Vanino, Russia


Vanino is a working village in the Khabarovsk Territory of Russia. The administrative center of the Vaninsky district. The city forms the urban settlement of the Workers' settlement of Vanino as the only settlement in its composition.

Located on the mainland coast of the Tatar Strait of the Sea of Japan. Until 1985, the settlement of Vanino administratively included a housing estate at a timber mill, then allocated to the village of Toki.



The deep-water bay of Vanin (named after the military topographer Iakim Klementyevich Vanin) was opened in May 1853. It first appeared on Russian nautical charts in 1876, thanks to an expedition to explore the Tatar Strait.

The history of settling the settlement begins in 1907, with the appearance of the timber merchant Tishkin, hence the first name of the settlement - Tishkino.

The development of the bay began in 1939. By that time, there was only one enterprise in the bay - Lesouchastok. At this time, Vanino, like the entire coast of the Tatar Strait, was part of the Soviet (later Soviet-Gavan) region of Primorsky Krai.

On May 21, 1943, the USSR State Defense Committee issued a decree on the construction of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Sovetskaya Gavan railway line and the seaport in Vanin Bay.

The port was officially founded on October 18, 1943. On this day, the Far Eastern Shipping Company approved the staff schedule of the port of Vanino.

In April 1944, the first pier was put into operation ahead of schedule, on July 20, 1945, the first train arrived from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Vanin Bay. Prisoners, soldiers of construction battalions, as well as about 50 thousand prisoners of war played an important role in the construction of the road. A railway station named "Vanino-Vokzal" was opened in the village.

The importance of the Vanino port increased sharply since the summer of 1946, after the port facilities in Nakhodka were destroyed by the explosion of the Dalstroy steamer (June 24, 1946).

The port of Vanino, the Vanino ITL (Vanino transit and transit camp) became a transfer point for the stages of prisoners on their way to the Kolyma. At the station and in the port of Vanino, prisoners were reloaded from echelons onto steamers en route to Magadan, the administrative center of the Dalstroy and Sevvostlag GU SDS NKVD-MVD USSR.

With the end of the era of forced labor camps in the USSR in the mid-50s of the 20th century, the port developed as a commercial port, the main purpose of which was to export various goods to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, mainly raw timber (round timber, timber). From 1973 to the present time, a ferry service has been operating from the mainland to Sakhalin - from Vanino to Kholmsk there are cargo-passenger ferries of project 1809, which are called “Sakhalin”.

In the 21st century, the port is redesigned for the export of coal, in connection with which there is a significant expansion beyond the Vanin Bay and an intensive construction of transport and production facilities.


Geography and climate

The urban-type settlement is located on the western shore of the Vanin Bay (Tatar Strait), at the eastern end of the Soviet-Gavansk Highlands of the Sikhote-Alin ridge, 370 kilometers from the city of Khabarovsk to the east (and a little to the north - 49 degrees 05 minutes north, 140 degrees 15 minutes east longitude, 608 km - along the road), 10 km from the town of Sovetskaya Gavan, (32 km along the road). The Baikal-Amur railway is connected with Komsomolsk-on-Amur (on the territory of the village there are the Vanino-Vokzal and Vanino-Port stations), the federal highway (08A-1) connects the village with the regional road network.

Moderate monsoon climate with sharp daily temperature drops. A short dry and warm autumn gives way to a mild and fairly snowy winter: stable negative temperatures during the day are kept from mid-November to mid-February. The first half of winter is characterized by an insignificant amount of precipitation, but regular, and very strong winds from the mainland - on New Year's Eve, it is usually cold, with little snow and windy. Spring comes seasonally, but lasts a long time - until the first days of May, warm sunny days regularly alternate with snow charges, sometimes quite strong. For this reason, summer comes quite late, and in summer, cloudy weather and prolonged rains are possible for weeks. Fogs are frequent on the coast of the Tatar Strait and Vanin Bay in the spring-summer period, mainly at night.

Climatic summer (average daily temperature above +15) begins in July / August (or may not come at all).

Also, the climate is diversified by regular typhoons and sometimes earthquakes.

Vanino and Vaninsky district, like most of the territory of the Khabarovsk Territory, is equated to the regions of the Far North.