Anadyr, Russia




Description of Anadyr

Anadyr (Chuk. Kagyrgyn (southern and deep Chukchi), Vyegyn (northern Chukchi)) is a city in the extreme north-east of Russia, the administrative center of the Chukotka Autonomous Region. It is the most eastern city of Russia, located in the border zone. Anadyr is located on the right bank of the Anadyr River (near the mouth of the Kazachka River), which flows into the Anadyr Bay of the Bering Sea, in the permafrost zone. The distance from Anadyr to Moscow is 6192 km.

MSC + 9 (Kamchatka time)
Anadyr is located in the MSC + 9 time zone (Kamchatka time). The offset of the applied time relative to UTC is +12: 00.

In accordance with the applicable time and geographical longitude, the average sunny noon in Anadyr comes at 12:10.



The word "Anadyr" is found on the pages of historical annals in various lexical variations: Onandyr is a Chukchi river, Anadyrsk is a prison from the times of Semyon Dezhnev and Kurbat Ivanov (mid-17th century).

Presumably, the toponym Onandyr (Onandyr) goes back to the Yukaghir base enu-en~anu-an~anu-on, which means "river"; the Chukchi name of the Anadyr River - Y'aivaam - is interpreted as "gull". Perhaps Yaʼaivaam is a Chukchi adaptation of the Kerek toponym Yaaiveyem.

The local Chukchi population calls the city V'ӈyn “zev”, “entrance”, or Kagyrgyn “entrance”, “hole”, “mouth”, which reflects its location at a narrow neck that opens the entrance to the upper part of the Anadyr estuary.



Anadyr is located on the shores of the Anadyr estuary of the Anadyr Bay of the Bering Sea, at the mouth of the Kazachka River and the mouth of the Anadyr River (the place of its extended confluence with the estuary after Onemen Bay), in the permafrost zone.

The distance from Anadyr to Moscow is 6192 km.

Anadyr is in the MSK+9 time zone. The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +12:00.

According to the applied time and geographic longitude, the average solar noon in Anadyr occurs at 12:10.


History of Anadyr

On August 3, 1889, following the Decree of the Government of the Russian Empire on the formation of the Anadyr District in the northeasternmost territory of the state of the Anadyr District, Russian military doctor and polar explorer Lev Frantsevich Grinevetsky laid the Novo-Mariinsk post at the mouth of the Kazachka River. The city of Anadyr began to develop from it.

The construction of the city proceeded slowly; Basically, state-owned and private trading warehouses expanded. By 1914, a long-wave radio station was built here - one of the most powerful at that time in Russia.

After the October Revolution, Soviet power in Novo-Mariinsk was finally established only by 1924, at the same time, by a resolution of the Kamchatka Provincial Revolutionary Committee, the modern name of the settlement, Anadyr, was approved.

In 1927, Anadyr became the administrative center of the Anadyr region, three years later - the center of the newly created Chukotka national district.

In 1934, the village of Novo-Mariinsk, also known as Anadyr, was transformed into the working settlement of Anadyr.

A big impetus to the development of the village was the construction of a large seaport on the shore of the estuary in the late 1950s. In 1963, a dam was built on the Kazachka River, which made it possible to conduct water supply to Anadyr.

On January 12, 1965, according to the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the village of Anadyr received the status of a city.

In 1984, the first non-stop regular flight of the Il-62 aircraft was carried out on the route Moscow - Anadyr.

In 1992, the city acquired the status of district subordination and was withdrawn from the Anadyr region.

By the law of November 29, 2004, the city of Anadyr with the village of Tavayvaam, within the framework of the organization of local self-government, formed a separate urban district of Anadyr.



By plane
There are few flights to Anadyr airport from Moscow (Utair, 2 times a week), Khabarovsk, from Yakutsk, in transit through Magadan (a / c Yakutia). The airport also serves local flights of small aircraft. A feature of the location of the airport is its location through the estuary from the city, in the town of Ugolnye Kopi. Thus, arriving passengers should think in advance how they will be in Anadyr. In winter, you can drive through the frozen bay by car, in summer on boats. In the off-season, there are SVPs (4 people, 4,000 rubles as of 2019) and a helicopter (10,000 rubles per person), there will be a queue for both types of transport. Also, the airport’s risks include a high dependence on weather conditions, you can “hang out” in Anadyr.

Anadyr International Airport named after Yuri Sergeyevich Rytkheu (Ugolny).



The remoteness of Anadyr and problems with supply form a sky-high price level for Russia, this should be treated philosophically.



The usual level of cost of hotels will be 8-9 thousand rubles for a standard single room. It is better to immediately take a full board, so the food will be much cheaper.

Hotel Anadyr.
Hotel Chukotka.



According to the 2020 All-Russian Population Census, as of October 1, 2021, in terms of population, the city was in 828th place out of 1,118 cities in the Russian Federation.

In 2009-2011, there was a decrease in the population due to migration outflow; At the same time, there was a tendency for the birth rate to exceed the death rate.


Local government

The city of Anadyr with the village of Tavaivaam forms a separate urban district within the framework of the organization of local self-government.



Fish processing plant.
Energy enterprises are operating - the Anadyr thermal power plant and a gas engine station. Near the city, on Cape Observation, there is one of the largest wind farms in Russia - the Anadyr wind farm.
Gold and coal are mined in the vicinity. Reindeer breeding, fishing, and hunting are developed.


Transport infrastructure

Sea port
The seaport of Anadyr is the largest in the region; it has a connection with Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Vladivostok, Magadan and other ports. Its production capacities allow processing up to one million tons of various cargoes. The navigation period lasts four months (from July 1 to November 1). From Anadyr to the village of Lavrentiya there is a passenger ship "Captain Sotnikov".

Anadyr Airport is located on the other side of the estuary in the village of Coal Mines. Helicopter flights are carried out year-round to connect the city with the airport; in winter there is an ice crossing, in summer boats and small boats run. The airport has an international status, regular flights are carried out to Moscow and Khabarovsk, as well as to all settlements of Chukotka.

Due to the harsh natural and climatic conditions, the roads in the city are covered with concrete. About 90 road signs have been installed on city streets, markings are being applied.

Between Anadyr and the airport there is a federal highway A384 23 km long, part of which is a winter road on the ice of the estuary.


Public transport

In 2012, the construction of the federal road Kolyma (highway R-504) - Omsukchan - Omolon - Anadyr began, which will provide year-round transport links between Anadyr and the road network of the Russian Far East.

The city has 3 bus routes, public transport is free:

"Schoolboy": orphanage - school number 2, does not go during the holidays, Sundays and non-working holidays; leaves according to the schedule, in the direction of the school at 7:40 and 8:00, in the direction of the orphanage - at 12:20, 13:20 and 14:10;
"City Ring": CHPP - Chukotka district hospital with an interval of 25-125 minutes; does not go on Sundays and non-working holidays;
"Tavayvaam": CHPP - p. Tavaivaam; interval - 30-165 minutes; break: 9:30-12:15.
These routes are served by Volzhanin-5270 buses (5 units as of November 2015).

For a short time in 2012, there was the only commercial route in the history of the city, which was served by a Hyundai County minibus (1 unit):

Shop "Kasatka" - Chukotka district hospital.


Culture, science, education, sport

The city has a secondary school No. 1, the Chukotka Institute for the Development of Education and Advanced Training, the Chukotka branch of the North-Eastern Federal University. The Chukotka District Library is the central library of the Autonomous Okrug.

The city has a laboratory for the integrated study of Chukotka "Center of Chukotka" of the North-Eastern Integrated Research Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

In 2002, through the merger of the Chukotka District Museum of Local Lore, whose collections began to form in 1931, and the State Center for the Protection and Restoration of Historical and Cultural Monuments of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, the Chukotka Heritage Museum Center was formed. The exposition of the center includes sections on nature, ancient and traditional cultures of the peoples of Chukotka, their art, and an art gallery. The Museum Center has two branches: the Beringian Heritage Museum in the village of Provideniya and the museum in the village of Markovo.

On April 28, 2013, a ski lift system was opened on the hill of Mikhail, the construction of the complex lasted 7 years.

Since 2017, the city has hosted the Golden Raven International Arctic Film Festival, which has become a kind of hallmark of Chukotka.


Achievements and awards

According to the results of the All-Russian Socialist Competition, from 1971 to 1975, Anadyr received the challenge Red Banner of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions five times in a row.
In 2004, Anadyr became a holder of the Golden Order "Maecenas", established by the international charitable foundation "Patrons of the Century".
According to the results of the All-Russian competition for the title "The most comfortable city in Russia" in 2005, Anadyr was awarded a special prize and a certificate from the Federal Agency for Construction and Housing and the All-Russian Trade Union of Essential Workers for attracting investments in the development of the urban environment, and was also included in the encyclopedia "The most comfortable city Russia for 2005”.
According to the results of the All-Russian contest "The most comfortable city in Russia" for 2006, Anadyr took the third prize in the nomination "Administrative centers of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation" and was awarded a diploma of the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as a cash prize.
In 2007, Anadyr was awarded the Order of Peace.



The climate of the city is subarctic, maritime, severe. The average temperature in January is -22 °C, in July it differs greatly from year to year, but, on average, +11 °C. The warm period is very short. Precipitation is 350 mm per year - mainly in the warm period. Due to the proximity to the sea, winters in the city are warmer and summers are cooler than in the continental regions of Chukotka. The winter is severe, due to constant winds and air humidity, frosts intensify. There are often fogs in summer. The water surface temperature in the summer months is about +10 °C.

Average annual air temperature: -6.9 °C.
Average annual air humidity: 81%.
Average annual wind speed: 6.6 m/s.


Mass media

TV channels
For the first time television in the city appeared in 1972 by means of a ground station for ultra-long-range space transmissions of the Orbita satellite system.

The city publishes the regional weekly newspaper Krayniy Sever (until 1993 - Sovetskaya Chukotka), the founder of the publication is the government of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.



Until 2003, the Yukon tropospheric junction station, which was part of the Sever communication line system, operated in the vicinity of Anadyr.

Mobile operators MTS, Beeline and Megafon operate in the city. Internet and cable TV services are provided by the local company Arctic Region Svyaz, as well as Chukotka Svyaz Inform (part of Rostelecom) - Internet access services (ADSL technology), IP TV and telephony.



The Holy Trinity Cathedral, the world's largest wooden Orthodox church built on permafrost, operates in the city. The temple can accommodate about 1000 people. There is also an ascribed Temple of the Transfiguration of the Lord.


Paleobotanical heritage

In 2011, during a paleontological expedition in Anadyr, a completely preserved petrified forest of the Upper Paleocene time was discovered. Previously, it was believed that forests did not grow in this area.

The following year, near Mount Temlyan, scientists found a fossil flora dated to the late Cretaceous - Paleocene. This flora was identified as the Temlyan fossil flora and includes over 21 species of higher plants, among which conifers (Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia, Mesocyparis) and flowering plants (Corylus, Platanus) predominate in the fossil state. For the first time, branches of Mesocyparis with shoots attached to them were found in the fossil state. The collected collections are stored in the fund collections of the museum center "Heritage of Chukotka" in Anadyr.



The memorial complex "The First Revolutionary Committee of Chukotka", opened in 1957 near the seaport in memory of the first Chukotka Bolsheviks.
A monument to Lenin made of pink granite, erected on the central square of Anadyr in 1967, later, in 2002, transferred to the Palace of Children's Creativity (a monument to the writer Rytkheu was erected in its place). It is included in the collection of monuments of history and culture of the Russian Federation, as a work of monumental and sculptural art. Sculptor - Mikhail Rakitin, architect - Nikolai Shveide, consultant - People's Artist of the USSR, Lenin Prize laureate Evgeny Vuchetich.
The memorial "Chukotka to the Front", opened on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, is a six-meter red granite stele with a bronze bas-relief. On the front side of the monument are carved the names of the natives of Chukotka who died in battle.
The Bronze Worshiping Orthodox Cross was erected in 2003 at the highest point of Anadyr - Camel Hill.
The monument to St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, a ten-meter bronze monument, mounted on a pedestal lined with black labradorite, was erected in 2004. It is the largest monument to this saint in the world.
Monument to the writer Yuri Rytkheu, erected in 2011 on the site of the monument to Lenin, sculptor Alexander Rukavishnikov.
The monument to the founder of Anadyr Leonid Grinevetsky in the new park bearing his name was erected in 2014. The author of the sculpture is Sergei Mikhailovich Isakov, Honored Artist of Russia, who previously created a monument to St. Nicholas the Wonderworker for the city.