Chadan, Russia

Chadan (Tuv. Chadaana - low bush) is a city (since 1945) in the Tyva Republic of the Russian Federation. The administrative center of the Dzun-Khemchik kozhuun and the urban settlement is the city of Chadan.



The name is from the Tuvan chadan - "undersized thickets of bush".



Located on the Chadan River (the right tributary of the Khemchik, the Yenisei basin), on the Kyzyl-Teeli highway (formerly A162), 220 km west of Kyzyl. 6 km west of the city, the beginning of the Chadan - Khandagayty highway (former A163) adjoins the A162 motorway.



The climate is close to moderately cold. There will be a significant amount of rainfall, even during the driest months. The average annual temperature in the city is −1.7 ° C. About 301 mm falls per year.

The least precipitation is in February, with an average of about 7 mm. Most of the precipitation falls in July, with an average of about 62 mm.

The warmest month of the year is July with an average temperature of 18.4 ° C, while the coldest month is January, with temperatures averaging around -27.6 ° C.



In Chadan in 1932, the Motor Transport Office - ATK began to work. The first 6 cars arrived, then the car park increased from 28 to 103 cars. Ivan Osharov, Nikolai Shoev gave a lot of effort to the organization of the ATK.

With the advent of agricultural machinery and machinery, the need for fuel and lubricants increased every day. And then the question arose of opening an oil depot. The first director was Andrey Khudonosov, then Malyshev and Maryasov worked. And Saaya Sandan worked as a watchman, and Salchak M??ge-ool carried fuel on a horse harness. They went down in the history of the city as pioneers in the delivery of petroleum products.

There was a club on Lenin Street, in which there was a library. Maria Stepanovna, head of the district library, loves and is proud of her city with all her heart. There are about 4 thousand books in the library fund. Tuvan youth read few books in Russian, but Maria Stepanovna tried, instilled a love for Russian books. She actively participated in the campaign for culture in the city.

Now the city has developed a network of a centralized library system, where Skorykh Irina Rudolfovna, a German by nationality, works as a director, a children's library operates, and a city library for pensioners and the disabled was opened at the Shakhtar GDK. School libraries also operate at schools.

The children's art school began to work in 1961. There are 2 branches in the kozhuun sumons.

The Chadan district industrial complex is one of the first industrial enterprises in the city of Chadan.


Famous people

Mongush Shokar-Chuldum oglu Lopsan-Chimit (1888 - December 31, 1940) - Tuvan lama and linguist. Created on the basis of the German alphabet writing for the Tuvan language. Shot in 1940.
Kara-kys Shugdur-oolovna Mongush is a veteran of the museum business of Tuva, Honored Worker of Culture of the Republic of Tuva (2004).
Sainkho Namchylak (b. 1957) is a Tuvan singer.
Arthas Sanaa (b.1991) - freestyle wrestler, Asian champion
Opan Sat (b. 1987) - Honored Master of Sports of Russia (freestyle wrestling), three-time European champion (2010, 2011, 2013).
Sergei Shoigu (b. 1955) - Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation.
Larisa Shoigu is a Russian politician.



In Chadan there are enterprises of the food industry, near the city there is mining of coal (Chadan mine).

Every year in July, the city hosts the international festival of live music and faith "Ustuu-Khuree". The city has a branch of the Republican Museum of Local Lore. Aldan Maadyr, Buyan Badyrgy Museum.

On July 23, 2012, the re-opening of the Buddhist temple Ustuu-Khuree took place, which has been restored with the support of the government, the public and the international festival of live music and faith "Ustuu-Khuree" since 1999.



The population of the city is 9519 people (January 1, 2021; 9035 - in 2010; 9454 - in 2002; 10,775 - in 1989; 8985 - in 1979; 7589 - in 1970; 4709 - in 1959). According to the 2010 All-Russian Population Census, 98.7% of the population (8914 people) were Tuvans. 9696 people live in the urban settlement. A suburban zone is distinguished (the villages of Khayyrakan, Bazhyn-Alaak and Teve-Khaya), the population of the city with suburbs is 13,733 people (2018).



The majority of believers in Chadan are Buddhists. Orthodoxy in Chadan is practiced mainly by a small Russian population. The city belongs to the Kyzyl diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church.



In the northern part of the city, near the republican highway, there is Aldyy-Khuree (Lower Chadan Buddhist monastery; founded in 1873; destroyed in the 1930s; rebuilt in 1995–2003). Among other buildings: a three-story building of secondary school No. 1 (mid-20th century), the district House of Culture named after Mergen-Kherel Mongush (2011), a pavilion with a prayer wheel "Mani-Khurtu" (2018).

Monuments were erected in Chadan: to V.I. Ulyanov, a gymnasium student (1975), "Chadaan" (1983; authors Kuular Kan-Ool and Darzhaa Mai-Ool), the 70th anniversary of the Tuva People's Revolution on the People's Shrine Square (1991), 110- anniversary of the Uprising of 60 Bogatyrs (1993), the founder of the Tuvan state M. Buyan-Badyrgy (2015).



Secondary vocational education in the city is provided by the Tuva Technological College (1975 - city vocational school, 1978 - rural vocational school, 2013 - current status and name).

In Chadan, there are 5 institutions of preschool education, 4 secondary schools, a children's art school, and the Sports School of the Olympic Reserve named after Mongush Chechen-Ool Alekseevich.

There is a Central Regional Library with rural branches and a children's library.



The following are open in the city: the Chadan Local History Museum named after M. Buyan-Badyrgy (founded in 1991 as a folk museum, since 1992 a branch of the National Museum of the Republic of Tuva named after Aldan-Maadyr) with expositions on ethnography and religious history of the region, on the history of Daa kozhuun; Memorial house-museum of the family of K. S. and A. Ya. Shoigu (2015).



The international festival of live music and faith "Ustuu-Khuree" is held annually. The festival has been held since 1999 with the support of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Tyva, the Tuva State Philharmonic named after V. M. Khalilov and the Tuva Republican Public Creative Association "Ustuu-Khuree".



Medical care for the population is provided by the Dzun-Khemchik Inter-Khemchik Medical Center, which includes an adult and children's polyclinic.



The population of working age is 4387 people (47.6% of the city's population). The level of officially registered unemployment is 3.7%, according to the methodology of the International Labor Organization - 16.8% (2018).

The basis of the city's economy is industry (mining, food, building materials) and trade, but more than 50% of the population is employed in the public sector (public administration, education, healthcare).

The main industry is mining. The Chadan coal mine (17 km from the city; development began in the 1960s; coal; average seam thickness is 7.92 m; balance reserves are estimated at 10.1 million tons of coal) provides coal to the western regions of Tyva. The Chadan coal mine is part of the Ulug-Khem coal basin and belongs to a separate Chadan trough. The development is carried out by the Tuva Mining Company; all coal mined at the deposit is consumed within the republic.

The city has food industry enterprises (production of bread and bakery products, milk processing), building materials industry (including collapsible dwellings for shepherds - yurts). Cattle breeding is developed in personal subsidiary farms of the inhabitants of Chadan.

The service sector is represented by 1 hotel for 35 beds (2019), small trade enterprises and the provision of personal services.