Alagir, Russia



Alagir is a city in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. The administrative center of the Alagir district. Forms Alagir urban settlement. The name of the city comes from the Ossetian "Ullag Ir", which means - Upper Ossetia (Ullag - "upper", Ir - the national name of Ossetia).



The name of the city comes from the Ossetian "Ullag Ir", which means - Upper Ossetia (Ullag - "upper", Ir - the national name of Ossetia).



The city is located between the rivers Ardon (in the east) and Tsraudon (in the west), on the Ossetian sloping plain, at the entrance to the Alagir gorge. It is located 55 km west of Vladikavkaz. The area of ​​the city is about 27 km².

On the outskirts of Alagir there is a balneological resort Tamisk with sources of sulfide-sulfate-magnesium-calcium waters.



In 1824 (according to other sources - in 1781), the village of Salugardan was founded on the territory of modern Alagir, which eventually merged with Alagir.

In the 40s of the XIX century. the lack of lead forced the tsarist government to come to grips with the issue of surveying the Sadonskoye silver-lead deposit in order to find out the possibility of "supplying" the troops with their own Russian lead.

A comprehensive study of the deposit was carried out by the then well-known geologist Carteron and mining engineer Reinik. They highly appreciated the possibilities of using the deposit, and in 1843 the Sadonskoye deposit acquired state significance, and its extensive industrial exploitation began. This year is considered the year when the development of the Sadonskoye mine began as a state enterprise.

The first attempt at the industrial development of non-ferrous metal ores of the Sadonskoe deposit was made by a private entrepreneur, a Turkish citizen, the Greek Spiridon Chekalov. Until 1840, he was a stone contractor in the construction of bridges on the Georgian Military Highway, where he managed to accumulate significant capital. In 1839-1846. S. Chekalov, with the permission of his superiors, organized the primitive development of the ores of the Sadonskoye deposit and the artisanal smelting of silver and lead. With the help of a small primitive furnace, with hand fur in 1846, Chekalov was smelted and handed over to the Treasury 11 pounds of silver and 3400 pounds of lead, for which he received 18 thousand rubles from the treasury. He handed over lead to the "artillery of the Caucasian Corps", and silver - to the St. Petersburg Mint.

Primitive methods of developing ores and smelting non-ferrous metals - silver, lead and zinc - could not give high labor productivity. Despite the fact that the richest ores were developed (with a lead content of up to 70%, zinc - up to 60%), S. Chekalov's enterprise suffered a loss and in 1850 became the property of the treasury.

On the proposal of the Caucasian governor, on February 27, 1850, the tsarist government gave permission to establish a silver-zinc plant at the entrance to the Alagir gorge, on the southwestern outskirts of the village of Salugardan, on the basis of the Sadonsky deposit of polymetallic ores.

The government allocated funds for its construction. In addition, it was planned to build along the river. Ardon dirt road with a length of 33 miles. The implementation of these plans was entrusted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Corps of Mining Engineers Ivanitsky. Under his leadership, in 1853, a metallurgical plant for the smelting of non-ferrous metals was built near the village of Salugardan, and a dirt road was laid from it to the Sadon mines.

The Alagir smelter was built by the Donetsk, Ural and Altai so-called "state mining artisans" and workers. The first batch of craftsmen and workers arrived from the Lugansk foundry in April 1850, the rest arrived later. 380 families were resettled from three regions of the country for the construction of the plant. The village that arose in 1850 near the plant was called "Alagir" (Uaellag Ir - Upper Ossetia), since 1863 - the village of Alagir. By 1850 the population was about 9,000 people. Gradually, the village of Salugardan also became part of it. By 1853, Alagir had 280 houses, which made up nine longitudinal and two transverse streets. The first in time of foundation was Luganskaya street, later Zlatoustovskaya, Vyatskaya, Sadovaya, etc.

In the 90s of the XIX century. a large number of Ossetian highlanders settled on the western outskirts of Alagir, where they formed a separate settlement called Krupe. Along with the Russians and Ossetians, Georgians from the Kutaisi province also began to move to Alagir. They bought plots of land from the Russians and were mainly engaged in gardening, farming and various crafts, and also partially worked in mines and at a silver-lead factory. By the end of the XIX century. Alagir became a significant settlement. It was surrounded by a moat filled with water from the river. Ardon, it was protected by four bastions. Three gates were made to enter the village, which were decorated with pavilions with spiral staircases.

One of the first historical buildings of Alagir was the church-fortress, surrounded by a wall with loopholes and towers, built in the Byzantine style from hewn trachyte stone according to the plan of the architect and artist Prince Gagarin, who was at that time in the Caucasus. It was built in 1850-1853. masons from the detachment of S. Chekalov. This church-fortress ensemble has been completely preserved. It is located in the central part of Alagir. It is surrounded by ancient shady trees. This is the main historical attraction of Alagir. Now the local history museum is located here, in which exhibits characterizing the nature, economy and culture of Alagir and the region are widely presented. The iconography of the church draws attention. It was made by the hand of the great son of the Ossetian people, Kosta Khetagurov, who was not only a wonderful poet, but also a talented artist.


The Alagir silver-lead plant looked like a fortress. It was surrounded by a moat filled with water, thick walls with loopholes, four massive cast-iron gates and four corner towers on which guns stood. Part of the buildings of the Alagir smelter has survived to this day (Ushchelskaya Street). On the territory of the plant there were workshops, a barracks, a forge, an office, a laboratory, a shop and an apartment for the commander of the fortification.

Near Alagir there was a pottery workshop that produced water pipes, as well as bricks and tiles based on local raw materials. The Alagir silver-lead plant, according to experts, was supposed to smelt 100 poods of silver and 35 thousand poods of lead annually. In fact, the productivity of the plant, as well as the Sadonsky mine, turned out to be much lower. The plant did not justify the expense, but it was of great importance: already during the Crimean War (1854-1855), the needs of the Russian army for lead were provided precisely by the Alagir silver-lead plant, which annually supplied the military department with 585 tons of lead.

The Alagir plant was the first and for many years the only large non-ferrous metallurgy enterprise in Tsarist Russia. The plant laid the foundations for the future multifunctional enterprise, which functioned until 1897. In 1863, the settlement was transformed into a village, with the assignment of the name Gornaya.

At the end of the 19th century, Alagir was a settlement in the Vladikavkaz department of the Terek region (52 versts from Vladikavkaz and 27 versts from the station), and at the end of the 19th century, there were more than 27 trading establishments in Alagir in all of Ossetia.

By January 1, 1899, she was in the parish. According to Tolmachev S.I., in the settlement lived - "a) Indigenous people 1975 souls, b) Imeretin 736 souls, c) Ossetians 949 souls, d) Raznochintsev 1998 souls."

According to the data at the beginning of the 20th century, the Alagir settlement was listed as part of the Terek region, Vladikavkaz department. There were 3183 inhabitants, mostly Russians, Orthodox. There were 2 churches in the settlement (1 of them was the Ascension Cathedral of the Exarchate), 2 schools; pharmacy; shoe repair, hotel, post and telegraph office, state and zemstvo postal stations. Bazaar weekly.

In December 1905, an armed uprising of peasants took place in Alagir.

In the period 1917-1920, riots of various political forces took place in the city.

In 1938, the settlement was given the status of a city, and a third school was rebuilt.

During the Great Patriotic War, the city was occupied by Nazi troops on November 1, 1942. Released on December 24, 1942, by the troops of the Transcaucasian Front during a counterattack in the Nalchik direction. In the post-war years, the number of residents in the city increased several times; in the 1970s, five and nine-story residential buildings were built in the center and at the entrance from the south side, and school number four was built.

During the Soviet Union, the city was one of the centers of tourists.

Alagir has always been considered the unofficial center of the Ossetian ethnic culture and language, all residents of different nationalities speak Ossetian.

In the late 1980s, the fifth secondary school was opened.

In 1989, by decision of the executive committee of the Alagir District Council of People's Deputies, the cathedral was transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church. The first divine service and solemn opening of the Holy Ascension Cathedral was on April 29, 1989. In 1999, restoration began: the murals were updated and the roof was completely replaced. The great consecration of the church took place on October 8, 2000, by Metropolitan Gedeon (Dokukin) of Stavropol and Vladikavkaz.

Since the 1990s, new neighborhoods have been built on the outskirts of the city for Ossetian refugees from South Ossetia and Georgia.

In August 2008, the city became the main refugee reception center.

In 2018, the cinema "Komsomolets" was opened in a solemn atmosphere.



Holy Ascension Cathedral. Founded in 1851
Epiphany Alansky Convent. Founded in 2003