Sovetskaya Gavan, Russia

Sovetskaya Gavan is a city in the Khabarovsk Territory of Russia, the administrative center of the Sovetsko-Gavan region. Forms an urban settlement, the city of Sovetskaya Gavan as the only settlement in its composition.

Located on the shores of the bay of the same name, which in turn is part of the Tatar Strait. Together with the suburban area (the villages of Lososina, Maisky and Zavety Ilyich, it forms the only Sovgavan-Vanino agglomeration on the coast of the Tatar Strait with a total population of about 40 thousand people.


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position
The city is located on the shore of the Sovetskaya Gavan Bay (Tatar Strait), 581 km from Khabarovsk, 10 km from the port of Vanino, one of the largest Russian ports on the Pacific Ocean. It is located in a mountainous area, in the immediate vicinity there is a Sovetsky ridge with a height of up to 560 m (Sovetskaya), a spur of Sikhote-Alin.

The end point of the BAM. The city is connected with the Komsomolsk-on-Amur by railroad, the highway 08A-1 “Lidoga - Vanino - Sovetskaya Gavan”, the city is connected with the highway “Khabarovsk - Komsomolsk-on-Amur”. The May-Gatka airport operates.



The Russian Empire
The first information about a certain closed bay, located on the coast of the Tatar Strait south of De-Kastri, was received by the participants of the Amur expedition in the spring of 1852 on Lake Kizi from local Orocs, who called the Khody or Khojo bay. Subsequently, in the Russian language, the distorted name of Hadji was fixed for him. The Gulf immediately interested the commander of the Amur Expedition GI Nevelskoy as a potential base for the Navy, where the ships could take refuge from a possible attack from the enemy fleet. The latter, taking into account the complication of Russian-British relations and the increased activity of the British fleet in the Far East, was quite real. At first, two ways of searching for Haji were considered - land (through the rivers flowing from the Sikhote-Alin and flowing into the bay) and sea; because of the riskiness of the first path, Nevelskoy chose the second.

The first discoverer of the Khadzhi Bay was Lieutenant of the Russian Imperial Navy N.K. Boshnyak, who was sent by Nevelskoy to search for a sea route to the bay. He was accompanied by three companions - two Cossacks and a Yakut translator. It happened on May 23 (June 4), 1853. On the shores of the bay, Boshnyak counted about 50 orcs, who lived in 10 dwellings, scattered in 5 places along the shores of the bay. The discoverer named the bay the harbor of Emperor Nicholas I (later the name was shortened to Imperial Harbor). He gave the coves of the gulf the names of the members of the imperial family. This decision was made by him deliberately due to the fact that many close associates of Nicholas I, in particular the Minister of Foreign Affairs K.V. Nesselrode, had a negative attitude to the study of new Far Eastern territories. On one of the capes, later named in honor of the Grand Duchess Anastasia, a wooden cross was installed on which a board was fixed with the inscription: “The harbor of Emperor Nicholas is open, and is visually described by Lieutenant Boshnyak on May 23, 1853, on a native boat, with companions Cossacks Semyon Parfentiev, Kir Belokhvostov, Amga peasant Ivan Moseev. " The local Oroch were given an official letter in Russian, German and French, which indicated that the Imperial Harbor belonged to Russia.

On August 4 (16), 1853, Nevelskoy himself arrived in the Imperial Harbor on the Baikal transport, wishing to personally participate in the creation of the first Russian settlement in the newly discovered bay. By his order, in one of the bays (Boshnyak called it Konstantinovskaya, later she received the name Postovoy), a "military post of His Imperial Highness General-Admiral of the Grand Duke Constantine," headed by the sergeant D. Khoroshikh, was exhibited. On October 7, 1853, N.K. Boshnyak again arrived in the harbor, appointed by Nevelskoy as the first head of the Constantine post.

For the winter of 1853-1854, the crews of the transports "Irtysh" and "Nicholas I", about 90 people in total, remained in the bay for the winter. The first wintering of the Russians in the Imperial Harbor was tragic: 29 people died from poor nutrition, cold and scurvy in the Constantine post and on ships. Nevelskoy, in turn, ordered to arrange this poorly prepared wintering, later tried to shift the blame for the death of people to N.V. Busse (who allegedly did not share food and did not replace the sick from the crew of the Irtysh transport when he was on the roadstead of the Muravyevsky post ). To this end, he personally made changes, accusing the head of the post, as it were on behalf of Lieutenant Boshnyak, in the memoirs of the latter, published in the "Marine collection" (No. 10, 1859). As it turned out soon, the editorial board of the magazine instructed Nevelsky only to “look through the article of Mr. Boshnyak and express his opinion about it” (No. 2, 1860). NV Busse, in a letter to the editor, published in No. 7 for 1860, set out his own version of events that fully justifies it, presenting as evidence the original report of the commander of the Irtysh. However, many years later, Nevelskoy presented his inventions in chapter XXIV of the book "The exploits of Russian naval officers in the Far East of Russia" (published posthumously in 1878 and, thanks to the authority of the author, is still considered a reliable source of information).


In 1887, a memorial sign was erected in memory of the victims; subsequently, its location changed four times. In 2016, in the village of Zavety Ilyich, a new monument to those who died from scurvy was erected, on which they are listed by name.

On May 22, 1854, the frigate "Pallada" entered the harbor, as well as the steam schooner "Vostok", which met the "Pallada" at the entrance to the Tatar Strait. The commander of the "Vostok" delivered to Vice-Admiral E. V. Putyatin, who was on board the "Pallada", an official message that Britain and France had declared war on Russia: from the arriving ships they learned about the beginning of the Crimean War at the Constantine post. In the vicinity of Postovoy Bay, a forest was cut down, and the construction of two batteries began to, if necessary, repel an attack by an enemy fleet, which could appear at any time. Putyatin personally supervised the construction of the batteries. He was assisted by the senior artilleryman of the "Pallada" Lieutenant Colonel K. I. Losev, who, together with the sailors, erected breastworks with embrasures, equipped parking places for guns.

On June 28, 1854, the Pallada left the Imperial Harbor, planning to arrive in Nikolaevsk through the Amur estuary. After unsuccessful attempts to make the last "Pallada" at the end of September 1854 returned to the harbor for the winter, where she was guarded by a team of 10 people led by boatswain V. Sinitsyn. In March 1855, a new head of the Constantinovsky post, a member of the Amur expedition, Ensign DS Kuznetsov, who took over from V. Sinitsyn, arrived in Postovaya Bay.

In the spring of 1856, by order of the chief of the land and sea forces of the Amur region, VS Zavoiko, the frigate "Pallada" was flooded so that it would not fall to the enemy. After that, the Constantine post was removed, its chief D.S.Kuznetsov and his subordinates left the Imperial Harbor.

In May 1856, after the end of the Crimean War, a British squadron entered the Imperial Harbor abandoned by the Russians: the steamer HMS Barracouta, the frigates HMS Pique and HMS Sybille. The squadron stayed in the gulf for about ten days, before leaving, the British burned all the buildings of the Konstantinovsky post. In mid-July 1856, the British returned again to map the coast of the Gulf. The bay itself was named "Barracouta Harbor" - in honor of the British steamer. Many other geographic sites have also received English names, mostly in honor of the Barracuda's crew.

In 1857, the Constantine post was restored and worked until 1903.

On November 2 (14), 1860, the Peking Treaty was signed, which officially secured for Russia the lands east of the Amur River, including the territory of the Imperial Harbor. Prior to that, the Imperial Harbor was formally located on the territory not delimited between Russia and China.

At the end of the 19th century, a lighthouse was built on the promontory at the entrance to the bay, one of the oldest on the Russian Pacific coast. After the revolution, the Bolsheviks renamed the lighthouse "Krasny Partizan" in memory of the Bolshevik partisans who were shot here during the civil war. A monument was also erected not far from the lighthouse.

The territory of the modern city began to actively develop in the 1900s in connection with the activities of loggers and fish traders. At the beginning of October 1906, engineer Pülkkenen won a tender for the sale of 2 million logs from the Ternei Bay area (including from the Imperial Harbor), who entered into a 4-year contract with the State Property Administration and began the construction of a timber mill in Imperial Harbor. However, the larch boards that Pülkkenen tried to sell in Shanghai turned out to be of poor quality, and their sale did not justify the entrepreneur's expenses for setting up a sawmill. This forced Pühlkkenen to abandon the concession, handing it over to the British Oriental Timber Corporation Ltd. In 1907, an Australian entrepreneur, Harold Crofton Slay, was sent by the Eastern Timber Society to Imperial Harbor, where he bought a timber processing plant and logged timber from Pühlkkenen. In addition, Slay was awarded a contract to remove another 400,000 logs from Imperial Harbor over three years. The company spent more than 300 thousand rubles. for the arrangement of the concession: with this money, administrative buildings and residential buildings were built on the shores of the Okocha Bay. By 1910, the total costs of the company for an enterprise in the Imperial Harbor amounted to more than one million rubles, of which 517.5 thousand rubles were spent on workers' wages. The Australians removed only about 230 thousand logs from the Imperial Harbor, without covering 33% of the costs. In this regard, in 1911, Slay filed a petition for an extension of the logging contract to 12 years and full legalization of the production activities of the Eastern Timber Society in Russia. However, the Russian administration did not satisfy his request, after which the Australians refused to conduct the case on the same terms.


At the end of August 1908, VK Arseniev visited the Imperial Harbor as part of the Jubilee Expedition of the Amur Department of the IRGO. One of the most important tasks of the expedition was to find the shortest summer route from Khabarovsk to the Imperial Harbor. The expedition was also responsible for describing and determining the area of ​​areas suitable for resettlement, mapping them, determining the composition and depth of soils, collecting statistical information on the population of the area, finding out the presence of roads, trails and other communication routes. Ethnographic research was also an important task, primarily the study of the Udege and Oroch people. The members of the expedition stayed in the harbor for about two weeks on vacation, after which they left it. The expedition returned to the harbor in the summer of 1909. In the period from August to October 1909, Arseniev surveyed the basins of the surrounding rivers Khadya, Tutto, Ma, Ui and Chuanka.

By 1912, a village was formed around the sawmill, which received the name Znamenskoye. It consisted of three settlements located along the shores of Mayachnaya, Yaponskaya (now Kuriksha Bay) and Concession (now Okocha Bay) bays.

On October 27, 1914, in Znamenskoye (at that time it was part of the Khutsin volost of the Olginsky district of the Primorsky region) a post and telegraph office was opened with the receipt of domestic and international telegrams. A telegraph line was extended from De-Kastri to the Imperial Harbor.

Civil war and the establishment of Soviet power
In 1919, in the area of ​​the Imperial Harbor, four fishing industries operated under the management of Russian entrepreneurs - in Lososina Bay, Olga Bay, Alexandra Bay (now Severnaya) and near the Menshikov Peninsula, as well as the aforementioned Australian concession in Okocha Bay. There were two lighthouses with servants: the Nikolaevsky lighthouse on the Cape of St. Nicholas and another lighthouse at the entrance to the bay.

On April 5, 1919, a partisan detachment under the command of Peter Kuriksha entered the Imperial Harbor. The guerrillas arrested local police officers, seized the Australian concession, and shot several people from the administration and entrepreneurs. The head of the local post office managed to request help by telegraph, and in May 1919 the steamer Vzryvatel arrived from Vladivostok. A White Guard landing force landed from it, which, after a short battle, knocked out the Reds. Pyotr Kuriksha and the partisans of his detachment (his backbone were employees of the Nikolaev lighthouse) were shot by the White Guards near this lighthouse: in 1926 the lighthouse received a new name "Red Partisan").

On April 6, 1920, the Far Eastern Republic was proclaimed on the territory of the Russian Far East, which included the Primorskaya Oblast, and with it the Imperial Harbor. However, in fact, the harbor continued to remain under the control of the White Guards, who did not recognize the FER.

In April 1922, the 1st expeditionary partisan detachment of the Reds under the command of V.S.Kolesnichenko in the amount of 45 people arrived from Olga to the village of Znamenskoye. The headquarters of the detachment was located in the building of the post and telegraph stronghold. A gathering of the villagers was held, at which most of the residents of Znamenskoye demanded the departure of the detachment, however, Kolesnichenko and the detachment commissar G.P. Kharchuk managed to convince the residents. Soviet power was established in the Imperial Harbor, and the Harbor itself was renamed Soviet power by order of the partisan detachment.

Throughout 1922, the Kolesnichenko detachment defended the coast of the harbor from the White Guards. The first collision occurred with the beginning of navigation, at the end of May: the white ship was forced to leave without engaging in battle. This was followed by clashes with detachments of whites near the villages of Znamenskoye, Grossevichi, near the Kazimierz barracks. At the end of September 1922, the Whites landed a landing party in Sovetskaya Gavan, under the blows of which Kolesnichenko's detachment withdrew from Sovetskaya Gavan to join the main forces of the partisans. As a result, the partisans managed to defeat the white landing on the Samarga River. This was the last attempt by the Whites to establish control over Soviet Gavan; after its failure, Soviet power was finally established in the city.

Soviet period
On November 15, 1922, the FER was liquidated. The territories that made it up became part of the RSFSR as the Far Eastern Region. The Primorskaya Oblast, which included the Imperial Harbor, was transformed into Primorskaya Province with the center in Vladivostok.

On February 19, 1923, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee issued a resolution, according to which the harbor was officially named Soviet. In the same year, 1923, the Znamensky village council was formed. By this time, Znamenskoye was a fairly large village, there were about 80 houses in it.


In 1925, the Sovetsky District was formed as part of the Primorsk province with the center in Znamensky.

In 1926, an administrative-territorial reform was carried out in the Far East. Primorskaya province, along with three other provinces, was abolished and became part of the newly formed Far Eastern Territory (DVK). The region was divided into districts, one of which was the Khabarovsk District - the Soviet District was included in the latter.

In 1927, on the route Sovetskaya Gavan - Khabarovsk, a complex expedition of the Far Eastern Resettlement Administration under the leadership of V.K.Arsenyev took place, which was engaged in the search for a route for the railway between these cities.

Working settlement Sovetskaya Gavan (1930-1941)
In the 1930s, the village of Znamenskoye was transformed into a working settlement Sovetskaya Gavan. In the same year, the Khabarovsk District was abolished, and the Sovetsky District, renamed Sovetsko-Gavansky, went under the direct control of the DCK. By this time, four fish processing plants, three fishing collective farms, the Soviet timber industry enterprise, the Soviet-Gavan timber mill, and the Oroch national collective farm were established in the village. In 1932, the first issue of the city newspaper "Sovetsko-Orochskaya Zvezda" (later called "Sovetskaya Zvezda") was published.

On October 20, 1932, the Primorskaya Oblast was formed as part of the DCK, with its center in Vladivostok. Sovetsko-Gavanskiy region became part of it.

In 1933, the Sovgavan fish processing plant was founded on the shores of Lososina Bay, later reorganized into the Sovgavan Ocean Fishing Base (SBOR) [14]. Collection was one of the largest industrial enterprises in the USSR - it employed up to 3 thousand people. Since 1969, after the settlement of Lososina was separated from the city limits, the collection has been located on its territory.

In 1934, the construction of plant No. 263 began, later named the Northern Shipyard (SSRZ). In 1937 the construction was completed, at the same time the first ship was repaired at the plant. The construction of a mill, a special-purpose Far East power plant, and a seaport was started.

In 1934, in Sovetskaya Gavan, then a border town (on the other side of the Tatar Strait was the Japanese part of Sakhalin), he began to create a fortified area. This year, the first two coastal batteries, No. 908 and No. 909, were commissioned. They were erected urgently, of a lightweight type, armed with four 152-mm Kane cannons each. These batteries could not effectively counteract the artillery ships of the heavy cruiser class and above, therefore, in 1938, coastal battery No. 925 of 180-mm caliber began to be built on Cape Vesyoliy.

On October 20, 1938, the DCK was divided into the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories. Sovetskaya Gavan, as part of the Primorsky region, became part of the Primorsky Territory. Already in 1939, the Primorsky region was abolished, and the Sovetsko-Gavansky region became directly subordinate to the regional authorities.

In 1940, the Soviet-Gavana fortified area was transformed into the Soviet-Gavana naval base of the North Pacific military flotilla.

The city of Sovetskaya Gavan (from 1941)
On January 18, 1941, the settlement of Sovetskaya Gavan received the status of a city.

On May 21, 1943, the USSR State Defense Committee issued a decree on the construction of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Pivan) - Sovetskaya Gavan railway line and a seaport in Vanin Bay, which was yet to be built. Thousands of prisoners from Stalin's forced labor camps were thrown into the construction of a railway along the Hungari River in the foothills of the Sikhote-Alin. On October 8, 1943, the Far Eastern Shipping Company approved the staffing table of the "port point of Vanino", the actual work of the Vanino port began a year later, in 1944. In 1945 the road Komsomolsk - Sovetskaya Gavan was completed. The first passenger train arrived at Sovetskaya Gavan in 1947.

In August 1945, during the military campaign against Japan, an assault force was landed from Sovetskaya Gavan in the port of Maoka on southern Sakhalin. After the annexation of South Sakhalin to the USSR, the need for the coastal battery No. 925 disappeared: at first it was mothballed, and in 1972 it was closed.

In 1946, a construction organization was formed in the city, the construction of the first stone buildings began: residential buildings on the central street of the city - Primorskaya (now Lenin), school No. 1 (now the building of the Inter-school educational center) and the city hospital (now the building of the health department) ... Japanese prisoners of war worked at many construction sites in the city.


The importance of Sovetskaya Gavan increased sharply since the summer of 1946, after the port facilities in Nakhodka were destroyed by the explosion of the Dalstroy steamer. On February 17, 1947, a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR was issued, making the Vanino port the main civilian port of the Soviet Far East. By the same decree, the port was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Navy to the jurisdiction of Dalstroy.

In May 1948, the first civil aircraft landed at the airfield of the 42nd Aviation Regiment - the PO-2 aircraft with mail and one passenger on board. Since that time, regular air traffic began between Sovetskaya Gavan and other cities in the Far East.

On September 15, 1948, the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR "On the transfer of the city of Sovetskaya Gavan from the Primorsky Territory to the Khabarovsk Territory" was issued.

In 1950-1953, the city was the seat of the Construction Department 508, and in 1953-1954 - Ulminlag. By 1953, the prisoners built the Sovetskaya Gavan-Sortirovochnaya - Sovetskaya Gavan-Gorod railway line.

In 1954-1956, a House of Culture was built in Sovetskaya Gavan in the style of Soviet neoclassicism.

On June 5, 1958, the Khabarovsk regional executive committee made a decision: "On the separation of the village of Vanino from the city limits of the city of Sovetskaya Gavan and its assignment to the category of workers' settlements." Thus, the village of Vanino (which also included the housing estate of the sawmill, which was allocated in 1985 as a separate village) became an independent settlement.

In 1959, the villages of Maysky and Oktyabrsky were withdrawn from Sovetskaya Gavan, and in 1960 - the urban-type settlement Zavety Ilyich.

In 1966, a museum of local lore appeared in the city (now it is a regional museum of local lore named after N.K. Boshnyak).

In 1969 the settlement of Lososina was removed from the city.

In 1973, the Vaninsky district was created with the center in the village of Vanino, to which most of the territory of the Soviet-Gavansky district was transferred. Since then, the boundaries of the city and district have not changed.

In the 1980s, a number of ambitious projects were launched to build new large shipbuilding enterprises in the city, mainly for military purposes. In particular, it was planned to build the largest shipbuilding plant in the USSR "Pallada" (after the sailing frigate dumped in Sovetskaya Gavan Bay), focused on the construction of nuclear aircraft carriers, as well as a number of auxiliary industries (the "Priboy" plant). In this regard, a significant expansion of the city was planned with an increase in its population to 220 thousand people, which would make Sovetskaya Gavan the third city in the region in terms of the number of inhabitants after Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur. To carry out these works, in 1981, a construction department No. 106 was formed in the city. For 10 years, global landscape work was completed and the construction of residential and industrial premises began, however, due to the collapse of the USSR and the ensuing economic crisis, the project was canceled.

Russian Federation
In the early 1990s, the first Russian-Japanese joint venture for wood processing, Vanino-Tairiku, was established in Sovetskaya Gavan.

In 1993, the first ship under a foreign flag entered the Soviet-Havana port; before that the port was closed.

In 1997, the first products that received an international quality certificate were produced by the fish processing enterprise Vostokryba LLC.

In 1999, the construction of the Lidoga - Vanino highway began, which was to connect the city and other settlements of the bay area with the All-Russian motor transport network. In 2001, a through car traffic was opened on the highway. Construction completed on October 30, 2017.

In 2000, the port "Sovetskaya Gavan" received international status. In the same year, shipyards began to fulfill orders for the modernization of equipment used in the development of the Sakhalin oil shelf.

On July 22, 2002, one of the two backbone enterprises of the city, the Northern Shipyard, was finally declared bankrupt.

From 2003 to 2005, a branch of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur shipbuilding plant, the Pallada plant, was opened in the city, the Orlan oil rig was repaired. The reinforced concrete plant resumed the production of building materials, and the production of building stone was started on the basis of the Sovetsky open pit.

Until 2004, the entire district was a single municipal entity "City of Sovetskaya Gavan with Sovetsko-Gavansky District". In accordance with the Law of the Khabarovsk Territory of July 28, 2004 No. 208 "On endowing settlement and rural municipalities with the status of urban, rural settlements and on the establishment of their boundaries", a separate municipal formation was created in each settlement of the district. The city became the administrative center and the only settlement of the City Settlement "City of Sovetskaya Gavan".


In November 2007, the first private fish hatchery in the Khabarovsk Territory with a capacity of 15 million salmon fry per year was opened in the city.

On December 31, 2009, a Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation was signed on the creation of a port special economic zone (PSEZ) in the port of Sovetskaya Gavan. PSEZ existed for seven years, during which time not a single resident was registered on its territory. As a result, according to the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 28, 2016 No. 978, the existence of the Soviet-Gavan PSEZ was terminated.

In 2012, a decree of the President of the Russian Federation was signed, envisaging the construction of several new power plants in the Far East, including the Sovgavanskaya CHPP, designed to replace the outdated Mayskaya GRES and ineffective city boiler houses, as well as to solve the problem with the lack of hot water in the houses of citizens in the summer. In June 2013, PJSC RusHydro established JSC CHPP in Sovetskaya Gavan, and in December 2014, concreting of foundations for the frame of the main building of the CHPP under construction began. Subsequently, the construction of the CHPP proceeded significantly behind schedule, in particular, due to the change of the general designer that occurred at the end of 2015. At present, the construction of the CHPP is almost completely completed - commissioning is underway at the station, and the laying of the heating main from the CHPP to Sovetskaya Gavan is nearing completion. The launch of the power plant is scheduled for September 2020. The city authorities pin their hopes on attracting new investors to Sovetskaya Gavan with the completion of the construction of the power plant.

On July 4, 2018, President V.V.Putin signed a bill to extend the regime of the Free Port of Vladivostok to the Sovetsko-Gavanskiy region. In August of the same year, the first application for the status of a resident of a free port in Sovgavan was submitted by Bunker-Port LLC, which intended to reconstruct the infrastructure of the Sovetskaya Gavan port.

In October 2019, the last dock of the Yakor shipyard was sold in Primorye. Thus, ship repair in Sovetskaya Gavan completely ceased to exist.