Chikola, Russia

Chikola (Digorsk. Tsikola, Ironsk. Tsykola) is a village in the Irafsky region of the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania. Village is the administrative center of the Irafsky region. The village is located in the northern part of the Irafsky district, not far from the right bank of the Urukh River, on both banks of the Chikola (Zmeika) river of the same name. It is located 70 km north-west of Vladikavkaz.



19th century
After the annexation of Ossetia to the Russian Empire, the tsarist administration tried to pursue a policy of separate settlement of Ossetian Muslims and Ossetian Christians. Thus, in 1852, a commission headed by Prince M. S. Vorontsov forcibly evicted Ossetian Muslims from the villages of Stur-Digora, Akhsau, Makhchesk, Galiat, Fasnal and Dur-Dur, relocating them to the place where they later founded the village of Volno-Dur. Magometanovskoe (now Chikola).

Along with the peasants, feudal lords (badelats) were also resettled. The entire 19th century was marked by class conflict between the Tuganovs (Free Mohammedan Badelats) and the peasantry. The basis of the conflict was land disputes - the Tuganovs appropriated the best lands, moved boundary markers, etc. In 1852, more than 500 souls lived in Volno-Mahometan, and according to the 1860 census, there were already 817 people who had 4,633 acres of land.

According to the 1886 census, the population was 2,052 people (297 households). of these, men - 1088, women - 964: 88 surnames: Tsorievs - 15 households; Makoevs - 14 households; Tavasievs - 11 households; Tsarikaevs, Zoloevs - 9 yards; Balikoevs - 8 yards; Tuskaevs, Lagkuevs, Kertanovs, Dedegkaevs, Batyrovs - 7 households; Gutsunaevs, Dzarasovs, Budtuevs, Khekilaevs, Khastsaevs - 6 households; Aidarovs, Guluevs, Medoevs, Tamaevs, Tokaevs - 5 households; Tsavkaevs, Tsagolovs, Tavkazakhovs, Marzoevs, Mostievs, Kardanovs, Dzadzaevs, Gokoevs, Besolovs, Bichilovs - 4 yards; Tsomaevs, Toboevs, Salkazanovs, Mairansaovs, Malkarovs, Dzagurovs, Kairovs, Gatsalovs, Uvzhikoevs, Gazdarovs, Bataevs - 3 yards; Temirovs, Albegonovs, Gazdanovs, Gatievs, Guguevs, Gamakharovs, Kadokhovs, Malikievs, Malievs, Soskievs, Tsavkilovs - 2 yards; Babochievs, Bekiyevs, Butyevs, Gokinovs, Darchievs, Gularov, Dzansolovs, Ikaevs, Zekeevs, Karaevs, Kabegovs, Kodoevs, Kumykovs, Sultanovs, Margoyev, Oziev, Pinovs, Sabanovs, Zaeva, Sugkoevs, Tadeevs, Totonovs, Tegaevs, Tettsoevs, Tetzaevs, Tutkaevs, Tukkaev Khadonovs, Khakievs, Khimilonovs, Khortievs, Tsopanovs, Shiukonovs - 1 yard. The oldest at the time of the census was Ali Gabisovich Kadokhov - 108 years old. Aslangeri Bagievich, Tatarkan Papunovich, Karase Papunovich, Khazbi Batyrov, Umar Dedegkaev, Dzandar Dzagurov, Ibragim Dzadzaev could then speak in Russian.

Among the rural enterprises, there was one trading store and seven water mills on the Chikola and Urukh rivers. There were 4 wooden mosques and one primary school (madrassa) in the village. Administratively, Volno-Magometanskoe belonged to the 3rd section of the Vladikavkaz district of the Terek region.

A constant problem in Free Mohammedan was the lack of land. The situation was worsened by the policies of the Caucasian administration. The most fertile lands were given to the Cossacks and landowners. In Volno-Mahometan, the land per capita was 5-6 times less than in the neighboring Cossack villages, and 10-12 times less than that of the landowners. The state's resettlement policy worsened the situation even further. The Terek region became the object of Russian and Ukrainian settlement. Near Volno-Mohammedan, 12 resettlement farms were formed. In conditions of severe land hunger, someone had to give in. And after the revolution of 1905, settlers began to leave, selling their farms to the Free Mohammedan fists.

During the revolution of 1905, an uprising occurred in Free Mohammedan. In a week, the Mohammedans cut down and removed 200 hectares of the Tuganovsky forest, after which 150 people committed a pogrom in the village administration, seizing decisions on fines for cutting down state-owned forest (appropriated by the Tuganovs). The uprising was suppressed by the punitive detachment of Colonel Lyakhov. As a result of the shelling of Magometansky, about 40 residents were killed and wounded.

By the time of the October Revolution, the Badeliates in Digoria owned 227 thousand dessiatines of land, and the peasants were forced to pay high rents, which reached 40 rubles per dessiatine.

By a resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR dated April 1, 1934, the village of Magometanovskoye, Digorsky District, was renamed the village of “Tsikola”.

Anti-Soviet uprising of 1930
During collectivization in 1930, an anti-Soviet uprising took place in Chikola. The collective farm was destroyed, all papers and records were burned, and the livestock and equipment were dismantled by the previous owners. Some peasants from Chikola, plowing their fields in the spring, even attached self-made flags with anti-collective farm slogans to the yokes of the oxen.

In March 1930, the leader of the uprising, Khadzimet Medoev, who worked as a supply farmer on the Chikola collective farm, went into the forest, where work began on organizing an armed detachment. The rebel detachment, organized and led by Medoev, numbered 270-300 people. Subsequently, the Balkar Nukhtar-Pasha Atskanov joined him with his detachment. Local military forces were not able to cope with the uprising, and therefore GPU troops and parts of the Red Army were sent to the North Caucasus, and Khadzimet Medoev’s wife and her infant child ended up in prison. The role of the patron in relation to Khadzimet Medoev was played by the head of the Vladikavkaz OGPU Gorga Arsagov. He asked his friend, the old partisan Tatarkan Medoev, to go into the forest to Khadzimet Medoev and tell him the following: the uprising will undoubtedly be defeated; further resistance will entail huge casualties among the population; he, Arsagov, invites Khadzimet Medoev to surrender, guaranteeing that he will not be shot.

The continuous arrests of hostages, who were threatened with execution, put pressure on the psyche of Khadzimet Medoev and forced him to surrender. Medoev received 10 years in concentration camps. He served his sentence and lived before the war in the Karachay region.

Arsagov died in 1938 when the chairman of the regional executive committee of Ossetia, Torgoev, was shot. Gorga was arrested. Knowing better than anyone else what awaited him, during interrogation he killed an NKVD investigator with a stool and was shot dead. According to rumors, Arsagov exclaimed at the same time: “You, dogs, make it good to die!”



According to Anastasia Tsagaeva, the translation of the toponym is based on the Nogai uch - “freeze” and col - “lake”, - “frozen lake” or “three lakes”, where uch - “three lakes”, where uch - “three” and col (kel) – “lake”.



The village is located in the northern part of the Iraf region, at the foot of the Wooded Range, in the interfluve of the Urukh and Chikola (Snake) rivers. It is located 70 km northwest of Vladikavkaz.