Anadyr (Chuk. Kagyrgyn (southern and deep
Chukchi), Vyegyn (northern Chukchi)) is a city in the extreme
north-east of Russia, the administrative center of the Chukotka
Autonomous Region. It is the most eastern city of Russia, located in
the border zone. Anadyr is located on the right bank of the Anadyr
River (near the mouth of the Kazachka River), which flows into the
Anadyr Bay of the Bering Sea, in the permafrost zone. The distance
from Anadyr to Moscow is 6192 km.
MSC + 9 (Kamchatka time)
Anadyr is located in the MSC + 9 time zone (Kamchatka time). The
offset of the applied time relative to UTC is +12: 00.
accordance with the applicable time and geographical longitude, the
average sunny noon in Anadyr comes at 12:10.
History of Anadyr
Although the town itself has only been in existence for just over
a century, the origins of the name Anadyr are much older. The name
initially derives from the Yukaghir word "any-an" meaning "river".
When Semyon Dezhnev met Yukaghir peoples in the area and the
indigenous name was corrupted to form "Onandyr", later Anadyrsk, the
name of the ostrog (fort) upstream of the present-day settlement,
from which the current name is derived. The ostrog was the only
Russian settlement east of the Kolyma River on the Chukotka
Peninsula for most of the 18th century, though this original
settlement was situated further up the Anadyr River, nearer to
Markovo than the site of the current town.
(brother of Alexander Andreyevich Baranov) established a trading
post near the present town site in the early 19th century. The
Chukchi settled around it and formed the village of Vyon in 1830.
The present settlement was founded in 1889 as Novo–Mariinsk by
L. F. Grinevetsky, who sailed into the Anadyrsky Liman on July 9,
1889. The town's first building was completed twelve days later and
as it was the name-day of Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna the town was
named Mariinsk. Since this was not the first time that a town had
been named Mariinsk in Russia, the name was swiftly changed to
The Kamchatka Revkom sent the first
Bolsheviks—Mikhail Mandrikov and Avgust Berzin—to Anadyr to set up
an underground organization to undermine and eventually overthrow
the resident White Army forces stationed in the town. These two,
along with a small group of other Russian immigrants and a handful
of Chuvans, established the First Revolutionary Committee of
Chukotka. Their presence initially went undetected, although it did
arouse suspicion. However, just before they were about to be
discovered by the resident White Army troops, they launched an
attack against them on the night of December 16, 1919. They intended
to free the local indigenous people from their debts to the Russian
incomers and dismantle of the capitalist infrastructure that had
been established in the town. The attempts at seizing the property
of the merchant class in Anadyr was successful, but they were unable
to seize control of the armory and ammunition supplies within the
town. The merchants used this opportunity to reassert themselves,
and by January 30, 1920, they surrounded the Revkom offices and
attacked. One of the leaders, Vasily Titov, was killed and a number
of others were wounded. Mikhail Mandrikov himself surrendered.
Although the survivors were initially imprisoned, the merchants
decided to eliminate them permanently. Under the pretense of
transferring them to another site, they led them out of the town and
executed them out on the tundra. The merchants' and White Army's
success had been aided by the fact that a number of the Revkom
members had been out the town visiting the village of Markovo. When
these people returned, they were ambushed and all survivors
The merchants set about reestablishing the
status quo, all the while pretending to the Kamchatka Revkom that
they themselves were socialists when inquiries came as to the
whereabouts of their colleagues, going as far as to set up a fake
Anadyr branch of the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks.
Unfortunately for the merchants in Anadyr, members of the first
Revkom had already managed to establish branches in Markovo and
Ust-Belaya, who were not convinced by the claims coming from Anadyr
and, whilst establishing the Second Revolutionary Committee of
Chukotka in Markovo pressed the Kamchatka Revkom for assistance. The
Kamchatka Revkom responded by sending a party to investigate. A
number of those involved in the overthrow of the First Revolutionary
Committee either ceased their political activity in the hope of
blending into the background, or fled Chukotka for Alaska. However,
the merchants fared worse eighteen months later when the Bolsheviks
returned and began to reorganize urban life. Struggles continued for
some time in the Russian Far East, and it took until early 1923
before communications were sent from Kamchatka by Red Army
commanders indicating that all White Army forces in Chukotka had
Monuments to those members of the First
Revolutionary Committee were erected in Anadyr on 5 July 1921. It
was only in 1969 that an elderly man said he remembered where the
bodies had been buried, having seen them being interred in a
cemetery in Tavayvaam. Following this tip, the remains were
recovered and they were paraded solemnly through Anadyr to the
monuments, where they were buried with full honors.
Novo–Mariinsk was renamed Anadyr.
During World War II, an
airfield was built here for the Alaska-Siberian (ALSIB) air route
used to ferry American Lend-Lease aircraft to the Eastern Front.
By plane There are few flights to Anadyr airport from Moscow
(Utair, 2 times a week), Khabarovsk, from Yakutsk, in transit
through Magadan (a / c Yakutia). The airport also serves local
flights of small aircraft. A feature of the location of the airport
is its location through the estuary from the city, in the town of
Ugolnye Kopi. Thus, arriving passengers should think in advance how
they will be in Anadyr. In winter, you can drive through the frozen
bay by car, in summer on boats. In the off-season, there are SVPs (4
people, 4,000 rubles as of 2019) and a helicopter (10,000 rubles per
person), there will be a queue for both types of transport. Also,
the airport’s risks include a high dependence on weather conditions,
you can “hang out” in Anadyr.
Anadyr International Airport
named after Yuri Sergeyevich Rytkheu (Ugolny).