Akhty, Russia



Akhty (Lezg. Akhtsag, Akhtseg) is a village in Dagestan, the administrative center of Akhtynsky district and rural settlement "Selsovet Akhtynsky". One of the main historical and cultural centers of Dagestan.

The exact etymology of the name of the village is unknown, there are different, often contradictory versions on this score:

The word "Tsag" has several meanings: fire, hearth, house, dwelling, village. The word "Ah" in the Pralezgin language meant "our", "native". Akhtsag - "native aul", "our village".


In the local chronicle "Akhty-Nam" it is mentioned that the ruler of Akhty Dervishai, under the pressure of superior forces of the Khazars, was forced to seek help from the ruler of Derbent, Abu Muslim al-Maslama, who, having passed off his sister Umm al-Muminat for him, sent him with an army to defeat the Khazar leader Samsam. Subsequently, after the defeat of Samsam, Dervishai again visited Abu Muslim, "who received them affectionately and the village of Shah-Bany, the place of residence of Dervishai, named Ukhti, that is, belonging to his sister, which in the course of time was called Akhty." Thus, Akhty was named after Umm al-Muminat, the sister of the Arab conqueror Abu Muslim. In Arabic, the word "sister" sounds like "Ukht-un". From this distorted Arabic word "Akhty" came from.

The self-name of the village is the word "Akhtsag" and its derived plural variant "Akhtsagar".


The Samur River flows along the northern part of Akhta. The Akhtychay River divides Akhty in half, flowing from south to north, and flows into Samur within the village. The old quarters of Akhty are located on the slopes of Mount Kelezkhev, as well as on the opposite side of the Akhtychay River. The later part of the village is located in the flat part, between the ridges, in the Samur valley. Two horticultural and residential zones stretch two to three kilometers up the banks of the Akhtychay.



The climate in Akhty is moderately continental. It is characterized by increased solar and ultraviolet radiation. The atmospheric pressure is almost constantly kept at around 675 mm Hg, which corresponds to the norm for an altitude of 1000 m above sea level, where the village is located. The average annual rainfall is 399 mm. Summers are warm, dry, moderate heat is characteristic, stifling heat and heat, as in the plain, is not characteristic of this area. Sunny weather is observed up to 65%, of which 19% falls on hot and dry weather. Winters are mild, the average January temperature is 1.3 °; moderately frosty days make up 25%, days with a transition over 0 ° - 50%. Autumn is warm and dry. The average annual temperature is 10.8 ºС. The duration of sunshine is the longest in Dagestan - 2,553 hours a year. The weather in Akhty is usually calm, the air is clean and transparent, the air humidity is low.


Akhtynsky mineral spring

Five kilometers south-west of the center of the village on the left bank of the Akhtychay river, in a gorge, there is the Akhtynsky mineral spring. All Akhtynsk springs are alkaline and come to the surface from a depth of 1400-1700 meters. The waters of the resort in Rodon contain an average of 0.8 emanes, and in the water vapor - 4 emanes. According to the complexity of the chemical composition of the waters of the sources, they belong to the IV class. Group A includes sources No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 in Hamam, as well as sources No. 1, 2, 3 in Zhenya (hydrocarbonate-sodium chloride, or hydrochloric-alkaline, with a hydrogen sulfide content of up to 10 mg / l and mineralization up to 1.2 g / l.). Group B includes source No. 6 in Hamam (hydrocarbonate-sulphate sodium with a predominance of soda-glauber salts). The source temperature ranges from 38-40 ° C to 65-68 ° C. Temperature fluctuations are associated with the season. Along with self-flowing springs, there are boreholes, from which water of a similar composition is obtained, but with a higher salinity (up to 3.6 g / l). The total flow rate of Akhtynsk mineral waters is about 254,000 l / day, and of warm -10,000 l / day. The Akhty balneological resort is located here.


Characteristics of sources

Soldier's Spring No. 1 is located on the left bank of the Akhtychay River in the Hamam region - higher than the other springs. Water temperature 53 ° C, flow rate 65,000 l / day. Water is used externally, in the form of baths for the treatment of diseases such as articular rheumatism, radiculitis, as well as internally as drinking water in the treatment of gastritis with high acidity, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, etc.
Spring No. 2 male is located below the first. Water temperature 50 ° C, flow rate 62,000 l / day. Has a faint smell of hydrogen sulfide, due to a decrease in the content of magnesium and calcium ions in the water, the content of chlorine and bicarbonate ions increases. Water is used in the same cases as the water of the source No. 1.
Source # 3 officer is located just below the left of the soldier's. In terms of chemical composition and application, it is similar to sources 1, 2. Water temperature 50 ° C, flow rate 24,000 l / day.
Spring no. 4 female is located below the male spring in the center of the resort. Temperature 52 ° C, flow rate 81,000 l / day.
Spring No. 5 (main building) is located in the building of the children's sanatorium and provides water to 4 baths of this sanatorium. Water temperature 51.6 ° C, flow rate 19 200 l / day.
Spring No. 6 teply is located by the road leading from Akhta to the abandoned village of Kudchakh. Water temperature - 27.5 ° C, flow rate - 5400 l / day. Increased magnesium content. Water is used for ingestion for gastritis and colitis.
The warm spring No. 7 is located below the officer's one. Water temperature - 37 ° C, flow rate - 4000 l / day. Differs in a slightly increased content of alkaline earth elements. Locals call this source "muzuladin" poison (water for the treatment of toothache).
Springs No. 8, 9, 10 Zhenya is located one kilometer from the upper resort, downstream of the Akhtychay River. The water temperature is 43 ° C, the flow rate is significant. The water is alkaline, in terms of its mineral composition it is close to the Essentuki salt-alkaline waters, but with less mineralization. Contains significantly more chlorine than other sources.
Spring No. 11 "Kamun yad" (gorge water) is located on the left bank of the Samur River, three kilometers from Akhta, opposite the Akhtyn fortress. It is a soda spring with a temperature of 32.7 ° C and a large flow rate. For a long time, Akhtyns use this water for baking soft bread. Recommended for oral administration in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tract and metabolic disorders (obesity, gout). Bathing in the water of this source improves blood circulation, strengthens the nervous system, improves sleep and appetite.

Springs No. 12, 13, 14 are cold. Mineral waters of low temperature with a high flow rate are also used in the treatment of various diseases.



Throughout its history, Akhty has been famous for its healing hot sulfur springs, escaping with great pressure from the shale strata of the mountains. The first mention of sources in historical documents dates back to the 6th century AD. e., when the Shahinshah of Iran Khosrov I Anushirvan, surprised by eyewitness stories about the healing properties of the Akhtyn waters, sent 60 families, accompanied by 300 soldiers, led by Emir Shah Bani, to the springs to equip them.

After the accession of the Akhtyparinsky free society to the Russian Empire, small buildings with flat roofs were built here over four sources, which were given names - soldiers', men's, women's and officers. Having examined the Akhtyn waters, the military medical department of the Samur district sent a letter on November 15, 1882 to Temir-Khan-Shura, the head of the military people's department of the Dagestan region.

The letter indicated the healing properties of the Akhtyn waters, for example, they cited the results of treatment in the Shirvan Infantry Regiment - of the total number of patients, half recovered, 40 percent received significant relief, and only 10 percent had no changes. Mention was also made of the great popularity of the springs among the inhabitants of Southern Dagestan. The main problem in the letter was the lack of a normal infrastructure for those being treated. Further, the author asked to take the necessary measures to rebuild the existing premises at the springs and build a building for those being treated. The letter was accompanied by a drawing and a plan of the area, a plan of a house for visitors and an estimate of expenses.
In October 1884, the engineer Nevinsky reported in a letter to the military governor of Dagestan about the Akhtyn mineral waters. The letter indicated that Zhenya's spring, located 4 versts from Akhta, is poorly equipped, namely, an open pool of small stones, in which Akhtyn women wash their clothes and then bathe. The temperature of the source was noted at 30 degrees Réaumur. A verst from Zhenya, the author notes, is the sulfur-alkaline source Hamam, equipped with five different-purpose rooms made of river stone on clay. The premises were intended for different categories of the population: soldiers, local men, local women, officers, and there was also one residential building.

The district doctor noted that the Hamam spring provides 20 thousand buckets of water per day. Already in 1897, the head of the Samur district, Kutsevalov, reported to the military commander of the Dagestan region on the implementation of work to improve the infrastructure at the sources.

During the Soviet years, the infrastructure of the springs continued to develop. A three-story boarding house, a hotel, a restaurant, a dining room, and a tea room were built. During the Great Patriotic War, leather was tanned at the Zhenya spring. In the post-war years, a mud lake with a healing mass, as well as a particularly hot spring, intended for the treatment of sciatica, gained popularity. A bottling plant for medicinal table water "Akhty" was founded. In the late 1950s, the Soviet writer Dmitry Trunov visited the Akhtyn resort. In 1958, a children's rheumatic cardiology sanatorium was opened at the hot mineral springs.


Ancient period

The exact date of the founding of Akhta is unknown, the press suggests that the first mention of the village dates back to the 5th century BC.

In the first centuries of our era, weaving and pottery, metal processing developed here. After the collapse of Caucasian Albania in the 5th century, the early feudal state of Lakz arose in the area of ​​\u200b\u200bsettlement of the Leks, which included Akhty. The 6th century AD was marked for the Akhty people by the struggle against the power of the Sassanids. According to legend, on Mount Kaelez-Khev (Russian hill of the fortress) there was a fortress "KvantsIin Khveh" (Stone Nut). In 560, Shah Anushirvan Khosrov built the Shah Bani fortress in its place. According to Professor A. Shikhsaidov, a legend has been preserved in the village that a fortress was built by order of Shah Anushirvan Khosrov, which received the name to protect his troops from the attack of the Lezgins. According to legend, Persian astrologers suggested that Anushirvan leave the fortress, because the inhabitants of Akhta could not be subdued. One night, the inhabitants of Akhta attacked the fortress, burned it and destroyed the army stationed there.


Middle Ages

Akhty-Name: In 560-575, the emir of Shahbani rules Akhty, during his reign the Persian fortress "Shahbani" was founded on Mount Kalezkhev; Akhty was renamed from Tauri to Shahbani. In 575-587, after the death of Emir Shahbani, Akhty was ruled by his son, Shah-Asan. In 625, the Khazars captured the city of Derbent, which was in the possession of the Sassanids. In the 8th century, after the Khazars captured Shirvan, they appointed emir Samsam, who built the city of Tarsa on the left bank of the Samur, opposite the village of Karakyure, to manage the village of Mikrah nearby from Akhta, to strengthen their position. Soon Samsam decided to take possession of Akhty. These events took place during the reign of the descendant of Shahbani, Emir Darvishaya. The parties quickly turned to confrontation. Darvishayi showed his diplomatic skills by bribing the emirs of Tarsus for 3,000 ashrafi[en]. Samsam launched three assaults on Akhta. During the first siege, due to the difficulty of access, drinking water was taken from Samur, and not from Akhtychay. After the retreat of Samsam's troops, a road was laid from the Shahbani fortress to the Akhtychay River for three months. The second siege lasted six months, after which, without reaching his goal, Samsam left Akhty. Three years later, the last siege was undertaken by Samsam, which lasted 7 years. Khazar troops camped on the site of the current village of Kurukal. Being in a hopeless situation, the ruler of Akhta Darvishaya enlisted the support of the emirs of Tarsus, squads from Rutul and Jinik.

Clashes between the opposing sides continued for seven months. There were heavy losses on both sides. The son of Darvishaya, Shah-Kasim, also died in the battles. In the end, Samsam was defeated at Akhta and retreated. However, after 15 years, he made a night raid on Akhty, the village was devastated, many residents were exterminated. Later, the sister of the Arab governor of Derbent Abu-Muslim, Umm al-Muminat, with troops made her way through the free societies of Southern Dagestan, conquering villages one by one. Having conquered Karakure, she opposed Mikrah. Having learned about this, the Akhtyn leader Darvishayi, having expressed humility to the Arabs, offered them his assistance in the conquest of Mikrah. At that time, the population of Akhta adhered to Christianity. After converting to Islam, Darwishayi married Abu Muslim's sister, Umm al-Mu'minat. Having received military reinforcements from Abu Muslim, Darvishayi went on a campaign against Samsam, but a seven-month siege did not produce any results. Darvishayi again resorted to diplomacy, this time he turned to Sheikh Shah-Alburzi, who lived at the foot of Mount Shalbuzdag (probably in the village of Miskindzha). Darvishayi, together with Sheikh Shah-Alburzi, bribed the vizier Samsam, the emir of Kaga, to their side. On Friday night, Darvishayi, together with a 6,000-strong army, entered Mikra. Kaga's people opened the gate for him, and Kaga himself with ten warriors killed Samsam.


Having captured the city, Darvishayi put forward a demand to the townspeople to convert to Islam. Those who converted to Islam did not suffer, and those who persisted were executed. The city was renamed "Emir Kaga", and over time the name changed to Migrag (Mikrah). After that, Darvishayi, Emir Kaga and Emir Shah-Alburzi went to the Derbent Emir Abu Muslim, who warmly received them, founded a mosque in Akhty, which stood until the end of the 19th century, and renamed Akhty from Shahbani to Ukhti, which is translated from Arabic as, like a sister". This fact is due to the fact that the sister of Abu Muslim, Umm al-Mamunat, was married to the Akhtyn ruler Darvishaya. After five of Samsam's subjects killed his son and captured two daughters of Emir Shah-Alburzi, he, together with 30 households, moved out of Mikrah and founded a new settlement of Quraish on the southern slope of Mount Shalbuzdag, the name of which eventually changed into "Kurush". Emir Kaga became the ruler of Mikrah, Karakure and Kurush. From that moment, Islam began to spread in the mountainous communities of Southern Dagestan. According to local legend, one of the authors of Akhty-Nama was Pirzali-kazi, a man who was distinguished by exceptional justice in relation to his fellow villagers.

In the 8th century, carpet weaving was born in Akhty. In 722, the Arabs made a campaign in Lakz. Presumably, in the 10th century, settlers from nearby villages began to settle on the right-bank part of the Akhta, which until now was empty, but belonged to the Akhtyns, who then lived only on the left bank of the Akhtychay. An agreement was concluded between the Akhtyns and the settlers, according to which the latter occupied the right bank of the Akhtychay, but in return they had to pay an annual tribute to the Akhtyns in grain and cattle. The agreement was written on a stone, which was strictly guarded by the Akhtyns. However, over time, the position of the inhabitants of the right bank of the river was so strengthened that they found it possible to refuse tribute. First of all, the inhabitants of the right bank decided to destroy the legal document - the inscription on the stone. At night, they crossed to the left bank of the river, killed the sentinel guarding the stone slab, and beat off the inscription about the dependent position with a hammer, and, in order to avoid noise, when the inscription was destroyed, the slab was covered with felt. With the destruction of the inscription, the inhabitants of the right bank stopped paying tribute. The Akhtov community, which owned a large amount of pasture and hay lands, often leased these lands to communities that needed them for a certain fee.

In the 13th century, according to the Turkish historian Evliya Chelebi, Gasan from Akhty led the Akhtyn detachments when the Lezgins repelled Iranian expansion[20]. A legend has been preserved, according to which in 1382, through the mediation of the Turks, the Akhtyns concluded an agreement with the Shirvanshah, according to which the Akhtyns pledged not to attack the Shirvan lands.


Akhtynskoe rule

In the middle of the 15th century, during the reign of Shirvanshah Khalilullakh I (1417-1462), an emirship separated from Shirvan, with its center in Akhty. The territory of the emirate included the current Akhtynsky, Kurakhsky, Dokuzparinsky, and part of the Rutulsky districts. The first ruler of the emirate was Ilchi-Ahmad Bahadur. After his death, the emirate broke up into different beks. Akhtyn and Miskindzha beks were ruled by his son Muhammad-bek. However, after the death of Muhammad-bek, his three sons divided his possessions, Hassan-bek established himself in Akhty, Ahmed-bek in Miskindzh and Abbas in Matzar. In 1495-1496, through the mediation of the Kazikumukh shamkhal, the patronage of the Akhtyn bekdom over the village of Khryug was established. The chronicle of Abd-al-Khaiya tells about the battle between the inhabitants of the village of Khryug and the Rutulians, who were in alliance with the Elisu amirs. The Khryugtsy suffered heavy losses. Then their representatives went to the Kazikumukh shamkhal, presented their request to him and told him about their situation. Shamkhal accepted their complaint, and came with the Khryugs to their village, spoke with the inhabitants of Akhta and established friendship and brotherhood between the Khryugs and Akhtyns. Shamkhal told the inhabitants of the village of Akhty: “Give help and assistance to the Hryug society until the Day of Judgment, and I am far from them.” A contemporary of the events writes: “And we became with the Akhtyns like a single brother in trouble and in happiness - a year ... nine hundred (1494-1495)” In 1536, the Rutul bey in alliance with the Kazikumukh Shamkhalate undertook a campaign against the Akhtyn bey, Akhty was plundered. In response, in 1541, the Akhtyn Hassan-bek ibn Muhammad-bek, supported by the ruler of Derbent, Alkhas-Mirza ad-Darbandi, attacked, plundered and burned Rutul. In 1542, the Rutulian Bek, having already enlisted the support of the Cuban Lezgins, attacked and plundered Akhty for the second time. In the 1560s, the ruler Huseyn-bek appeared in Akhty, which was under the influence of Shirvan, then he was succeeded by Eyyub-bek. In 1568, the Iranian Shah Tahmasp I, not possessing sovereignty over Akhty, appointed Bek Shah Hussein as his ruler. In 1578, the Turks invaded South Dagestan, creating the Shirvan vilayat on the territories occupied in Transcaucasia. As part of the newly formed vilayat, the sanzhaks of Akhty and Ikhir, captured during the invasion of South Dagestan, were created. As a reward for merits in the war against the Qizilbash, the Turks transferred control of Akhta and Ikhir to the Avar ruler (sanjakbeg) Tunay-Jalav (Tunchalav) Burhan ad-Din, brother of Chopan Shamkhal of Kazikumukh.


Period of mountain societies

By the beginning of the 17th century, the power of the beks in Akhty was completed, the feudal-monarchical system of the Akhtyn bekstvo was transformed into a communal form of relations, as a result of these processes, the Akhtyparin free society was formed. The cultural and economic development of the region falls on this period. Akhtypara was one of the centers of Muslim science and education in Dagestan. Many brilliantly educated scientists came out of the Akhtyparinsk villages. The village of Akhty was one of the major centers of Islamic education and the correspondence of manuscripts. Among the most famous and encyclopedically educated scientists of Dagestan of the 19th century was Qadi Akhtypary Mirza Ali al-Akhty. In economic terms, Akhty was an important trade and craft center of Southern Dagestan, it was a strategic point on the route leading from Inner Dagestan to Shirvan (Kazi-Kumukh - Nukha). Goods were brought to Akhty from Agul, Khnov, and Rutul. The Akhtyns themselves carried goods for sale to Nukha and Derbent.


At the beginning of the 17th century, Akhty was a large craft center, which produced products from leather, wool, silk, wood, clay, iron, copper, silver, gold and other materials. In 1601, the peoples of Southern Dagestan rebelled against Turkish domination. In 1602, Akhty was devastated by the Shirvanshah Abu-bek Murza with the participation of the Kyurintsy, Tabasarans, other highlanders and Shah-Amir Khan of Sheki. In 1620, the Safavid Shah Abbas I organized a campaign of the combined forces of the Derbent Barkhudar Sultan and the Shamakhi ruler Yusup Khan against Akhty, in order to conquer one of the major unions of rural communities of the Samur Valley, which was the Akhtyparin free society. As a result of the campaign, Akhty was subject to severe destruction, and it took eight years to restore it. The restoration of Akhta began under the leadership of Hasan-Ali, the son of Amal-Muhammad in 1629. In 1630, the Akhtyns restored the fortress, which had been destroyed by the Iranians. However, in the same year, the Iranian troops of the Shirvan beglerbeg Yusuf Khan again attacked Akhty and destroyed it. At this point, the expansion of the Safavids into the Samur Valley stops, and the strengthening of the position of local state formations is planned. In 1654 Akhty was taken by the Rutulians. In 1682, the Akhtyns fought with the neighboring village of Miskindzha, to whose aid came the villages of the Dokuzparinsky free society. In 1688-1689. Akhty is experiencing a plague epidemic. In 1708-1709, 1715. Akhtynsko-Miskindzha conflicts were repeated again. In 1718, the Russian ambassador I. A. Lopukhin notes that “In the immediate vicinity of this city (Kuba), the Lezghin people, who live in the mountains above Mount Shad Daga and fight against the Shah and ruin counties”, which indicates the participation of Samur free societies in the struggle of the Dagestan peoples against Iranian rule under the leadership of Haji-Davud Mushkyursky and Surkhay-Khan Kazikumukhsky. Lopukhin is echoed by I. G. Gerber: “During the rebelie (uprising) in Shirvania, they helped Daud-bek and Surkhay a lot, moreover, they did not forget themselves as booty and got rich ...” In 1730-1731, the plague broke out again in Akhty. In 1734, the troops of the Iranian commander Nadir Shah approached Akhty. Having destroyed the bridge over the Samur, the Akhtyns took refuge in the Shahbani fortress, sent the population unable to fight to the mountains, and prepared for defense. However, the Iranians managed to restore the bridge within a day and proceed to storm the fortress. They also sent a detachment in pursuit of the population hiding in the mountains. Soon the fortress was taken by storm. On the outskirts of the village, in the form of intimidation and stimulation of the conversion of the population to Shiism, Iranian horsemen trampled small children. Most of the population was slaughtered, the village was subjected to great devastation. From Akhta, Nadir Shah went to Kutkashen. Despite the defeat, the Akhtyns were not subjugated, as evidenced by the participation of the Akhtyns, along with the Cubans and Kyurintsy, in the siege of the Khudat fortress after the departure of Nadir Shah from Dagestan. The defense of the fortress was led by the Iranian protégé Hussein Ali Khan. Soon, the troops of the Derbent ruler and Shamkhal Khasbulat came to the rescue of the Iranian garrison. In 1735, Nadir Shah invaded Tabasaran, from where he sent a 6,000-strong punitive detachment to the Akhtyparinsk and Dokuzparinsk free societies. Refugees from the Samur Valley were stopped by the Iranians near the village of Kabir. Further, the detachment proceeded along the Samur Valley, ruining Altypara, Dokuzpara and Akhtypara in turn. In 1738, the Jaro-Belokan societies raised an uprising against Iranian rule. In the autumn of the same year, the brother of Nadir Shah, Ibrahim Khan, went on a punitive expedition against them. Detachments of Tabasarans, Khinalugs, Dokuzparins and Akhtyparins, with a total number of 20 thousand soldiers, came to the aid of the Djaro-Belokans. The Iranians were defeated, of the 32,000th army, only 8,000 escaped. In the battle, Ibrahim Khan himself was killed, along with him also Ugurlu Khan of Ganja with high-ranking military leaders. The highlanders captured all the enemy artillery, numbering 30 guns, as trophies. In 1775, the villages of Gogaz, Usur and Kaka, which were previously under the rule of Rutul, and transferred to Akhtypare by him in exchange for an alliance in the war against Hryug, were included in Akhtypara. In 1778, three people died from cholera in Akhty. In 1782, the Akhtyns entered the war with the Miskindzhans. In the conflict, Miskindzha was assisted by Dokuzpara. Akhty resorted to the help of Surkhay Khan of Kazikumukh and Umma Khan of Avar. As a result, in December 1782, Miskindzha was burned down. In 1789-1790. Akhtyns fought with the Rutulians. In 1796, the Akhtyparin army took part in the battle with the Russian forces of General Sergei Bulgakov near the village of Alpan near Quba on the side of the Kazikumukh Surkhay Khan II. In the same year, Akhty was occupied by Bulgakov's troops.


By the end of the 18th century, the rise of the Akhtyparinsky free society was noted, which intensified both politically, territorially, and in terms of population.


19th century

In 1803-1804. Akhtyn-Miskindzha conflicts are repeated. In 1809, the Samur free societies, including the Akhtyparins, expressed a desire to transfer to Russian citizenship. In this regard, the commandant of the city of Baku, I.I. Repin, on December 6, 1809, reported to the commander of the tsarist troops in the Caucasus, A.P. Tormasov -
These peoples, like others, do not have one ruler over them, but are ruled by elders in the villages, then I also have good amanats to take from them; and when the officer sent to bring them to the oath returned, and ordered him to give a remark so that he would find out the places and roads, whether it was possible for the troops to go to Akhta with cannons, and after having scouted in detail about food, I would report to. v., will it not be ordered then to send a company

Samur free societies, retaining independence in internal administration, became part of the Cuban province. However, taxes were not paid, in violation of the agreements reached with the Russian administration. In 1819, the Russians began building roads in the Samur Valley for the mobility and efficiency of troops.

In order to study local roads, engineer-lieutenant colonel Torri arrived in Akhty, who was barely saved from local residents by Akhty resident Gadzhi Murad-Aga, who was awarded the silver medal "For Diligence". The Akhtyn aksakals refused to form cavalrymen from the local population to suppress the Polish uprising, from that moment the confrontation between the Akhtyns and the Russians begins. Representatives of the tsarist administration accused the Samurs of rebellion and inciting neighboring societies to oppose Russia. In 1247 Hijri (1831-1832) peace was established, which put an end to the long-term enmity between the Akhty and the Miskindzhans. In 1836, K. K. Krabbe mentions the good-neighborly relations of Akhtypara with Dokuzpara, while relations with the Rutul bekdom were tense.

During the Caucasian War (1817-1864), the Akhtyns took part in the Cuban uprising, but on July 3-4, 1838, in the decisive battle with the corps of Lieutenant General Feze near the village of Karakyure, the Akhtyparin militia led by Sheikh-Mulla, along with detachments of the Rutulsky militia, Dokuzparinsky and Altyparinsky free societies were defeated. On July 5, negotiations began, but the Russians did not have any prisoners, since the mountaineers "were cut to the last drop of blood." After that, on June 5, 1839, the village of Akhty was taken by Russian troops. General Golovin intended to destroy Akhty, but the head of the Akhtyparin Free Society, Mirza Ali al-Akhty, agreed with him to save the village. On June 11, 1839, under the leadership of engineer-colonel Baumer, the construction of the Akhtyn fortress began. It was planned to establish a transport route from the lands of the Jaro-Belokan communities, through Rutul, Akhty to Cuba. In 1846, Russian troops began the construction of the Military Akhtynskaya road.

In 1848, Imam Shamil made an unsuccessful attempt to capture the Samur district, the Akhtyn battle took place. Upon arrival in Akhty, Shamil called the Akhty people and delivered a speech to them:

You are a brave people, how many times you shed the blood of Russians, so far in such a war you have been without helpers. Know that I and the whole of Dagestan are your helpers.

In response, the Akhtyns said:
We vow to die before you and fight our enemies

According to the chronicler of Imam Shamil, Mohammed-Tahir, "The inhabitants of Ahdi fought most strongly (compared to other troops of the imam) and attacked the fortress, in connection with which many of them were killed." Later, the play "The Siege of Akhta Fortress" was staged at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg. In 1849, a cholera epidemic broke out in the Samur District. In 1850, seeds of Havana tobacco were sown in Akhty, Tabasaran and the Cuban province, brought by Prince Gagarin. In the second half of the 19th century, doctors with a secular education appeared among the Dagestanis. The first of them was Beibala Akhtynsky, a graduate of the Paris Sorbonne University. In 1859, Lebedinsky opened a children's primary school in Akhty. In 1861, Lebedinsky left Akhta, as a result of which the school he founded stopped working, but in the same year, the first rural secular school in Dagestan was founded in Akhty. The school also taught Russian and Turkish. The school was financed by punitive damages. In 1877, the Akhtyns took part in the Sharia uprising of Chechnya and Dagestan. On October 1, 1877, the captain of the militia of the tsarist army, Kazi Ahmed-bek, was proclaimed Samur Khan by the Akhtyns. The Akhtyn fortress with a garrison inside was blocked by the rebels. A rumor was spread that Jafar Pasha was going to Samur with other Turkish pashas, ​​declaring a gazavat in order to force the Samurs to take part in the uprising. Meanwhile, the Russian garrison of the Akhtyn fortress was small. Panic broke out among the residents. Shops were closed, goods were hidden in pits, there was no market, people were hiding. Yuzbashev had to make up three hundred militia from the Samurs, and not a single Akhtyn entered the militia. Yuzbashev left the village and moved to the Akhtyn fortress. All this coincided with the news of the uprising in Gunib and Kumukh.

On September 20, news came of the defeat of the highlanders near Levashi and Kayakent, and everything was quiet, trade resumed, and preparations for the Eid al-Adha holiday were in full swing. On September 28, Yuzbashev was with more important residents at a celebration, and on October 1, a note was planted in the Akhtyn fortress: “An uprising broke out in Akhty. All with icons. At the head of Kazi-Mahmed-bek. The management house is surrounded by guards. They are not released anywhere. Don't send soldiers to the market, they want to kill them. What should we do?". Indeed, there was a complete uprising in the village. The fortress was brought to a defensive position. By evening, the rebels began to surround the fortress and attack, but after a volley of grapeshot, they retreated. Thousands of rebels opened fire from orchards and vineyards. The fortress was blocked. The rebels led a trench attack. On October 29, Kazi-Ahmet-bek, proclaimed Samur Khan by the rebels, handed over a letter to Uzbashev, in which he told him about the capture of Deshlagar and Qusar by the rebels and demanded surrender. Uzbashev answered this demand with grapeshot grenades. Meanwhile, the trenches of the highlanders were approaching the fortress. Major Komarov takes 60 soldiers, divides them into three detachments, rushes to the trenches, and cleans out the highlanders from there. The outing lasted three and a half hours. The blockade lasted 52 days. Everyone suffered deprivation in food, clothing, and even housing. The uninterrupted guard service exhausted the workers to the extreme. But after a successful sortie, the soldiers cheered up. Everywhere there was a cheerful animation. And the besiegers fell silent. The shots became less frequent.


On November 4, late in the evening, Magomed-Sherif Mahmud oglu from Akhty appeared in the fortress and said that General Komarov was coming to the rescue of the besieged. The rebels also learned about this and retreated. On November 5, early in the morning, the inhabitants of Akhta appeared at the fortification and asked for forgiveness, a messenger arrived for them from General Komarov, congratulating the garrison on the lifting of the siege and with the news of his imminent arrival. And indeed, on October 31, the troops of General Komarov moved to quell the uprising in the Samur district and to release the garrison of the Akhtyn fortress. On November 7, the Kaitag detachment entered Akhty. The uprising was put down. The leaders of the Samur uprising, Samur Khan Kazi Ahmed-bek, Abdul Efendiev and Abdul Khaliq Kadi, were sentenced to death by hanging by the Commission of the court-martial. Ali-Askar (1812-1938) from the Saryyar clan, the grandfather of the future sculptor Khasbulat Askar-Sarydzhi, was also known as an active participant in the uprising. He took part in the defense of Akhulgo (1839), the Battle of Akhty (1848) and was in the forefront during the uprising of 1877-1878. In 1879 he was exiled to Siberia, from where he returned four years later. In 1892, a cholera epidemic broke out in the Samur District. From June 22 to September 25, 1424 people died from the disease in the village of Akhty. In 1899, the mosque of the 8th century, built by the Arab commander Abu Muslim al-Maslama, was completely dilapidated and demolished in Akhty, and the current Juma Mosque was founded in its place. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, "kiri" - chauffeuring - was widespread in Akhty. For one turn, for example, from Akhty to Derbent and back, kirichi (cart driver) received 3 rubles. From Nukha to Akhty, due to the lack of roads, goods were brought by pack transport, and not by carts. At that time, "caravanserai" were built along the roads - premises where passers-by could stop for the night, and also leave their carts and animals. Such caravanserais were built almost every 12-15 km by wealthy people, they charged a fee for lodging for the night. In 1891, 45 secular school students were counted in Akhty, as well as 569 boys and 235 girls studying in local mektebs.


20th century

In 1839-1917, as part of the Russian Empire, and later the RSFSR, Akhty was the administrative center of the Samur district and the Akhtyparinsky district (since 1899, the Akhtyparinsky district), which was part of the district. Together with the village of Gra, he formed the Akhtyn rural society. In the pre-revolutionary period, health care in Akhty was provided by doctors - pupils of the paramedic school of the Tiflis-Mikhailovsk hospital. During this period, economic ties with the rest of Dagestan and Transcaucasia expanded, trade and economic ties were maintained with Baku, Derbent, Kurakh, etc. By 1915, there were already two secular schools in Akhty. In 1915, the construction of the famous bridge, designed by the Italian engineers Giors and DeBernardi, was completed in Akhty. The construction of the bridge took 10,200 rubles of fines and 9,500 rubles of public money. Before the revolution, according to the evidence, there were 26 tailors, 35 shoemakers, 4 weavers, 4 jewelers, 5 blacksmiths and 10 masons. In 1917, having learned about the February Revolution, local residents and the garrison of the Akhtyn fortress fraternized. In the second half of 1918 Akhty was occupied by Turkish troops. In 1924, electricity appeared in Akhty. Since 1928, Akhty has been the administrative center of the Akhtynsky district, formed on the basis of the Akhtyparinsky section of the district. In 1930-1932, a regional hospital was built in Akhty. In 1948, the construction of the Akhtynskaya hydroelectric power station began. In 1955, the Akhtynsky airport was opened, with regular flights from which air communication was carried out with Makhachkala, Tbilisi, Baku and charter flights with Krasnovodsk. In 1979, after two plane crashes, two AN-2s collided with Mount Gestinkil, the airport was closed.