Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia


Komsomolsk-on-Amur is a city in the Khabarovsk Territory of Russia. It is the administrative center of the Komsomolsk municipal district. It forms the municipal formation of the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur with the status of an urban district as the only settlement in its composition.

The second largest city in the Khabarovsk Territory and the fourth in the Russian Far East. It is located on the left bank of the Amur, 404 km northeast of Khabarovsk (by road). The distance from Moscow by road is 8700 km.

The largest industrial center of the Far East region. City-forming enterprises: shipbuilding, aircraft plant, oil refinery and metallurgical plants. Oil pipeline and gas pipeline from Sakhalin. Transport hub on the Baikal-Amur Mainline and federal and regional highways; River port. There are technical and pedagogical universities.

On May 10, 1932, a detachment of Komsomol members landed in the area of ​​the village of Permskoye, founded on August 18, 1860.

December 10, 1932 - the village of Permskoye was transformed into the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

In May 1933, prisoners arrived to build the city.

In Soviet times, the city was a military-industrial center of Union significance.

In the period from 1959 to 1992, the city was closed to foreigners.

Day of the city is June 12, in honor of the date June 12, 1933, when the foundations of the hull shop were laid - the first industrial facility of the shipyard.



The city received its name in memory of the Komsomol-first builders (founders) of the city on the Amur, then 70% of the builders were prisoners, but they did not arrive first, but only a year after the Komsomol members, in 1933. According to the study of local lore A. N. Beloglazov, in total there were no more than 1% of those in the construction of the city.

In addition to the official name, there are a number of unofficial ones, the most famous of them: "City of Youth".

It is also called "The City at Dawn" (based on the 1940 play of the same name, dedicated to the builders of Komsomolsk-on-Amur). In colloquial speech, the common name of the city is "Komsa".

For the Leninsky district, which is the second, northeastern, half of the city, the name Dzemgi was fixed, as the Nanai camp was once called here. According to one of three versions, translated from Nanai: birch grove.



In 1930, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution on the economic and cultural development of the Far Eastern Territory, in August 1931 it was decided to build a shipyard. In January 1932, a government commission arrived in the village of Permskoye, located on the left bank of the Amur, which decided to build the Amur shipyard here. At the same time, it was decided to build an aircraft plant in the area of ​​the Nanai camp of Dzemgi.

On May 10, 1932, the ships Comintern and Columbus landed about a thousand of the first builders of the future city on the Amur coast. Today, a memorial stone and a monument to the first builders remind of this event. The first builders who arrived in the wild taiga region lived in the houses of the inhabitants of the village of Permsky, as well as in hastily built dugouts and army tents. Since 1933, whole barrack towns have sprung up.

Joseph Stalin can be considered the founder of the city. The city was founded in order to protect the Far Eastern borders of the Soviet Union from external enemies. The first builders of the city were Komsomol members who came of their own free will from the western regions of the USSR. Subsequently, various categories of builders participated in the construction of factories and the city - military personnel, civilians, prisoners, prisoners of war, mobilized, released, repatriated, evacuated, directive, special settlers.

The city officially received the status of a city of regional subordination by the decree of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of December 10, 1932.

In the 1990s, Komsomolsk-on-Amur was often called the "criminal capital of the Far East."

In the 1990s. In connection with the catastrophic situation in the city's electric power industry, the issue of using the electric energy of nuclear submarines located on the stocks of the Amur shipyard with nuclear reactors turned on (10% of the power for technical support) was seriously discussed.

Physical and geographical characteristics
The city is located in a bend, on the left bank of the Amur, 348 km from Khabarovsk, downstream at the northern edge of the Middle Amur lowland, where the river cuts through the adjoining spurs of the Sikhote-Alin and Bureinsko-Badzhal mountain systems changes its course to submeridional, entering the so-called Komsomolsko -Kiselevskoe narrowing. On the right to the river bed, the spurs of the Hummi ridge (Sikhote-Alin system) with absolute elevations of 350-380 m drop abruptly. The left side of the Amur valley is framed by the spurs of the Miao-Chan ridge. As a result of prolonged denudation, the mountains were destroyed to the stage of shallow hummocks. The relative heights of the hills are 75-180 m. The steepness of the slopes is from 15% to 35-45%. In the north, the peaks of the Miao-Chan ridge are visible. In the west there are the peaks of the Badzhal Range. In the east there are hills - spurs of the Sikhote-Alin mountain system. From the west and from the east, the territory of the city is limited by the basins of the lakes Mylka, Rudnikovsky, Horpa and Galichny, belonging to the type of dam lakes of the side tributaries of the Amur. They are confined to the mouths of the rivers flowing into them. The prevailing depths are small 0.5-1 m, maximum up to 3 m. The level regime of the lakes is associated with fluctuations in the level of the Amur River). In the 1980s. In connection with the laying of the embankment and the commissioning of the highway, lakes Mylki (area 9 km2) and Rudnikovskoye (area 2.5 km2) ceased to exist, only small, scattered water bodies remained. In the 2000s, Lake Horpy virtually disappeared. After the 2013 floods, the lakes have partially recovered.

A series of three terraces above the floodplain occupies about 40% of the urban area. They are located in the central part of the city. The first above-floodplain terrace of the Amur has a relative height of 5-10 m and occupies 30% of the city's territory. It is susceptible to flooding during floods on the Amur, up to 54 km² of the city's territory is flooded, the rest is flooded. The floodplain before the construction of hydroelectric facilities on the main tributaries of the Zeya, Bureya and Sungari was flooded in the summer-autumn period and, subsequently, became swampy.


A feature of the geological structure of the Komsomolsk site is the predominance of a pebble-gravel composition of soils covered with clays with a thickness of up to 4-5.5 m. Due to the ability of soils to filter, they react to the slightest anthropogenic impact. Draining them leads to a rapid sputtering of the clay-loamy substrate overlying the pebbles, and an increase in the level of surface water leads to flooding of the areas.

The area of ​​the urban district is about 352 km², including water bodies and mountainous areas.

The Amur River flows in the eastern part of the city for 32 km with the width of the urban development being 8-10 km. The width of the channel within the city limits varies from 1.75 km in the central part of the city to 3.75 km at the mouth of the channel of Lake Mylki. Average channel depth 15-16 m; the speed of the water flow is 1.2 m / s.

The absolute highest level of the Amur near Komsomolsk is +912 cm.The highest levels were observed in 1932 (+687 cm), 1959 (+701 cm), 1984 (+670 cm), 1985 (+641 cm) , 2013 (+912 cm), 2019 (+829 cm). Groundwater is represented by upper water, ground and interstratal waters.

Within the city, small rivers flow, which are the left tributaries of the Amur. The largest of them, the Silinka River, 75 km long (within the city limits 22 km), divides the city into two parts. Cherny Klyuch is a right tributary of the Silinka, 16.25 km long, flows in the northern part of the city. Among other rivers, we note the Big Hapsol 15 km long (within the city limits 4 km), the Small Hapsol - 5 km, flowing into the lake. Soaps; the Bochin River is 29.6 km long (2.5 km within the city limits), which flows into Lake Rudnikovskoye, the Klyukvennaya River - 10 km (7.5 km within the city limits), the Horpinskaya River - 8.75 km (within the city limits 1 , 25 km), the Horpinskaya Vtoraya river - 32.5 km (1 km within the city limits), flowing into Lake Horpy, the Galichnaya river 25 km long, flowing into Lake Galichnoye outside the city limits.

A long, harsh winter with little snow contributes to the freezing of soils up to 3-3.2 m. As a result, the condition of the road surface in the city is unsatisfactory, deformation of the foundations of buildings occurs.