Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, Russia

Nikolaevsk-on-Amur (until 1926 - Nikolaevsk) is a city (since 1856) in Russia, the administrative center of the Nikolaevsky district of the Khabarovsk Territory. Port on the Amur River, airport. Population - 17 939 people. (2020).



On August 1 (13), 1850, Russian navigator Captain I rank Gennady Nevelskoy during the Amur expedition of 1849-1855 at the mouth of the Amur, founded the military-administrative settlement of Nikolaevsky post. The first population of the post consisted of six people. The Yakutsk hut-urasa became the first building in the future city.

The ownership of the lower reaches of the Amur River, including its mouth, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, was not legally defined. According to the text of the treaty, only the rivers flowing into the Amur and the mouth of the Amur from the "half-day sides of these Mountains" (the southern side of the Stanovoy Range and the mountain ranges adjacent to the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk) were indicated as "the possession of the Khin State." Nevelskoy's expedition did not meet here either the permanent administrative bodies of the Qing Empire, or its border garrisons. However, the establishment of a Russian military post on this territory was initially not supported by the Amur Committee of the Russian government. But subsequently the actions of Nevelskoy were approved by the Emperor Nicholas I.

On November 14, 1856, the city of Nikolaevsk was founded on the site of the Nikolaev post. Also in the East Siberian province the Primorsk region was created with the capital in Nikolaevsk. By that time, Nikolaevsk had become the largest port in the Russian Far East.

On February 24, 1858 Nikolaevsk became a regional city. At that year, the city had up to 200 buildings and a population of 1,757 people. A ship repair and assembly plant appears. A local history museum, a library, and a naval school were also opened. Steamships with commercial flights begin to sail along the Amur, and merchant ships from abroad also come to the city.

In 1870, the main port in the Russian Far East was transferred from Nikolaevsk to Vladivostok, after which the decline began in Nikolaevsk. On April 28, 1880, the capital of the Primorsky Region moved from Nikolaevsk to the south, to Khabarovka.

In 1855-1875 a navigational school functioned in the city.

At the end of the 80s of the XIX century, there was the discovery of gold deposits. The city is gradually becoming the center of the Far Eastern gold miners. A gold-alloy laboratory, as well as offices of the Okhotsk and Amur-Orel gold-mining companies appeared.

In 1890, A.P. Chekhov stopped in Nikolaevsk, following his way to Sakhalin. In the first chapter of the book "Sakhalin Island" [8] the writer notes the gloomy atmosphere of the once prosperous city. By 1895, the city's population had dropped to 1,000.

Gold mining is gradually attracting settlers, and by 1897 the population reaches 5668 people.

In 1896-1899, the boom of the fishing industry began in Nikolaevsk. Shipbuilding is reviving, enterprises for the manufacture of barrels, timber processing, etc. are also being created. The city becomes the second most important port in the Far East.

By 1913, the number of city residents reached 14.4 thousand people. There are 2,136 buildings in the city, a network of vocational schools and schools has been created anew. Soon Nikolaevsk once again becomes a regional city - this time, the center of the Sakhalin region. In 1914, the Udsky district, the center of which was Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, was transferred from the Primorsky region to the Sakhalin region of the Russian Empire. By the 1917 revolution, the city's population reached 15 thousand people.

In 1918, the Japanese intervention begins, since Nikolaevsk is the center of gold mining in the entire Russian Far East. In addition to the Japanese garrison, the Kolchak administration also operated in the city and there was a garrison of the Chnyrrakh fortress, which covered Nikolaevsk from an attack from the sea. In late 1919 - early 1920, the bulk of the Sakhalin Oblast was liberated by a partisan unit under the command of Yakov Tryapitsin. At the end of February 1920, after the garrison of the Chnyrrakh fortress went over to the side of the partisans, the city was also surrendered.

As a result of a surprise attack by the Japanese garrison and the hostilities of the formation of Soviet troops under the command of Yakov Tryapitsin on March 12-14, part of the city was burned. The battles ended in victory for the Soviet troops. At the end of May 1920, fearing a new offensive by the Japanese interventionists, the population was evacuated to the area of ​​the village of Kerbi and the nearest villages. The city and the fortress of Chnnyrakh were finally destroyed, in accordance with the scorched earth tactics. Japanese prisoners of war, captured during the military clash on March 12-14, 1920, were shot (see the Nikolaev incident).

In 1920-1922 Nikolaevsk was a part of the Far Eastern Republic and is the capital of the Sakhalin Region.


In 1922, the city was liberated from the Japanese invaders, Soviet power was established. Nikolaevsk was appointed the center of the Nikolaevsky district of the Primorsky province of the Far Eastern region.

On March 15, 1926, the new name of the city was approved - "Nikolaevsk-on-Amur". In connection with the abolition of the division of the Far Eastern region into the province, it becomes the center of the Nikolaev district of the Far Eastern region. The district consisted of 7 districts: Bolshe-Mikhailovsky, Kerbinsky, Nizhne-Tambovsky, Nikolaevsky, Olsky, Okhotsk and Tugur-Chumukansky. It was also at the same time the center of the Nikolaev region.

Under Soviet rule, the fishing industry is actively developing in the city. In the 1920s, one third of all Far Eastern fish production was carried out in the region. In 1934 the city was designated the center of the Nizhne-Amur Region.

In 1941, thousands of Nikolaevsk residents were sent to the front of the Great Patriotic War. In 1942, the operating shipyard and shipyard were launched.

The city became one of the regional centers of the Khabarovsk Territory in 1956, after the abolition of the Nizhneamur Region. In 1960, a shipyard was opened.

In 1985, the Nizhneamursk mining and processing plant began work.

In 1998, by order of a Japanese company, a research vessel NIS-4 was created at the shipyard. In 2007, the wage debts of the plant to workers amounted to 13 million rubles.