Baksan, Russia


Baksan (Kabardian-Cherk. Bakhsen) is a city of republican significance in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. The city is the administrative center of municipalities Baksan City District and Baksan District (which is not part of).



The Baksan village was founded in 1891 by immigrants from Central Russia and Ukraine. The name is from the hydronym Baksan. In 1960, the village of Staraya Krepost (Kabardian Kuchmazukino) was added to it, and in 1965 the working village of Baksan was formed. Since 1967 - the city of Baksan.



The city is located in the northern part of the republic, on the left bank of the Baksan River, at its exit from the gorge to the foothill plain. It is located 18 km (in a straight line) north of the republican center of the city of Nalchik.

The federal highway "Caucasus" P-217 runs along the western outskirts of the city, and its bypass road passes through the city center. The federal highway "Prokhladny-Baksan-Elbrus" A-158 leading to the Elbrus region runs along the southern outskirts.

The area occupied by the city is 27.79 km2.

It borders on the lands of the settlements: Dygulybgey in the south, Islamey in the south-west, Psychokh in the north, Baksanenok in the east and Kishpek in the southeast.

The city is located in the foothill zone of the republic. Average heights are about 455 meters above sea level. The terrain is mainly a sloping foothill plain, characterized by a gentle slope of the terrace to the east, in the form of wide hollows and gentle sloping slopes. The Mahogaps mountain range rises to the southwest of the city. The bowels of the city are composed of a thick layer of alluvial boulder-pebbles, with sandy filling of water soils located at a depth of 17-20 meters.

The hydrographic network is represented, first of all, by the Baksan River and its channels (Geduko, Novaya Nakhalovka Canal, Baksanenok). A network of canals has been laid in the vicinity, providing water flow from Baksan to the north, to Malka. The largest of them, Baksano-Malkinsky, stretches to the east of the city. To the northeast of the city of Baksan, two watercourses flow out of it, already belonging to the Malka basin - Sukha Psarysh and Mokra Psarysh. The Novaya Nakhalovka canal, which also feeds the Baksanenok River, also in fact originates from the Baksano-Malkinsky Canal, and not from the Baksan River itself. To the north-west and north of the city there are the Nevolka and Khatakumsky canals, which originate from Baksan upstream. The Hatakum Canal is named after the small drying up stream Hatakum that flows out of it; later it connects with the Baksano-Malkinsky canal. The Nevolka canal is used to flow from Baksan to Kurkuzhin.

The climate is humid, temperate, with warm summers and cool winters. The average annual air temperature is about + 9.5 ° С, and ranges from average + 21.5 ° С in July to average -3.0 ° С in January. The average daily air temperature ranges from -10.0 ° C to + 15.0 ° C in winter, and from + 16.0 ° C to + 30.0 ° C in summer. The average annual rainfall is about 650 mm. In spring, with sharp temperature changes, strong winds blow from the mountains. The prevailing wind direction is southwest.



In 1822, opposite the aul Kuchmazukino (Kabard-Cherk. Kushmezykuei), a Russian military settlement was founded, which was part of the Caucasian military line.

In 1825, after the annexation of Kabarda to the Russian Empire, the population of the Kuchmazukino aul, not wanting to recognize the power of the tsarist administration, moved beyond the Kuban to continue the war with other Adygs.

After the end of the Caucasian War, in 1867 the inhabitants of the Kuchmazukino aul moved back to Kabarda and settled to the east of the military fortification, to their original place.

In 1891, the Baksan farm was founded to the west of the military fortification by immigrants from the Central (mainly Kursk) provinces of the Russian Empire.

In 1920, with the final establishment of Soviet power in Kabarda, by the decision of the Revolutionary Committee of the Nalchik District, Kuchmazukino, like other Kabardian settlements, was renamed, due to the presence of princely and noble families in their names. As a result, the village received a new name - Old Fortress.

During the Great Patriotic War, the village and the farm were occupied by German troops in October 1942. Released in early January 1943. Several monuments have been erected in the city in memory of the fallen soldiers.

In 1960, the village of Staraya Krepost (about 8,000 inhabitants in 1959) and the Baksan farm (3,583 inhabitants in 1959) were merged into the village of Baksan.

In 1964 the village was given the status of an urban-type settlement.

In 1967, the urban-type settlement was given the status of a city.

In 2003, the village of Dugulubgey was included in the city. After that, on August 8, 2003, Baksan received the status of a city of republican subordination and was transformed into the Baksan urban district.

In 2008, Dygulybgey was separated from the city, with the return of the status of a village, as part of the Baksan urban district.