



Other destinations

Ayan is a small village (formerly a town) in the north of the region. Fishing and fish processing. District center.
Okhotsk is a small village in the very north of the region, communication with which in winter is only possible by air. District center.
Chegdomyn is a working village in the north-west of the region, a regional center. Coal industry. Very cold winter.
Pereyaslavka is a village in the south of the region, a regional center.
Troitskoye is a village on the right bank of the Amur, the regional center.
them. Polina Osipenko - a village on the Amgun River (northwest of the region), regional center. Very cold winter.
Solnechny is an industrial village near Komsomolsk-on-Amur, a regional center. Large mining and processing plant. Ski resort Holdomi.
Bogorodskoye is a village in the lower reaches of the Amur, a regional center. More than two thirds of the village residents are Ulchi.
Shantar Islands
Bastak Nature Reserve
Bologna Nature Reserve
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Nature Reserve
Botchinsky Nature Reserve
Bureinsky Nature Reserve
Dzhugdzur Nature Reserve
Komsomolsk Nature Reserve




Climatic conditions change significantly when moving from north to south, and very much depend on proximity to the sea, and also depend on the shape and nature of the relief. On average, the cold period in the region (a specific winter) can range from 3-4 to 6-7 months. In the southern and central parts of the region, winters are very cold (up to -30°C at night), little snow and sunny (similar to continental Primorye or the Amur region), and summers are very hot and humid - in addition to high humidity from the swampy floodplain of the Amur River, during the summer months accounts for the greatest amount of precipitation. Roast is approximately the same as in Krasnodar or Rostov-on-Don, only the humidity adds to the sensation! In Khabarovsk in the summer it is often much hotter than in the more southern Vladivostok.

As you move north, winters are longer and more severe, and the depth of snow cover increases noticeably. In the mountains of the middle Sikhote-Alin, the first snow can fall (but not lie) already at the end of September, and it remains there until the beginning of June (according to the valleys). And the warmest weather in autumn and winter in the Khabarovsk Territory will be on the coast of the Vaninsky and Sovetsko-Gavansky districts and may differ from Khabarovsk by 10-15 degrees plus.

But on the coast, the change of seasons is shifted by 20-30 days due to the proximity to the sea, which is a powerful accumulator of both heat and cold. That is, summer comes into its own very late, but is in no hurry to leave (this phenomenon is also typical for Kamchatka and Sakhalin). However, if on the southern coast of the region summer can simply be cool, then in the northern coastal regions there is simply no climatic summer, average daily temperatures do not rise above +12 degrees and there is nothing to do there without a sweater. In addition, along the entire coast in winter there are often long-lasting cyclones with heavy snowfalls, and in the spring there are snow charges (the climate here is very similar to Sakhalin). In the spring-summer period, a thick fog often hangs over the sea, which creeps out to the coast at night, several kilometers deep, and rolls back into the sea in the morning.

Throughout the region, including coastal areas, there are significant daily temperature changes, that is, at night it is always much colder than during the day, and sometimes the difference is quite significant, which is especially noticeable in the mountains.

The Khabarovsk Territory is exposed to the influence of summer typhoons, although to a lesser extent than Primorye and Sakhalin (usually affected by the edge of a passing cyclone from Primorye or the Tatar Strait).


How to get there

By plane
Khabarovsk International Airport “Novy” (IATA:KHV) is the largest in the Far East and serves as a transit hub for air traffic with populated areas of the Far East (the so-called hub). There are regular flights to Moscow, Vladivostok, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Okhotsk and other populated areas of the country and region.

By train
The Baikal-Amur Mainline and the Trans-Siberian Railway, in the form of the Far Eastern Railway, pass through the territory of the region. The main railway stations of the region: Khabarovsk, Vyazemsky, Bikin, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Sovetskaya Gavan, Urgal, Chegdomyn.

A famous 4 km long bridge was built across the Amur River in the east-west direction, with trains running below and cars crossing above. The image of the bridge is on the five thousand banknote of the Bank of Russia. But few people know that an underwater railway tunnel more than 7 kilometers long has been dug under the Amur! This is the only structure of this kind on Russian Railways and the largest tunnel on the Trans-Siberian Railway. The tunnel is operational, freight and sometimes passenger trains operate.

By car
Two federal highways pass through the Khabarovsk Territory: M60 Ussuri, connecting Khabarovsk with Ussuriysk and Vladivostok, and M58 Amur, connecting Khabarovsk with Chita, Nevers and Birobidzhan.



By plane
From the Khabarovsk airport, local airlines (“Small Airport”) operate flights to remote and northern regions of the region. There are several small airports in the region in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, Sovgavan and Okhotsk.

By train
From Khabarovsk there is a railway line to Komsomolsk-on-Amur, then to Sovetskaya Gavan and to the eastern part of the Baikal-Amur Mainline.

Electric trains run from Khabarovsk to Vyazemsky, Bikin and populated areas of the Jewish Autonomous Region.

In the vicinity of Khabarovsk, suburban connections are developed (mainly summer residents travel).

On the ship
From Khabarovsk to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur you can take the Meteor motor ship.

From Khabarovsk to the Chinese village of Fuyuan (distance about 65 km) you can get by m/v "Polesie". Mostly shuttle traders go to Fuyuan to buy things.

There is a railway ferry between Vanino and Sakhalin (Kholmsk). Sea ferries carry only freight cars; there is no passenger rail service to the island. However, the ship has cabins for passengers, and it is also possible to transport a passenger car.

By car
The vehicle fleet in the region consists mainly of right-hand drive Japanese-made cars of various brands and types, there are cars made in South Korea and the People's Republic of China (trucks), there is very little domestic automobile industry, and practically no Western European one. A traveler with a personal car needs to know that cars converted to gas are absolutely unpopular here, and you will not find gas stations. The main supplier of motor fuel in the region (local) is NK-Alliance (Khabarovsk Oil Refinery), Komsomolsk Oil Refinery and Transbunker (Vaninsky Oil Refinery).

Highways are most developed in the south; the federal highway M60 Khabarovsk - Vladivostok runs through the territory of the region.

You can get to Komsomolsk-on-Amur along the P-454 highway. In the vicinity of the village of Lidoga, Nanai district, a relatively new Lidoga-Vanino road runs off from the P-454 highway to the east; the asphalt surface varies from almost perfect to sections like after an artillery attack.

By car you can also get to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and travel along the eastern BAM. However, the roads in those places leave much to be desired; they are mostly dirt roads.

It is believed that in remote and northern areas of the region there are no roads at all. This, however, is not entirely true. If you take a satellite map of the area with good detail, you will find that almost the entire territory of the region is cut up by a network of logging roads. After all, for a long time one of the key sources of income for the region was the export of timber to the Asia-Pacific countries. Quite a lot of residents work in the forestry industry, and the population has an extremely positive attitude towards hunting, fishing and collecting wild plants, and it is for this reason that off-road vehicles or off-road vehicles are so popular among residents of the region.



In the Khabarovsk Territory (as well as in most of the Far East), everyday traditional Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian cuisine is complemented by Korean cuisine - spicy Korean salads are very popular here. With a big stretch, they can be considered traditional Korean, since they are prepared from local products and are noticeably different from what is eaten in both Koreas. However, at the market in Khabarovsk, salads are sold by ethnic Koreans (Russified, of course), and the salads themselves simply cannot be compared in quality to those sold in hypermarkets in European Russia. In the Khabarovsk Territory, it will be quite difficult for you to find shawarma, which is so popular “in the West”; instead, here on the streets they sell pyan-se. This is a steamed pie with various fillings - a version of the national Korean dish Pyeongsu.

The Korean kuksu noodles (or kuksi, kuksa) deserve attention - only not freeze-dried in packs and foam trays, widely known in our country as a “beach package” (although this product is indispensable in certain situations, and enjoys well-deserved popularity in the Asia-Pacific countries), and real traditional noodles, as well as soup made from it.

In large self-service stores, you are likely to find a department where you can purchase goods made in Japan, South Korea or China. These products may have a piece of paper with basic information in Russian (very briefly) pasted on them. They sell very good Korean instant coffee, Japanese canned beer, Korean “Golden” mayonnaise (very tasty) in two- or three-liter cans with a handle (!), Chinese dry noodles, a sea of various seasonings and sauces. An interesting fact - in the Far East (and in the Khabarovsk Territory in particular), Japanese-made kitchen wipes are widespread, which you simply cannot find in the western regions of the country.

Local seafood is very popular - salmon, navaga, ivasi herring, pollock, pilengas, flounder, smelt, crabs, squid, mussels, shrimp, red caviar, seaweed. Freshwater Amur fish is also on sale (although the Amur has become very dirty in recent years), and inhabitants of mountain rivers - grayling, Dolly Varden, etc. Tourists should not be prejudiced against navaga or pollock, like - ugh! You may not believe it, but it is much tastier here, because it is caught here and it is fresh, and is not at all like the hundred times frozen misunderstanding sold in stores in European Russia (and in Siberia too...).

If you wish, you can try national dishes of Chinese and Japanese cuisine, but outside the city of Khabarovsk this will be a non-trivial task. Most likely, you will quickly find a cafe with Uzbek cuisine - pilaf is still more familiar to us for everyday consumption.

Wild plants are popular. For example, vitamin salads are prepared from wild garlic - wild garlic, bracken is fried, salted, pickled.

It is quite difficult to find preserves, jams and other preparations made from local wild berries in stores, but it is quite possible to purchase them at the market, just like fresh berries. Lingonberries, raspberries, blueberries, cloudberries, cranberries, rowanberries, lemongrass, mosswort, actinidia, grapes, barberries, red and black currants (wild, not what you thought), honeysuckle, bird cherry, large-fruited sea rose, etc. .

Pine nuts are specific here. A Korean cedar cone is twice or even three times larger than a Siberian cedar cone. The nuts are also larger than Siberian nuts, but you don’t need to crack them with your teeth unless you have extra teeth. The nuts have a very thick and tough shell and this limits their consumption in a “just crack” sense.

There are quite a lot of apiaries in the region, often summer (on-site) - that is, in the spring such apiaries move far into the forest, where they remain until the end of the season. Honey from these apiaries is sold right along country roads, as well as wild plants in season.

The mushroom season begins at the end of June and continues until frost. All Far Eastern mushrooms are slightly different from their Western counterparts. The assortment of mushrooms depends entirely on the area and climate; in any case, they take porcini mushrooms, aspen mushrooms, boletus mushrooms, boletus mushrooms, milk mushrooms, and white mushrooms. The rest of the mushrooms are collected so-so, to the extent of desire and opportunity. Both roadside trade and mushroom sales in markets are thriving.


Precautionary measures

Dress appropriately for the weather. Winter in the region is cold, in some places even very cold. In the summer, with the stifling heat during the day, it may not be hot at all at night, but in the morning a jacket will come in handy...

Insects. This is the scourge of the Khabarovsk Territory. Midges, mosquitoes and horseflies are found almost everywhere in the summer, except directly on the sea coast (there are many times fewer insects there). They just mercilessly eat without any twinge of conscience, and in the cities too. People at bus stops stand with branches and wave away annoying bloodsuckers. If you travel by car, then regularly replenish the glass washer reservoir, since the glass is constantly covered with the corpses of small insects and the splashed entrails of larger ones. Don't forget to wipe the headlights and clean the radiator as needed. If you are planning a foray into the forest, then take precautions against the taiga tick - a carrier of encephalitis. The only good news is that the percentage of infected ticks in the region is very low and the likelihood of contracting encephalitis from a tick bite is close to zero.

Snakes. In the south, snakes pose a danger; vipers live in the taiga zone. There are indecently many vipers in some places, but they are not aggressive and always flee, sometimes jumping out right from under your feet. All the same, when hiking in the forest, boots will be a good idea. The bite of a viper is very painful - usually the sufferer is hospitalized for a week.

Animals. The most dangerous animal in the Khabarovsk Territory (after humans) is the white-breasted Himalayan bear, which is characterized by bouts of unmotivated aggression (however, the Chinese do such cruel things to these bears, so their anger towards humans is already genetic). If you are traveling by car, a hare or fox can simply jump out under your wheels at night (especially on roads with low traffic volume).

If you travel through the forest or even through deserted places, of which there are a lot in the region (no matter by transport or on foot), then remember the golden rule: “The taiga is the law, the bear is the master.” Vigilance and vigilance again! Never overestimate your strengths and capabilities - a seemingly trivial problem can very quickly become deadly, and there will simply be no one to help you.

Many residents of the Khabarovsk Territory are accustomed to an aggressive driving style. Not because everyone is a hooligan, but because driving in mountainous areas in itself provokes extreme sports and adrenaline. Many Far Easterners, traveling by car across flat Russia, openly laugh at the “dangerous turn” and “overtaking is prohibited” signs, since in the Far East these signs are installed only in really dangerous areas (and you should never ignore them!)... however, When traveling along the edge, you should always (!) be prepared for the fact that on a completely blind, closed, sharp turn some fool will easily fly right into your head. The accident rate in the Khabarovsk Territory is really high. Drivers are not shy about causing road fights.

The Khabarovsk Territory is one of the few subjects of the Russian Federation where traffic police inspectors do not take bribes, literally at all. Moreover, if you violated traffic rules and got caught, never try to pay yourself off - you can easily get into a lot of problems with the law. But you can try to reach an agreement simply as a human being, because everyone is living people.

If you are not a citizen of the Russian Federation, then to enter the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur you must obtain a special permit from the FSB of the region, since although the city is not a ZATO, for some reason it is still present in the “List of Territories of the Russian Federation with Restricted Visits” foreign citizens."



Early population

Man populated the territory of the Khabarovsk Territory in the Mesolithic era. On the southern shore of Lake Udyl there is an Early Neolithic site of the Gromatukha culture (Goliy Mys-4), dating back to 12,300-13,000 years ago. n. — Younger Dryas — transition to Allerød. In the 1970s, at a Far Eastern settlement on the Gasya cliff at the confluence of the Amur River and the Malyshevskaya channel not far from Sikachi-Alyan, Academician A. Okladnikov and Doctor of Historical Sciences V. Medvedev identified the oldest Neolithic Osipovskaya culture of nomadic hunters in the Lower Amur (radiocarbon date 12960 ±120 years ago). The Osipovskaya culture received its name from the village of Osipovka, which was once located near the railway bridge over the Amur near Khabarovsk. The most ancient ceramics in Russia belongs to the Osipovka culture. According to the results of radiocarbon dating, its monuments existed in the time period from 13,300 to 7,700 years ago. n. There are also Neolithic sites with pottery and early dates in northern Japan and Korea. In the settlements of the Osipovskaya culture of the 11th millennium BC siltstone jewelry and a jade ring and disk were discovered.

During the Neolithic period, many tribes already lived sedentary lives, which was facilitated by favorable climatic and natural conditions.

Since ancient times, Paleo-Asian and Tungus tribes lived on the territory of the Amur region of the Khabarovsk Territory.

In the Middle Ages, the territory of the modern Khabarovsk Territory was inhabited mainly by peoples, as well as Nivkhs. In China they were known collectively as "wild Jurchens".

In the 13th-14th centuries, the Mongol rulers of China repeatedly organized expeditions to the lower Amur, where, near the present village of Tyr in the lower reaches of the Amur (about 100 km above the mouth), in 1263 they founded their “Marshal’s Headquarters of the Eastern Campaigns” and at about the same time erected a shrine .

In the 15th century, near the same village of Tyr, several expeditions of the Ming dynasty under the leadership of the eunuch Ishikha erected the Buddhist temple of Yongning and installed steles (the so-called Tyr steles, now kept in a museum in Vladivostok). However, the subordination of local tribes to the Chinese authorities was quite nominal. After the departure of the Chinese and the fire in the temple, it was not restored by local residents.


Russian pioneers

Before the arrival of the Russians, the tribes of Daurs, Evenks, Natks, Gilyaks and others lived here, about 30 thousand people in total. The exploration of the Far East by explorers of the Russian state began in the 17th century. In 1639, a detachment of Cossack explorers led by Ivan Moskvitin reached the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk (then Lamsky). The first fort was erected at the mouth of the Ulya River. In 1647, Semyon Shelkovnikov founded the Okhotsk fort. These were the first Russian settlements in the Khabarovsk Territory.

In 1649, the Russian explorer Erofei Pavlovich Khabarov with a detachment of 70 people set off from Yakutsk to explore new lands. Having ascended the Lena River, E.P. Khabarov compiled a “Drawing of the Amur River” and a report to Moscow, in which he wrote: “... The Daurian land will be more profitable than the Lena... and opposite all of Siberia, the place will be decorated and abundant...” Since then, interest Russian sovereigns' interest in the Far East did not subside.

The Amur region was quickly developed by Russian settlers. New forts were founded: Albazinsky (1651), Achansky (1652), Kumarsky (1654), Kosogorsky (1655) and others, as well as peasant villages: Soldatovo, Ignashkino, Pokrovskoye, Monastyrshchina, Andryushkino and others. By the early 1680s, up to 800 male souls lived in the Amur basin. More than a thousand acres of arable land were plowed. There were good harvests.

The entire Amur to the Tatar Strait and the territory east of the Argun to the Greater Khingan became part of the Russian state. A large ore deposit has been discovered.

Nerchinsky district and Albazinsky voivodeship were formed, which became centers of Russian activity on the Amur.

However, the process of developing the region was interrupted due to the aggression of the Qing Empire. From the beginning of the 80s of the 17th century, the Manchus entered into open conflict with the Russian state. Military operations took place in Transbaikalia and the Amur. The Russian kingdom was not going to cede its Far Eastern borders. Along with the defense of Albazin (1685-1686), attempts were made to resolve the issue through negotiations. The Russian embassy went to Beijing. But, unable to transfer large military forces to the Amur region, the Russian kingdom was forced to sign the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689). According to its territorial articles, Russian subjects left the left bank of the Amur. The exact border between the two states was not established. A huge region, successfully developed for a long time, turned into a deserted strip that belonged to no one. The Russian kingdom only managed to defend the right to Transbaikalia and the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk.

In the 18th century, Okhotsk became the main Pacific port of the country. The development of the northern shores of the Pacific Ocean, the exploration of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin prepared the basis for the Russian development of the Amur region.


Development of the Amur region in the 19th century

Energetic steps to return the Amur region to Russia were taken by Nikolai Nikolaevich Muravyov, who was appointed Governor-General of Eastern Siberia in 1847. He owns the words: “Whoever owns the mouths of the Amur will own Siberia.” With the broad support of Muravyov, the complicated issue of the navigability of the mouth and estuary of the Amur and the island position of Sakhalin was resolved. An outstanding role in solving this geographical problem was played by Gennady Ivanovich Nevelskoy. In 1850, he raised the Russian flag at the mouth of the Amur and founded the Nikolaev military post (now the city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur), which since 1855 has become the country's main naval base on the Pacific Ocean.

In 1854-1856, raftings of troops and Cossacks along the Amur River were carried out. This made it possible to establish new posts, villages, villages: Mariinskoye, Uspenskoye, Bogorodskoye, Irkutskoye and others. The number of Russian population in the region increased noticeably.

In 1858, the Aigun Treaty was signed, and in 1860, the Beijing Treaty, according to which the territories of the Far East south of the Amur were ceded to the Russian Empire.

In 1858, Khabarovsk, Sofiysk, Innokentyevka, Korsakovo, Kazakevichevo and other strongholds were founded. From 1858 to 1860, more than three thousand people were resettled to the Amur. They set up the villages of Voronezhskoye, Vyatskoye, Troitskoye, Permskoye, Tambovskoye and others. Among the first settlers there were many schismatic Old Believers. By the beginning of the 1830s, approximately half of the population of the Amur region consisted of Old Believers.

In 1856, the Primorsky region was formed. In 1858, it included 6 districts: Okhotsk, Nikolaevsky, Sofia, Petropavlovsk, Gizhiginsky, Udsky. In 1860, the South Ussuri region was formed as part of the region.

In 1884, the Amur Governorate General was formed as part of the Transbaikal, Amur and Primorsky regions with its center in the city of Khabarovsk. This division remained until the end of the 19th century.

Until the end of the 19th century, settlement of the Amur region proceeded at a slow pace. The situation began to change by the beginning of the 20th century.

In 1900, traffic opened on the Trans-Baikal Railway, and in 1902 on the Chinese-Eastern Railway, accelerating the influx of settlers to the region.

The war with Japan in 1904-1905 disrupted resettlement plans. From January 1904 to March 1906, not only the Amur region, but also the entire Eastern Siberia were closed for resettlement, so all the work of the Trans-Siberian Railway was subordinated exclusively to the needs of the military. In 1906-1907, after the end of the war, a powerful influx of new settlers began. From 1900 to 1913, about 300 thousand peasants from other parts of the country arrived in the Amur region.

A peculiarity of the settlement of the region was that a significant part of the settlers settled in cities. According to the All-Russian Population Census of 1897, in the European part of the country, city dwellers accounted for 12.8%, in the Amur region - 27.3%, in the Primorsky region - 22.7%.

By 1915, there were more than six thousand settlements on the map of the Primorsky region. 316,300 people lived in them, of which 43,500 people lived in the Khabarovsk district. On the territory belonging to the modern Khabarovsk Territory, there were three cities: Khabarovsk, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and Okhotsk.



The events of 1917 caused an ambiguous assessment of various layers of Far Easterners. The decisive actions of the Soviets aroused the approval of some and the rejection of others. The division of society into “reds” and “whites” has not passed the brink. The civil war, aggravated by the intervention of interventionists, led to enormous casualties and a severe economic catastrophe.

To prevent a military clash between Soviet Russia and Japan and solve the problem of peacefully eliminating intervention in the territory of Transbaikalia, the Amur and Primorsky regions, the Far Eastern Republic (FER) was created on April 6, 1920. In 1921, Japan, having failed to diplomatically subordinate the Far Eastern Republic to its influence, in 1921 took steps to intensify the military operations of the white troops. The actions of the People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic, supported by red partisan detachments, led to victory in the Volochaev operation and the liberation of Khabarovsk, the capture of Spassk, and the entry into Vladivostok. On November 15, 1922, the Far Eastern Republic was transformed into the Far Eastern Region of the RSFSR. In December 1923, its administrative center was moved to Khabarovsk from Chita. The restoration of the pre-war level of the national economy was completed by 1926. And on January 4, 1926, the Far Eastern Region was abolished and transformed into the Far Eastern Territory.


Soviet period

A new aggravation of the international situation on the Far Eastern borders of the country required strengthening the defense capability of the region. As a result, processes of reorganization of industry, transport, and agriculture unfolded. New educational institutions have opened. Cities such as Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Birobidzhan were founded. Plants and factories opened, the transport network developed. Since 1933, radio broadcasts from Moscow began to be received in Khabarovsk, and in 1936 the construction of a telephone line from Moscow to the Far East was completed. Relocation to the region from the central regions of the country continued. By 1939, the population of the Far Eastern Territory increased to 2.5 million people.

On October 20, 1938, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Far Eastern Territory was divided into Khabarovsk and Primorsky. The Khabarovsk Territory consisted of the Khabarovsk, Amur, Lower Amur, Sakhalin, Kamchatka (with Koryak and Chukotka national districts) regions, the Jewish Autonomous Okrug and three northern regions directly subordinate to the regional executive committee. On May 31, 1939, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the creation of the region.

In 1939, the Khabarovsk region was liquidated, and in the north of the region the Kolyma Okrug was formed, which was liquidated in the same year.

In 1947-1948, the Sakhalin and Amur regions were separated from the Khabarovsk Territory.

On September 15, 1948, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR decided to “transfer the city of Sovetskaya Gavan along with the suburban area from the Primorsky Territory to the Khabarovsk Territory.”

In 1953, the Magadan Region was formed and separated from the region, and the Chukotka National District was transferred to its subordination from the Kamchatka Region.

In 1956, the Kamchatka region (with the Koryak national district) became independent (since 2007, after the unification of the latter, the Kamchatka region) and the Lower Amur region was abolished, and its districts were subordinated directly to the Khabarovsk region.


Modern Russia

After the adoption of the new Constitution of the Russian Federation in 1993, the Jewish Autonomous Region withdrew from the Khabarovsk Territory and became an equal subject of the Russian Federation.

In 2004, during a visit to China, V.V. Putin made the final decision to transfer Tarabarov Island and half of Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island on the Amur River and Bolshoy Island on the Argun River to the Chinese.

In December 2018, the center of the region, the city of Khabarovsk, lost its status as the center of the Far Eastern Federal District. Instead, this status was taken by the center of Primorye - Vladivostok.


Physiographic characteristics

The territory of the region extends from south to north for 1800 km, from west to east - for 125-750 km. The total area of the region is 788,600 km², which is 4.5% of the entire territory of the country. In terms of territory, it is slightly larger than the Irkutsk region, occupying 4th place in territory among the constituent entities of Russia, as well as New Guinea - the 2nd largest island in the world. The forest fund is 75.5 million hectares 755 thousand km², forest lands are 59.2 million hectares 592 thousand km². The territory is approximately comparable to Turkey.



The entire Khabarovsk Territory is in the 8th time zone (MSK+7). Relative to Moscow time, the time zone has a constant offset of +7 hours. The offset relative to UTC is +10:00.



The main mountain ranges: Sikhote-Alin in the southeast of the region, Bureinsky, Dusse-Alin, Badzhalsky and Yam-Alin in the southwest, Suntar-Khayata, Yudomsky and Dzhugdzhur in the north. The highest point is Mount Beryl (2933 m), the lowest is sea level.

Much smaller areas are in the lowlands in the river valleys: Sredneamurskaya, on which Khabarovsk stands, Nizhneamurskaya, Udskaya and Ulya-Okhotskaya.


Bureya landslide

In December 2018, a landslide came down from the steep left slope of the Bureya valley, blocking the riverbed and forming a dam. The Institute of Water and Environmental Problems of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IVEP) stated that the river overflowing its banks in the spring could flood three surrounding villages and affect the operation of the Bureyskaya hydroelectric station. The Bureya landslide was called the largest in the country in recent years. The volume of drained soil is about 34 million cubic meters. At the site where the soil fell over an area of 1.6 square kilometers on the opposite side of the Bureya River, all trees were destroyed, this was confirmed by satellite images that recorded the state of the area between December 9 and 12.


Khabarovsk climate

Climatic conditions change when moving from north to south, and also depend on proximity to the sea and on the shape and nature of the relief. Khabarovsk Territory is located within two climatic zones.

Subarctic belt
Siberian region (continental part of the Okhotsk region)

Temperate zone
Continental East Siberian region (territory bordering Yakutia)
Pacific region (northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk)
Monsoon Far Eastern region (western coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, south of Khabarovsk Territory)[30]. This area has a temperate monsoon climate.

Winter in the region is long and severe, from dry in continental regions to snowy on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The number of predominantly winter months with negative average temperatures increases from 5 in the south of the region to 7 in its north. The average monthly air temperature in January varies from −19°C in the south to −37°C in the north of the region, on the coast of the Sea of Japan and Okhotsk - from −14°C to −20°C. The absolute minimum temperature even in the south of the region reaches −50°C. Summer is excessively humid, except in the valleys in the continental East Siberian region. On the coast it is cool, but in the Ussuri basin it is as hot as in the southeast of the Black Earth Region. The average air temperature of the warmest month in the south of the region reaches 22°C, in the north it drops to 14...19°C, on the coast it rises from 13°C in the area of the Shantar Islands to 18°C at the mouth of the Amur.

The annual precipitation ranges from 340-970 mm in the north and up to 600-910 mm on the plains and slopes of the ridges south of Uda. The least precipitation (less than 400 mm) was recorded on the border with Yakutia. The most precipitation (over 900 mm) is observed at the foot of Dzhugdzhur, in Ayan, and on the Sikhote-Alin ridge, in Gvasyugi. In the south of the region, up to 90% of precipitation falls from April to October, with especially high precipitation in July and August.

In the Khabarovsk Territory, two districts: Ayano-Maysky and Okhotsky (as well as the Shantar Islands) are regions of the Far North.

Territories equated to the regions of the Far North: Vaninsky, Verkhnebureinsky, Komsomolsky, Nikolaevsky, named after Polina Osipenko, Sovetsko-Gavansky, Solnechny, Tuguro-Chumikansky and Ulchsky districts; cities: Amursk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and Sovetskaya Gavan; urban-type settlement Elban, Amur region; villages of Achan, Dzhuen, Voznesenskoye, Ommi, Padali, Amur region.

The boundary of the island permafrost runs approximately through Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Along the middle mountains of the Sikhote-Alin, it descends further south into the Primorsky Territory. The lowlands of Sikhote-Alin, adjacent to the coast of the Sea of Japan, are free from island permafrost approximately to the border of the Vaninsky and Ulchsky regions. In the north of the Khabarovsk Territory, discontinuous and continuous permafrost is common.

The average water temperature in August on the coast of the Sea of Japan is 13...17 °C. Off the coast of the Amur Estuary it reaches 18…20 °C suitable for swimming. At the mouth of the Amur, a maximum temperature of 29 °C was recorded. In the Sea of Okhotsk towards the Shantar Islands, the average August water temperature drops sharply to 10 °C; near the islands themselves, it may be even lower, since measurements are not taken here. After turning north, the temperature rises to 14 °C in Okhotsk. The Sea of Japan is the first to become free of ice in the spring, and the last ice floes around the Shantar Islands may melt by autumn.


Plant world

The Khabarovsk Territory features landscapes of taiga, subtaiga and deciduous forests. The taiga is divided into northern (Okhotsk region), middle and southern subzones. According to environmental properties, it can be light coniferous or dark coniferous. The main habitat of light coniferous forests gravitates towards permafrost in the territories adjacent to Yakutia. Dark coniferous forests grow mainly on the Sikhote-Alin ridge, the lower Amur and the mountains of the southwest of the region. Podtaiga is located between Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur. A similar low-mountain belt stretches along the Sea of Japan from Sovetskaya Gavan to the border with the Primorsky Territory. Broad-leaved forest landscapes are found in the Ussuri River basin. The latitudinal zonality is superimposed on the altitudinal zonation of the mountains, which makes the vegetation cover of the Khabarovsk Territory more complex, adding a goletz belt (mountain tundra), a belt of dwarf trees and larch open spaces with fragments of stone birch forests.

Forest-forming species in boreal forests are Gmelin larch, Scots pine, Ayan spruce, white fir, flat-leaved birch and aspen. Smaller areas are occupied by Siberian and Korean spruces. Nemoral forests are dominated by Korean cedar, Mongolian oak and Amur linden, and less commonly by Manchurian ash, Japanese elm, ribbed and Dahurian birch. Azonal floodplain forests consist of various species of willow, choicenia, sweet poplar and hairy alder.

In the floodplains of rivers and on low terraces above the floodplain, azonal wet meadows and swamps occur. Steppe-formed non-floodplain meadows are less typical than in the neighboring Amur region. They grow on meadow podbels, which are not on the same level as the meadow-chernozem-like soils of the “Amur prairies”, but are part of the podbels - zonal soils of mixed and broad-leaved forests.

In the Khor River basin, a unique holly spruce forest for the mainland of the Russian Far East has been preserved, in the lower tiers of which spiky yew and wrinkled holly grow. Among other relicts, Amur velvet, high aralia, Amur monopoly, Japanese chloranthus and average coniogram fern stand out for their decorativeness. More than 250 species of plants are listed in the Red Book of the Khabarovsk Territory, some of them: cross-paired microbiota, pleasant weigela, Bureinsky gooseberry, Maksimovich's sarsaparilla, Asian adlumia, lady's slippers, snow poppy, milky-flowered peony and Pacific bergenia (a type of bergenia thick-leaved)