Grozny, Russia


Description of Grozny

Grozny is located in the Chechen Republic.

The city was badly damaged as a result of two Chechen wars and was thoroughly destroyed. It is all the more interesting to see Grozny not only restored in an unprecedented time, but also received in recent years the modern look of the city center, which, however, has not yet been completed.

Subject to certain prudence and rules, the city is completely safe, and it is likely that Grozny will soon become a popular destination for domestic exotic tourism based on the ethnographic and religious component with visits to the natural beauties of Chechnya.

Chechens are one of the most hospitable peoples of the North Caucasus, and simple communication will give the traveler a certain pleasure.



The Sunzha River crosses the city from the southwest to the northeast. The city center is concentrated at the intersection of Sunzha with V.V. Putin and Akhmat Kadyrov. Here is the mosque "Heart of Chechnya", the skyscrapers of Grozny City and the residence of the President of Chechnya, the city square with the building of the city administration. Prospekt V.V. Putin up to the Friendship of Peoples Square and rests on the complex of buildings of the Government of the Republic. In the opposite direction, Putin Avenue continues A. Kadyrov Avenue, which is more or less interesting up to the famous Minutka Square. In the area of one or two blocks around the main thoroughfares of the city, the main tourist sites are concentrated.

Sheikh Ali Mitaev Boulevard leads to the northern part of the city from the center, which passes into Abuzar Aydamirov Avenue. The avenue in the north near the suburbs rests on the airport. The southern part of the city is cut off by the railway, behind which, in general, travelers have nothing to do.

Also, for orientation, important objects are several bus stations scattered in the city and named for parts of the world, as well as the central transport hub near the Berkat shopping center.

Travelers should keep in mind that many streets have recently been renamed, and at best they can have a double name.


There are almost no historical objects left in the city, there are several pre-revolutionary buildings and Soviet monuments. All other objects of interest for inspection were created over the past decade.

central square
Mosque named after Akhmat Kadyrov "Heart of Chechnya", V.V. Putin. The main symbol of the city of Grozny, the largest mosque in Russia. Built between 2006 and 2008.

Prospect V.V. Putin
The main street of the city itself is a landmark, and even more so with such a name. From Friday evening to Sunday, the avenue is blocked and becomes a large pedestrian zone. Visiting motorists should be careful, parking here is difficult.

Bar house.

Akhmat Kadyrov Avenue
Church of Michael the Archangel.
Minutka Square.

The building of the oil institute. Abandoned building in the Gothic style built in 1928


What to do

National Museum of the Czech Republic, Putin Avenue, 1b. ☎ 8 (8712) 29-50-24. The museum is open from 10.00 to 17.30; break: 13:00 to 14:00; Thursday: from 12.00 to 20.00; day off - Monday; sanitary day - the third Friday, monthly. The National Museum of the Czech Republic, located in a remarkable building with stylized teip towers around the perimeter, is a complex museum. It was established on October 16, 1996 on the basis of the Chechen State United Museum (founded in 1924) and the Chechen Republican Museum of Fine Arts. P.Z. Zakharova (founded in 1961).
Chechen Drama Theatre. H. Nuradilova.


History of Grozny

In 1801-1810, Georgia became part of Russia, in 1803-1813 - Eastern Transcaucasia (according to the Gulistan Peace). But these lands were separated from the main territory of Russia by the Caucasus Mountains, inhabited by warlike mountain peoples, who raided the lands that recognized the authority of Russia and interfered with relations with Transcaucasia.

After the end of the wars in Europe against Napoleonic France, the government of Alexander I was able to intensify its actions in the Caucasus, concentrating significant military resources there. In 1816, General Alexei Yermolov was appointed commander of the Separate Georgian Corps and manager of the civilian unit in Georgia, Astrakhan and the Caucasus provinces. He proposed a plan for the conquest of the mountainous Caucasus, which provided for the abandonment of the tactics of punitive expeditions in favor of a regular siege of mountainous areas by cutting wide clearings in the forests, laying roads and creating defensive lines from outposts and fortresses. Hostile auls were to be destroyed, burned to the ground, and the population was to be relocated to the plain under the supervision of Russian troops.

There were two centers of resistance in the Caucasus: in the east of the Georgian Military Highway - Chechnya and Mountainous Dagestan, in the west - Abkhazians and Circassians. In the center of the Caucasus Mountains, peoples loyal to Russia lived - Ossetians and Ingush. On the territory of today's Grozny, there were up to 20 Chechen villages and farms, which were destroyed by the troops of General Yermolov.

In 1817, Yermolov began to advance the left flank of the Caucasian Line to the south - from the Terek River to the Sunzha, forming the Sunzha Line. In October 1817, the Nazran redoubt, built back in 1809 near the Ingush villages, was strengthened, and the fortification of Barrier Stan was laid in the middle reaches of the Sunzha. In 1818, the Groznaya fortress was founded in the lower reaches of the Sunzha. The fortresses of Vnezapnaya (1819) and Burnaya (1821) became a continuation of the Sunzha fortified line.

The Groznaya fortress was founded on June 22, 1818. The chosen place was 6 versts from the entrance to the Khankala gorge (Khan-Kale tract) - a gorge between two low ridges, which was considered impregnable. The fortress was designed to block the Chechen highlanders from entering the plain through the Khankala Gorge.

Five thousand Russian soldiers erected a fortress in 4 months. This place was then considered the most "hot" point in the North Caucasus, and therefore the fortress was called Grozny. The fortress was a regular hexagon, surrounded by a moat 20 meters wide. Each corner of the hexagon was a bastion on which the cannons stood.

Already by 1825, a suburb was formed near the fortress, which, however, was poorly protected. In July 1825, an uprising broke out in Chechnya. The highlanders, led by Bei-Bulat, captured the post of Amaradzhiyurt (Ammir-Adzha-Yurt), tried to take the fortresses of Gerzel and Groznaya. However, in 1826 the Bey-Bulat uprising was crushed.

The fortress was visited by Russian poets Alexander Griboedov, Alexander Polezhaev, Mikhail Lermontov, the classic of Russian literature Leo Tolstoy, the Decembrist and writer A. A. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky and other famous figures of Russian culture.

In October 1850, the heir to the Russian throne, 32-year-old Alexander Nikolayevich, visited the fortress. In honor of his arrival, the Alexander Gates were built in the fortress. After the October Revolution, they were renamed the "Red Gate", and in 1932 they were demolished during the laying of the tram line.

With the end of hostilities in Chechnya in 1859, the governor of the Caucasus, Alexander Baryatinsky, ordered the organization of two fairs in Grozny since 1860 - spring and autumn. In 1860, by decree of Emperor Alexander II, the Terek region was formed. A "military-people's administration" was created in the region, which was characterized by a separate system of administration for civil, Cossack and mountain administration.

On December 30, 1869, the Groznaya fortress, which had already lost its strategic importance, was transformed into a district town of the Terek region.

As of 1883, there were 6 religious institutions in Grozny, 1 mosque, 3 churches - Orthodox, Armenian and Catholic, 2 synagogues.

In the early 1890s, commercial oil production began in the area of the city. At the same time, the need arose to build a railway. The branch of the Vladikavkaz railway, laid from Beslan to Grozny, was completed by May 1, 1893, and on October 6 of the same year the first oil well was drilled.

The founder of the Nobel Prize, Alfred Nobel, took part in the development of the oil industry in the city of Grozny.

Grozny became one of the largest industrial centers of the Caucasus.

Revolution and years of civil war
After the victory of the February Revolution in March 1917, the Civil Committee was created in Grozny - an organ of the Provisional Government, the Grozny Council of Workers, Soldiers and Cossack Deputies was formed, the Chechen Congress was held, at which the "Chechen National Council" was elected.

On November 8, 1917, Soviet power was established.

In December 1917, the Chechen Soviet, headed by Tapa Chermoev, delivered an ultimatum to the Grozny Soviet of Workers' Deputies demanding that the workers and revolutionary soldiers be disarmed. After that, the Chechen units of the "Wild Division" captured the city. The Provisional Terek-Dagestan government was formed.

In January 1918, the troops of the Red Army, who arrived from Mozdok, captured Grozny. Power passed into the hands of the Military Revolutionary Committee.

On April 2, 1918, the troops of the Caucasian Volunteer Army of General P.N. Wrangel entered the city.

From August to November 1918, the so-called "hundred-day battles" took place in the city. August 11, 1918 troops of the Terek Cossacks numbering up to 12 thousand people. under the command of Georgy Bicherakhov, they attempted to capture Grozny, which was the center of Soviet power in the Terek region. The Bolsheviks gathered a detachment of three thousand people, led by the commander of the city garrison, Nikolai Gikalo. On November 12, 1918, the siege of Grozny, which lasted more than three months, was lifted with a simultaneous attack by the besieged from the city and the Red Cossacks of Alexander Dyakov.

In 1920, units of the 11th Red Army seized power in Grozny. Chechnya and Ingushetia were included in the Mountain ASSR.

During the civil war in 1919, the writer Mikhail Bulgakov visited Grozny several times, taking part in the hostilities on the side of the VSYUR units.

At the end of 1920 and the beginning of 1921, two new Soviet autonomies were organized in the foothill and mountainous regions of the North Caucasus with a predominantly non-Russian population - the Dagestan ASSR and the Mountain ASSR. At the same time, the Gorskaya ASSR was divided into 7 national districts, one of which was the Chechen national district. The city of Grozny became its center.

In November 1922, the Chechen National Okrug was separated from the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and transformed into the Chechen Autonomous Region. Grozny, however, was not part of the region and had the status of an autonomous city.

In 1926-1928, according to the project of the architect K. A. Dulin, water supply was arranged in Grozny.

On April 1, 1929, the city of Grozny, which had the status of an autonomous city within the North Caucasus Territory, was included in the Chechen Autonomous Okrug by a decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.

Since January 15, 1934, after the unification of the Chechen and Ingush Autonomous Regions, Grozny has been the center of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Region, since December 5, 1936, the capital of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

In the summer of 1942, two army groups, A and B, were formed from the German Army Group South. Army Group "A" was tasked with capturing the Grozny and Baku oil-bearing regions, and then capturing the oil fields of Iran and Iraq. Army Group "B" was aimed at Stalingrad. The failed offensive of the troops of the Southwestern Front from the Barvenkovsky ledge to Kharkov led to its defeat and to grave consequences in the south of the country. On July 23, 1942, German troops broke through the front near Rostov-on-Don. Within a month, the Germans captured the Kuban. At the end of August 1942, the Wehrmacht troops occupied Prokhladny, Nalchik, and Mozdok. On September 3, 1942, Kleist gave the order to the Mozdok grouping to attack Ordzhonikidze, and along the Cool-Grozny railway line - to Grozny. However, the German troops failed to achieve the final goal set by Kleist - fierce battles unfolded near Malgobek and Ordzhonikidze. Wehrmacht troops made several attempts to break through the front in September, but were stopped and exhausted, and in October they themselves went on the defensive. On January 1, 1943, Soviet troops went on the offensive - the liberation of the North Caucasus from the Nazi invaders began.

When the Germans realized that they would not be able to take Grozny, on October 10-15, 1942, they bombed the Grozny oil fields, oil storage facilities and oil refineries - the oil fields were burning, the Sunzha was burning from the oil spilled into it. The fires were extinguished within a few days. In the shortest possible time, oilmen and power engineers restored the working capacity of industrial facilities - Grozny again began to supply the oil products necessary for the front and rear. In memory of the feat of the Grozny firefighters in those days, a monument was erected in the Sheikh-Mansurovsky district of the city (in front of the fire station) after the war.

On March 7, 1944, in connection with the deportation of Chechens and Ingush, the city became the center of the Grozny district as part of the Stavropol Territory, but already on March 22, 1944 it again received the status of the center of a separate region - the Grozny region, and from January 9, 1957, after the rehabilitation of Chechens and Ingush, the capital of the recreated CHIASSR.

According to the first American plan for an atomic war against the USSR (“Plan Totality”), Grozny was one of 20 target cities for an atomic bomb strike.

Mass riots in 1958
The mass return of Chechens and Ingush, which did not have proper organizational support and was sabotaged by the local authorities, led to tensions, quarrels, scandals and fights, and an increase in crime. In 1958, mass riots took place in Grozny, which lasted several days. The reason for them was the murder of a Russian guy, which occurred against the backdrop of escalated ethnic tension. The incident was used by chauvinistically minded representatives of the local party leadership and special services, who sought to disrupt the process of restoring autonomy. The mass (up to 10 thousand people) anti-Chechen demonstration and rally in the center of Grozny turned into a Chechen pogrom and into an anti-Soviet speech. In its course, some party and state buildings, as well as the post office and railway station, were captured.

The leadership of the local branch of the KGB, headed by Shmoylov, spread rumors about the revenge of the Chechens and stopped the attempts of the troops and police to calm the crowd. Some senior party workers and members of their families were seen among the demonstrators. Party and Soviet functionaries who tried to stop the protesters were forced to stand guard of honor at the coffin of the deceased. The demands of the protesters consisted in the immediate re-deportation of Chechens and Ingush, the restoration of the Grozny region and the introduction of severe restrictions (no more than 10%) on the settlement of highlanders in it.

On the night of August 28, the rally was dispersed by the forces of military units, its participants were later arrested and imprisoned.

Rally in Grozny (1973)
In January 1973, an Ingush rally was held in Grozny demanding the territorial rehabilitation of the Ingush people. Three days later, the rally was dispersed by troops using water cannons.

After the collapse of the USSR
On October 1, 1991, the National Congress of the Chechen People, led by Dzhokhar Dudayev, announced the division of Checheno-Ingushetia into the sovereign Chechen Republic (the capital is Grozny) and the Ingush Republic within the RSFSR.

During the First Chechen War, fighting took place around the building of the former Republican Committee of the Communist Party ("Presidential Palace") in Grozny, January 1995. At the end of 1994 and at the end of 1999, the city was taken by storm by the armed forces of the Russian Federation, in August 1996 - by the combined forces of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. During all these events, the city suffered in the strongest way - it was practically destroyed; including the complete destruction of the central district of the city.


How to get here

By plane
Grozny Airport (IATA: GRV, ICAO: URMG). ✉ ☎ +7 (8712) 22-41-90. The civil airport of the Chechen Republic is located on the northern outskirts of Grozny. Grozny Airport receives several daily flights from Moscow (Vnukovo - UTAir and Domodedovo - Saratov Airlines), infrequent international flights can be reached from Istanbul and Bishkek. The airport is a classic Soviet two-story "glass", with a minimum level of repair and equipment. On the first floor there are a couple of stall-type cafes, and one larger cafe, on the second floor there are several stalls with souvenirs of a poor assortment and impressive prices. At the airport, a more attentive (compared to the usual) screening is carried out. The departure hall is one and small, also with a minimum set of services. There is a hotel in the complex, a mosque was built opposite the airport terminal. Abuzar Aydamirov Avenue (former B. Khmelnitsky) leads from the avenue to the city center. The easiest way to get to the city is by taxi; when calling a car, the payment will be no more than 200-300 rubles, depending on the destination. There are also two city buses: No. 19 to the railway station and No. 111 to the western bus station.
Grozny residents also actively use the Magas airport in neighboring Ingushetia - ticket prices there are noticeably lower, incl. due to Pobeda flights. However, there is no direct public transport to this airport from Grozny. By car, the distance from the airport to the center of Grozny will be about 60 km or less than an hour on the way.

By train
Train Station.

By bus
Western bus station. long distance bus trips
South Bus Station (Minute).
Bus station Berkat. Mostly commuter flights within Chechnya



Minibuses, fare 25 rubles. (2021). Bus stops often (including in the very center) do not distinguish themselves in any way on the ground, up to the absence of an appropriate pocket or road sign - in these cases, trust the locals, or, oddly enough, online maps.



Shopping and entertainment center "Grozny City", Muhammad Ali Avenue, 2A (Kirova st., 2) (How to get there: shuttle bus No. 28, 31a, 31b, to the stop "SEC Grozny City".). ☎ +7 (8712) 29-60-01. 10.00–22.00. The Grozny City shopping and entertainment center occupies an area of more than six hectares. On the territory of the complex with an area of more than 24 thousand square meters. meters, in addition to shops, there are two ice halls, five cinemas, two swimming pools, office and retail premises, two prayer rooms for men and women, a recreation area for children, attractions, a greenhouse, a restaurant and five cafeterias. The territory of the complex is decorated with colored fountains and artificial waterfalls.
Berkat market.



Coffee houses
1  StarCoffee.
2  Kofetun.

3 Zhizhig & Galnash, 5 Putin Ave. Restaurant of national Vainakh cuisine
4 Blackstar Burger, Putin Ave, 5
5  Restaurant Assa.


Night life

The sale of alcohol in public places and small shops is prohibited. The exception is large stores, such as Lenta. So travelers have to be content with tea and coffee.

It can be quite noisy on the streets at night - roaring cars without a silencer or jigits with loud music. It is possible that shooting will be heard somewhere, and in the early morning the calls of muezzins will sound from the loudspeakers on the minarets.


Hotels, Hostels and Motels

Hotel "Continent", Aydamirova Ave., 190. ✉ ☎ +7(928)003-30-30. 3000-5000r. Newly built hotel, located outside the center, in the northern part of the city. Despite the remoteness, it is popular, especially among car travelers. Two buildings, a good cafe, open until 22-23 hours, there is also a supermarket in the main building. There is Wi-Fi. Despite the fact that the site has a booking module, it is better to book through
Hotel Grozny City. 6000-7000 rubles for a standard single room.


Precautionary measures

During the daytime, the city is completely safe, at night it is better to stay in the city center. In the center of the city, traffic police or policemen are on duty at almost every intersection, which in themselves are remarkable with local flavor (bearded Muslim policemen, pay attention to the manner of carrying weapons). There are fewer police officers on the outskirts, nevertheless they are on duty and are clearly patrolling the streets.

Visitors should adhere to local, fairly strict and pronounced Muslim rules of conduct. Observe a certain restraint towards the female sex and courtesy with everyone. That however does not deny simple human emotions.

Crossing the road even at a pedestrian crossing should be done carefully; when a pedestrian passes, it is customary for drivers to turn on the emergency gang.

The city is strikingly clean, while there are practically no trash cans and bins. You should not throw garbage anywhere, you can earn a silent censure or an open remark from the locals.

Discussion of the war or the current situation with the locals is possible in restrained tones, but do not expect frankness, you will be made to understand about crossing the permissible boundaries with silence or evasive answers.