Irkutsk, Russia


Description of Irkutsk

Irkutsk is a city in Russia, the administrative center of the Irkutsk region and the Irkutsk region, forms the city district of Irkutsk. It is the sixth largest city of Siberia with a population of 623,869 people. (2018). Irkutsk is located in Eastern Siberia, on the banks of the Angara River, at the confluence of the Irkut River (hence the name of the city), 66 km from Baikal. The climate is sharply continental with significant temperature variations. Due to the proximity to the seismically active Baikal rift, weak earthquakes are regular.

Irkutsk is a major research and educational center in which more than one hundred thousand students study. Among the industries are aircraft manufacturing, hydropower and food production. Transport hub on the Trans-Siberian Railway and federal highways "Baikal" and "Siberia".

The ancient Siberian city was founded as a prison in 1661. He suffered greatly in the fire of 1716. The next major fire in 1879 caused such severe destruction that it took more than 10 years to fully restore the city.


Getting in

By plane
1 Irkutsk International Airport (IATA: IKT). Located in the heart of the city. There are direct flights from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yekaterinburg, Tyumen, Surgut, Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Barnaul and other cities. Main airlines: S7, Aeroflot, UTair, Yakutia, Pulkovo AP, Angara (local lines), IrAero. International flights are operated to China (Beijing, Shenyang), as well as to Seoul, Tokyo, Dushanbe, Tashkent, Osh, Bishkek and Bangkok.
You can get to the city center by trolleybus 4, buses 3, 80 and 480, fixed-route taxi 20 (it goes further to the railway station).

By train
2  Irkutsk railway station. Major station on the Trans-Siberian. Trains run regularly to many parts of the country. Trains run east to Slyudyanka, Baikalsk; to the west to Angarsk, Usolye, Cheremkhovo and Zima.
The city center can be reached by tram 1, 2, 4a, buses 77, 88, fixed-route taxis 20 (goes to the airport), 16, 64, 99, 417.

By car
The city can be accessed from the west via the P255 road and from the east via the P258 road

By bus
3  Bus station, October Revolution, 11. Buses to Bratsk, Ust-Ilimsk, Arshan, Listvyanka, Bolshoe Goloustnoye, Khuzhir, Sakhyurta (MRS).
There is a bus station at the railway station, from where you can get to the nearby cities of the region (Angarsk, Usolye-Sibirskoye, Cheremkhovo, Zima, Slyudyanka, etc.)

Between the 2nd and 3rd entrances of the station there is a stop of fixed-route taxis to Ulan-Ude.

On the ship
4 River Station, Marshal Zhukov 98B. In summer, boat trips to Baikal are available (Listvyanka, Port Baikal, Bolshie Koty, Sandy Bay, Olkhon, Severobaikalsk, Nizhneangarsk, Ust-Barguzin).
5  River trams. On Gagarin Boulevard in the summer, river buses operate, carrying out pleasure trips. The cost of an hour walk is 500 rubles, children under 10 years old - 250 rubles.


Getting around

You can get to any point of the city by shuttle buses, trolleybuses, trams. The fare in the city is 20 rubles until 20:00 (25 rubles after 20:00) (it is customary to pay at the exit). Tram, trolleybus - 15 rubles (June 2019).



Lower embankment

1  Moscow gates. Founded landmark of the lower embankment, a historical monument, demolished in 1911 and re-created in 2011 for the 350th anniversary of Irkutsk. Initially, the gates were built in 1813 in honor of the tenth anniversary of the accession to the throne of Alexander I.
2  Monument to the founders of Irkutsk from the townspeople.
3 Cathedral of the Epiphany, st. Sukhe-Bator, 1a.



4 White House, Gagarin Boulevard, 24. Built in 1804. Former home of the Governor General. Currently, the library of the Irkutsk State University is located here.
5 130th quarter. A specially created tourist quarter with recreated and restored houses of the 17th-19th centuries. There are several museums in the quarter, as well as all the necessary tourist infrastructure - cafes, shops, hotels.
6  The building of the Russian-Asian Bank, st. Lenina, 38. Built in 1912. The building currently houses a clinic.
7 Savior Church. One of the first stone structures of the city. The existing stone building was founded in 1706.
8 Znamenskaya Church, st. Angarskaya, 14.
9 Holy Cross Church, st. Sedova, 1.
10 Savior Transfiguration Church, per. Volkonsky 1.
11 Girls' Institute of Eastern Siberia, Gagarin Boulevard, 20. Built in 1861. Currently, the building houses some of the faculties of Irkutsk State University.
12  The building of the hotel "Central", st. Lenina, 13. For a long time the Regional Council of Trade Unions was located in the building, currently there is the Tourism Agency. The building needs renovation.


Other notable places

13  HPP dam. A large hydrotechnical facility that functions as an important transport artery of the city and at the same time - a natural park, about 3 km long, with a massive body, footpaths, a highway, nearby there are recreational facilities for citizens: "slabs", beaches, the Angara icebreaker, in winter - rollers.
14 Icebreaker Angara. Picture from a postcard: the Angara icebreaker, which at the beginning of the 20th century transported passengers of the railway through Lake Baikal, when the Circum-Baikal Railway had not yet been built. Now this ship is a museum. The icebreaker is located on the right bank of the reservoir, near the hydroelectric dam.
15  Children's railway on the island of Yunosti. A small ring narrow-gauge railway line with small cars, the functions of conductors and drivers of rolling stock, in addition to adults, are performed by students of the railway lyceum. The route of movement starts from the station on the island of Yunost and then basically follows the island of Konny. Operates in the warm season.



16  Sculpture "Babr". Monument to the mythical beast babr (resembles a tiger with a beaver's tail), depicted on the coats of arms of Irkutsk and the Irkutsk region. Here you can take a memorable photo with the majestic symbol of the city and the region.
17  Monument to the tourist, st. Litvinova, 2.
18  Monument to Leonid Gaidai. Leonid Gaidai - a famous film director, grew up in Irkutsk from infancy, lived in house 35 on the street. Kasyanov, graduated from school in 1941 (now - railway lyceum 36 and went to the front a few months later), after being wounded, he returned to Irkutsk, where he graduated from a theater studio, and then continued his studies and career already in Moscow. The sculpture is located on Labor Square near the circus building and consists of two compositions. On one of them, the director himself sits on a chair, next to him is a dog holding a stick of dynamite in its mouth, tied to a stick (from the movie "Mongrel Dog and an Unusual Cross Country"). Opposite is a sculpture of popular characters from Gaidai's films - Coward, Dunce and Experienced, holding hands, as in the film "Prisoner of the Caucasus". The figure of L. Gaidai is deliberately made larger than the figures of movie characters.
19  Monument to Alexander III. The monument to Emperor Alexander III was reconstructed according to old sketches and replaced the spire that stood on the pedestal until 2003; elements of the pedestal and the fence around it were also restored. The former sculpture of the emperor and the attributes of the emperor (crowns from the heads of eagles on a pedestal, for example) were removed in 1920.
20  Monument to Admiral Kolchak. The only monument to Admiral Kolchak in Russia is located at the place of his execution, at the confluence of the Ushakovka River into the Angara.
21  Monument to Vampilov. Monument to the playwright A. Vampilov, located in the square near the Okhlopkov Drama Theater
22   Sundial.


What to do

In winter, various ice sculptures and even castles are created in the central park of Irkutsk. Also there you can ride from the ice slides.

For those who like to take a walk in silence - you can do it right in the city center - on the island of Yunost and Konny, along the banks of the Angara. A children's railway also runs along the Horse Island. On the islands there is a rental of velomobiles, catamarans. There is a Ferris wheel on Horseback.

For outdoor enthusiasts, you can rent a bike and go for a drive outside the city. The forum site will tell you where you can go.

1 Local Lore Museum, Department of History, st. Karl Marx, 2.
2 Local Lore Museum, department of nature, st. Karl Marx, 11.
3 Local Lore Museum, museum studio, st. Karl Marx, 13.
4 Local Lore Museum, exposition department "Window to Asia", st. July 3rd, 21A.
5 Museum of the history of the city of Irkutsk, st. Frank-Kamenetsky 16A.
6 Museum of urban life, st. December Events, 77A.
7 Irkutsk Regional Art Museum, st. Lenina, 5.
8 Irkutsk Regional Art Museum - gallery of Siberian art, st. Karl Marx, 23.
9 Irkutsk Regional Art Museum - estate of V.P. Sukachev, st. December Events, 112.
10 Experiment, Lermontova 277a.
11 Museum of the Decembrists, Volonsky house-museum, per. Volkonsky, 10.
12 Museum of the Decembrists, house-museum of Trubetskoy, st. Dzerzhinsky, 64. Wed–Mon 10:00–18:00.

13  Drama Theatre, st. Karl Marx, 14. The theater building was built in 1897.
14 Theatre of the young spectator named after A. Vampilov, st. Lenina, 23. Located in the building of the First Public Assembly, built in 1890.
15  Puppet theater "Aistenok", st. Baikalskaya, 32.
16 Musical Theater named after N.M. Zagursky, st. Sedova, 29.

17 Trade and entertainment complex "Jam Mall", st. Sergeeva, 3. The complex has 6 cinema halls.
18  Cinema "Chaika", st. Tereshkova, 23. Not working, under reconstruction (2019)
19  Cinema "Barguzin", st. Baikalskaya, 107.
20  Cinema "Kinokvartal" (in the building of the shopping center "Modny Kvartal", 5th floor), st. July 3, 25. located in the 130 block in the city center, all types of transport. 4 halls

A map can be useful for walking around the city. For smartphones and laptops, there is a free 2GIS map that does not require Internet access. A paper map of Irkutsk, as well as maps of Baikal, can be bought at Karla Marksa, 20.

It is convenient to start a city tour from the Trud stadium (Trud Stadium or Philharmonic stop). On the square you can see a fountain with illumination, and a sculpture "Sundial". Nearby is an architectural monument, a building built in 1890 - the First public meeting, now the Youth Theater.

The 130th quarter (between Sedov and July 3 streets) is a tourist area with shops, cafes, museums, wooden buildings in the style of the early 20th century. These are all new buildings.
After passing the 130th quarter, we go towards the intersection of Kozhova and July 3, and move to the embankment, and to Gagarin Boulevard
On the island of Yunost (+760 meters) you can see the children's railway
From the railroad turn right. Having passed the island, we exit through the bridge to the monument to Tsar Alexander 3 (+870 meters). Here, in addition to the monument, there are three more attractions:
Gagarin Boulevard, 20. The former building of the Institute of Noble Maidens. Now the Faculty of Physics and the Institute of Mathematics and Economics of ISU.
The White House - the former home of the Governor General, now the ISU library on Gagarin Boulevard, 24
Museum of Local Lore on Karl Marx, 2

Next we move on to Karl Marx. Walking along this street, do not forget to turn into other streets! You will see old, wooden Irkutsk. The real one, not built for tourists.
Drama Theater on Karl Marx, 14 built in 1898
Carefully looking at the buildings, you can see a lot of interesting things that many locals do not even know about. For example, a bas-relief of Stalin has been preserved in the city! On the building of the Eastern Railway on Karla Marksa, 7
Lenina, 38 - a visiting card of Irkutsk - the former building of the Russian-Asian Bank, now a clinic. In the backyard of the clinic there is a square with interesting sculptures: a monument to monkeys, Big Ben.
Lenina, 13 - the former hotel "Central", which housed the government of Kolchak after the October Revolution.
If you are already hungry by this point, pay attention to the Snezhinka cafe on Litvinova, 2. This is the oldest cafe in Irkutsk, founded in 1961
Near the cafe there is an unusual monument - a monument to a tourist.
The next intersection is the Uritsky pedestrian street. A street with more than 100 years of trading history.
After 750 meters there is a spitting fountain and a museum of the history of the city of Irkutsk.
Having visited the museum, you can also pay attention to the Fortuna Grand shopping center (October Revolution, 1k4), and the bus station (October Revolution, 11), where you can buy tickets to Baikal.
Beer lovers can visit Harat's pub at October Revolution, 1

Then we return a little along Karl Marx in the opposite direction, and along the December Events we move towards the Lower Embankment.

The main attraction of the Lower Embankment is the Moscow Gates, a historical monument demolished in 1911 and re-created in 2011 for the 350th anniversary of Irkutsk. Initially, the gates were built in 1813 in honor of the tenth anniversary of the accession to the throne of Alexander I.

Other notable places in the city include the hydroelectric dam and the Angara icebreaker located nearby. At the beginning of the 20th century, when the Circum-Baikal Railway had not yet been built, it carried railway passengers across Lake Baikal. The ship now houses a museum.



1  Uritskogo street. Shopping street with over 100 years of history. Selling mostly clothes and shoes.
2  Fashion quarter. A large shopping center in the historical part of the city, in the 130th quarter. Lots of cafes, restaurants and other attractions nearby.
3  Autograd Market, October Revolution, 1k2. Auto parts.
4  Elektron Market, October Revolution, 1k1. Household, photographic equipment.
5 Market Mercury, st. Working, 2A. Shoes.
6  Fortuna Grand, October Revolution, 1k4. Shoes and clothes.
7  Central market, st. Litvinova, 17 / st. Chekhov, 22. Shoes and clothes.
8  Cheap Chinese market Manchuria, Mira, 2. Bargaining is a must! Prices after trading sometimes fall 5 times.
9  Chinese market in the center. Pavel Chekotov Square at the crossroads of Baikalskaya and Timiryazev.



The cheapest food is sold in the markets. These are: the central market, the Melnikovsky market (opposite the Jam Mall on Sergeeva, 3)

In September-November, you can buy cheap fresh pine nuts.

The cheapest omul is on Baikal (Kultuk, Slyudyanka, Listvyanka)

Fresh bread - a bakery shop on Nizhnaya Embankment, 2 and in all KASES stores

High-quality and inexpensive dairy products in Yanta branded stores

Cafe "Snezhinka", st. Litvinova, 2. Dec 2015 edit
2Harat's pub, October Revolution, 1. Irish pub.

Poznaya 38. A network of canteens throughout the city with national Buryat cuisine (buuzy and bukhler), as well as with popular dishes of Russian and European cuisine. Mar 2023 edit
Buuza. Cafe with national Buryat, European cuisine and confectionery.

Restaurant "Nomad", st. Gorky.



Average cost
Hotel "Angara".

Central Hotel.



There are 6 mobile operators in Irkutsk - the whole "big three" (MTS, Megafon and Beeline) and Tele2, Tinkoff mobile and Iota, there are no regional operators. Irkutsk also has good 4G coverage. Public areas in the city center have free Wi-Fi coverage.



The city's name comes from the Irkut River, near which Irkutsk Ostrog was founded in 1661. Initially, the prison was called Yandashsky after the Tuvan leader Yandash Dorogi (Darugi), but this name did not stick. On the drawing of the cartographer S. U. Remezov, created in 1701, it is designated as “the city of Irkutsk”.

The hydronym of the Irkut River has a multi-valued interpretation and is associated with the Mongol-Buryat words in the meaning of "strength, energy, spin, spin, turn." According to the most plausible version, the name of the river is derived from the ethnonym Yrhu, which in the variants irkit, irgit, irkyt is common among Tuvans and other peoples. In Mongolian, the river and the city are called Erkhuu, in Buryat - Erkhγγ mγren and Erkhγγ hoto, respectively, where "mren" is a "big river" and "hoto" is a "city".

In pre-revolutionary spelling, the spelling of the name of the city is "Irkutsk". Before the revolution, the locals called the city "Eastern Paris", "Siberian Petersburg", "Siberian Athens".

In 1931, on the occasion of the visit of People's Commissar of Defense K. E. Voroshilov, Irkutsk was planned to be renamed Voroshilovsk



On the territory of Irkutsk, sites of the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages were found.


17th century

The city starts from the stockade, founded by the detachment of Yakov Pokhabov on the instructions of the Yenisei governor on July 6 (16), 1661.

A number of researchers attribute the emergence of Irkutsk to 1620, others believe that in the 1650s there was a permanent winter hut of Russians on the island of Diachem. The foundation of the Irkutsk prison was preceded by the exit of the Russians to Baikal in 1643. It was one of the many prisons in Eastern Siberia set up for the collection of yasak. The first clerk of the new prison was appointed Cossack foreman Vasily Ezdakov. By the end of the 1660s, the buildings of the fort rotted away, and the defensive structure was rebuilt. A ditch was dug around it, a settlement arose outside the walls. In 1672 the first wooden church, Spasskaya, was built. In 1682, the fort became the center of the Irkutsk Voivodeship, uniting all the forts of the Baikal region. The residence of the voivode becomes the sovereign's court. In 1686, Irkutsk was given the status of a city.

The men's Ascension Monastery was founded, in 1689 - the women's Znamensky Monastery.

After the settlement of Russian-Chinese relations by the Nerchinsk Treaty (1689), trade caravans on their way to China stretched through Irkutsk. Furs were brought from Siberia, and tea, sugar and fabrics were brought from China through the Selenga and Baikal. In 1692, N. Witsen's book "Northern and Eastern Tartaria" was published in Amsterdam, in which Irkutsk is described as follows:
The city of Irkutsk, located about eight miles from the coast of the Baikal Sea, was built several years ago; it is equipped with strong wooden towers and has a large suburb ... The land there is very fertile, and many Muscovites settled here ... This area is very prone to many earthquakes ... In the city, in the fortification, there is the house of the chief, also the armory and the town hall; the guard is kept in the fortress, but the soldiers live outside it. In the prison there is a settlement or suburb ...

In 1696, in Irkutsk, there was a rebellion of Transbaikal archers (the so-called "Rebellion of overseas archers") against the governor Afanasy Savelov, who set the local population against himself. At this time, forges, workshops, tanneries, and soap factories were developed. By 1700, about 1000 people lived in Irkutsk, including 409 Cossacks, 110 townspeople, 50 servicemen, 13 boyar children, 2 nobles and others.


18th century

In 1701, the first stone building appeared - the command hut.

August 3, 1716 there was one of the major city fires in Irkutsk. The Irkutsk chronicle says: “On the 3rd of August, a fire broke out in Irkutsk outside the city, from which the Spassky old cathedral church in the city, the city wall with towers from the chancellery to the Spassky stone church and the gostiny yard with customs and several courtyards burned down.” The fire significantly damaged the prison structures, which were restored a year later.

In 1701, a postal communication with Moscow was organized - a yamskaya chase, using underwater service. In 1719, Irkutsk became the center of the Irkutsk province as part of the Siberian province. In 1722, the town hall was opened, a year later it was reorganized into a magistrate. In 1725, members of the Kamchatka expedition led by V. Bering visited Irkutsk.

In the 1720s, a Russian-Mongolian school was formed at the Ascension Monastery, and the use of the official seal "for applying to the passports issued to the merchants from customs and from town halls" began. In 1730, the merchant Lanin opened an ironworks. In 1738, a postal route to Okhotsk was opened. In 1745, the first stone residential building was built. In 1747, Prokopiev, a townsman, opened a glass factory and a weaving factory. In the 1750s, a navigation school was established, and the first Old Believers appeared in the city. The police force was established in 1757. In the 1750s, the Moscow Highway came to Irkutsk.

The abolition of the tsarist monopoly on the export of furs in 1762 opened the "golden age" of the Irkutsk merchants. The largest merchant dynasties - the Sibiryakovs, the Basnins, the Trapeznikovs, the Dudorovskys, the Soldatovs - got rich on the Russian-Chinese trade, buying up and reselling furs, and preventing nonresident merchants from accessing the local market. Another source of their enrichment was participation in the supply of provisions and metal for state needs, the merchants shared the money received from the treasury with officials. Many merchant dynasties came from the Russian North. By the end of the XVIII century, the merchants began to play a leading role in the civil life of Irkutsk, constituting the opposition to the state administration. Occupying key positions in city authorities, merchants gained access to contracts that were beneficial to them. The traditions of the charitable activities of merchants were growing stronger, with the funds from which churches, shelters, hospitals, schools, theaters, and libraries were built and maintained. The names of famous merchants subsequently began to be called streets: Basninskaya, Laninskaya, Medvednikovskaya, Mylnikovskaya, Trapeznikovskaya and others.

In 1764, the Irkutsk province was formed as part of the Siberian kingdom. In the 1770s, the city fair and bank office were officially opened. In the 1780s, a public library, a theological seminary, a city school, a college, and a printing house appeared. In 1783, the Irkutsk governorate was formed under the control of the governor-general. On January 1 (12), 1787, the city duma was established, the merchant of the 1st guild M. Sibiryakov was elected mayor, who was re-elected three times and awarded the title of "eminent citizen" for his contribution to the development of the city. In 1775, a fire almost completely destroyed the city center. In 1790, the dilapidated walls of the prison were dismantled. In 1791, the first political exile to these places, A. Radishchev, was in Irkutsk for two months, convicted for publishing Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow. By the end of the 18th century, the formerly patriarchal Irkutsk began to take on the appearance of a European city, where culture developed, modern clothes appeared, most men already cut their hair short and shaved their beards.

In 1799, with the participation of the Irkutsk merchant G. Shelikhov, the Russian-American Company was created. From the middle of the 18th century, the city began to play the role of the main base of the Pacific crafts: one of the offices of the RAC, its “American barracks”, a blacksmith, tar, furrier and spinning factories were located here. In Irkutsk, trade transactions and supply operations were carried out, teams of industrialists and sailors were recruited, many of whom were Irkutsk residents. Residents of the city owned up to 9% of the company's shares. On the grave monument of G. I. Shelikhov, Derzhavin's verses are given: "... Do not forget, descendant, that Ross, your ancestor, is loud in the East."


19th century

In 1801, the Krugomorsky tract was opened in Transbaikalia, laid with the participation of exiles. In the city, hard labor was used in a craft house and a cloth factory. In 1807, the first hospital was opened with private funds. In 1812, 566 recruits were sent from Irkutsk to the war against Napoleon. In 1813, triumphal gates were erected from the side of the Moscow tract. In 1816, the Irkutsk Cossack army was formed.

Being far from the capital, the local authorities had practically unlimited power: instructions from above allowed them to "do ... according to their own discretion, as it is convenient and as God will enlighten." Back in 1717 and 1736, the Irkutsk voivode L. Rakitin and vice-governor A. Zholobov were executed for abuses on the ground in St. Petersburg, and governor-generals I. Jacobi, B. Lezzano and I. Selifontov were fired at different times. Vice-Governor A. Pleshcheev was greedy for gifts, Governor F. Nemtsov distinguished himself by exorbitant bribery. Governor N. Treskin became famous for restoring order and cleanliness on city streets, reprisals against the merchant opposition and the expulsion of "harmful members of society." Corruption flourished during his leadership. In 1819, Governor-General Pestel was removed from his post, and the Russian reformer Mikhail Speransky was appointed in his place, who was instructed to "give whom you need a legitimate judgment" and create "on the spot the most useful device for this remote region." For 2 years of Speransky's stay in Irkutsk, the civil governor Treskin was put on trial, about 700 officials involved in lawlessness were identified.

In 1822, the East Siberian Governor General was formed with the center in Irkutsk. In 1826, the first exiled Decembrists arrived in the city. After serving hard labor, S. Trubetskoy and S. Volkonsky were allowed to settle in Irkutsk. According to the draft constitution of N. M. Muravyov, Irkutsk was supposed to become the capital of the Lena State as part of the Russian Federation. In 1836 the first private bank was opened. In 1839 the first public library was opened. In the 1840s, Irkutsk turned into the "capital of Lena's gold", a place of concentration of capital of gold miners. During these years, the first steamboat arrived in the city, an institute for noble maidens and a theater were opened.

From 1848 to 1861, Count N. N. Muravyov-Amursky was the governor-general. He not only annexed the Amur region to Russia, but also did a lot to strengthen the positions of the tsarist government throughout the region. Since the opening of the message along the Amur in 1854, on the way from St. Petersburg to the Pacific Ocean, the old Yakutsk tract begins to fall into decay. Exiled Poles arrive in Irkutsk. The population of the city is 28 thousand people, there were 3768 exiles. In 1864, a telegraph line was brought to St. Petersburg. In 1866, a trial was held in Irkutsk over 683 Poles who raised an uprising on Lake Baikal.

On June 22 and 24 (July 6), 1879, a fire broke out in the city, which practically destroyed the historical center. This event divided the history of the city into pre-fire and post-fire Irkutsk. The fire killed 11 people, thousands of people lost their homes. Among other things, the museum and about 10 thousand books of the library of the Geographical Society, as well as the provincial archive, burned down. Traveler J. Kennan noted that the city of the 1880s lost a lot and became less interesting than before the fire. The restoration of the city from the ashes coincided with the flourishing of the Lena gold industry in the 1870-1880s.

In the late 1880s, the decline of the gold industry began, the extinction of the Kyakhta trade. In 1890 A. Chekhov stayed in the city and called Irkutsk "an intelligent city". In June 1890, Tsarevich Nikolai visited the city. In 1897, the first film show took place. In 1899, omnibuses appeared on the streets, the fare for which was set by the Duma.

The railway, according to the original design, was supposed to take a shorter route north of Lake Baikal, away from Irkutsk. However, the city passed the fate of Tomsk, and in 1898 the first train along the Trans-Siberian Railway solemnly arrived in Irkutsk. The railway caused the emergence of new transport enterprises in the city, revived coal mining and the timber industry, and contributed to the influx of people.


20th century

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the development of the revolutionary movement. In April 1903, a railroad strike broke out at the Innokentyevskaya station, ending in mass arrests. In October 1905, a general strike of workers and employees took place in the city. On October 19, Governor-General P. Kutaisov telegraphed the tsar: “The situation is desperate. There are almost no troops. The rebellion is complete, universal. With the introduction of martial law, open speeches ceased. In the summer of 1908, the Social Democrats tried to disrupt the grand opening of the monument to Alexander III, declaring this day a "black holiday" for tsarist officials. During the First World War, more than 10 thousand Irkutsk citizens were mobilized. The industrial enterprises of the pre-revolutionary city were small and were predominantly handicraft. Most of the population was employed in trade, services, gardening and handicrafts.

In March 1917, Governor A. Yugon was removed from his post, Governor-General A. Piltz and the highest ranks of the police were arrested, and the Governor-General was abolished. All political prisoners have been released from the provincial prison. In December 1917, fierce battles between the Red Guards and the junkers took place near the White House for 9 days, in which over 300 people died, about 700 were wounded. At the end of the fighting, Soviet power was temporarily established. On the night of July 11, 1918, the Reds voluntarily left Irkutsk, during the day parts of the Czechoslovak Corps and the Provisional Siberian Government entered the city. Civil power temporarily passed to the city duma.

In November 1919, the Russian government moved to Irkutsk from Omsk, located in the building of the Russian-Asian Bank. On November 12, 1919, at the All-Siberian Conference of Zemstvos and cities in Irkutsk, the Political Center was created, which organized an anti-Kolchak uprising at the end of 1919. On the night of February 6-7, 1920, Admiral A. V. Kolchak and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian government V. N. Pepelyaev were shot without trial, by order of the Irkutsk Military Revolutionary Committee of the Bolsheviks, in pursuance of Lenin's direct order. On March 7, 1920, the Red Army entered the city, Soviet power was restored.

In 1926, the Irkutsk province was abolished, and the Irkutsk district was formed as part of the Siberian Territory. In 1922-1923, Irkutsk was the center of the Mongolian-Buryat Autonomous Region, since 1930 - the center of the East Siberian Territory, since 1937 - the center of the Irkutsk Region. In 1923, the first stadium with 2,000 seats was built. In 1936, the first reinforced concrete bridge named after Lenin was opened across the Angara. In the 1920s-1950s, a hydroport operated on the Angara. In the 1930s, the construction of an aircraft factory, a metallurgical plant named after. Kuibyshev, tea-pressing, clothing and pasta factories, a soap factory and other enterprises. During the Great Patriotic War, about 20 thousand Irkutsk citizens went to the front, half of whom did not return. During the war, some enterprises of the western regions of the country, which remained here after the war, were evacuated to Irkutsk.

In the 1950s, as part of the implementation of the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of January 17, 1955 “On the recruitment of workers in the People's Republic of China to participate in communist construction and labor training in the USSR”, Chinese workers worked at the enterprises and construction sites of the city.

In 1958, the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station was put into operation. During this time, the city remained mostly wooden and one-story. In the 1960s and 1970s, large-scale housing and industrial construction took place. In 1986, "For the great services of the working people of Irkutsk in the revolutionary movement, their contribution to the fight against the Nazi invaders during the Great Patriotic War," the city was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.

Until the beginning of the 1990s, Irkutsk remained one of the largest industrial centers of the RSFSR with high-tech mechanical engineering oriented to the union market: aircraft building, instrument making, and radio electronics were developing; as well as the production of metallurgical and mining equipment, automotive parts and machine tools. Metalworking production was represented by factories for the repair of railway rolling stock, river vessels, and aircraft. Other major industries were the production of building materials, furniture, printing, light and food industries. Over 40 thousand people were employed at the five largest factories. In the post-perestroika years, many enterprises of mechanical engineering and light industry could not fit into the market conditions, the Radian plants, the machine-tool plant, cardan shafts, the radio plant, the tea-packing and pasta factories, the house-building plant, the plant of reinforced concrete products and others ceased to exist.


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position

Irkutsk is located in Eastern Siberia on the banks of the Angara River in close proximity to the reservoir formed by the dam of the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station up to 56 meters high. The nearest large city is Ulan-Ude, located at a distance of 439 km; the nearest millionaire city is Krasnoyarsk, 850 km away (in a straight line) and 1060 km by road. The distance to Moscow is 5200 km. Irkutsk is the antipode of the Chilean Punta Arenas.

Irkutsk is surrounded on three sides by the Irkutsk municipal district, in the north-west it borders on the Angarsk municipal district. In the vicinity there are meadows, pine, pine-birch forests, pine-larch, birch groves. The area of the city is 27,998 hectares. Urban development occupies 11,950 hectares, forests - 6350 hectares, water spaces - 2870 hectares, meadows and floodplains - 4260 hectares. The relief of the city is rugged. The height of the earth above sea level is from 420 to 550 meters. The landscape of the city and its environs is a hilly erosion-denudation plain formed by Jurassic and Quaternary deposits; and belongs to the forest-steppe zone of the Irkutsk-Cheremkhovskaya plain at the northern foot of the Sayan Mountains. The main part of Irkutsk stands on the high floodplain and terraces of the Angara, Irkut, Ushakovka and other rivers; the outskirts are located on the slopes. Under the influence of technogenic loads, the number of suffusion-subsidence and erosion processes has increased in almost all areas of the city.

Specially protected areas include federal lands of the Botanical Garden of Irkutsk State University, as well as lands of municipal significance: the relic Kaiskaya Grove, the forest park on Sinyushina Gora, the forest zone of the Angara resort, the grove of the Novo-Melnikovo microdistrict and the Academgorodok arboretum. There are over 40 parks and squares with an area of 360 hectares; the area of flower beds is 9 thousand m². In total, 1105 species of plants grow in Irkutsk and its environs, 58 of which are included in the red book of the region. Twelve green areas with a total area of ​​5.5 thousand hectares occupy almost 42% of the city, among them: Plishkinsky forest, Kaiskaya grove, Botanical garden, Zvezdochka grove, a grove on Sinyushina Gora, the Angara resort area, Novo-Melnikovo, arboretum of Akademgorodok, areas of Yubileyny, Ershovsky, Batareynaya and Veresovka stations. Among the park areas: the park of the Paris Commune, the Thomson Garden, the Kaiskaya Grove, the Kashtakovskaya Grove, the Tikhvinsky and Kirov Squares, the Konny and Yunost Islands.



The Angara divides the city into right-bank and left-bank parts. The length of the river within the city is 29 km, the width under the Old Angara bridge in the city center is about 300 m, there are over 30 islands on the river. Its left tributary, the Irkut, is the natural border of the Sverdlovsk and Leninsky districts. Among the small rivers: Ushakovka, Topka, Veresovka, tributaries of the Irkut - Kaya and Olkha.

The dam of the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station closes the Irkutsk reservoir. Before the construction of the dam, the area was constantly flooded by floods and floods, in the 17th century there was a lake on the site of Kirov Square, and a river flowed on Karl Marx Street. The construction of the hydroelectric dam led to the fact that water from the reservoir began to seep around the body of the dam, the groundwater level rose, especially in the right-bank part of the city.

In the Solnechny microdistrict there is a deposit of mineral waters, which belongs to the largest Angara-Lena artesian basin on the planet. Hydrocarbonate-sulfate-chloride sodium water is produced on the territory of the Angara resort.

Well-maintained embankments stretch along the right bank of the Angara: the Gagarin Boulevard embankment with concrete fences was created in the 1960s; The lower embankment, reconstructed in 2011, consists of two tiers, has forged fences and parapets lined with granite. There is one sanctioned beach in Jacobi Bay near the hydroelectric dam. Popular places for spontaneous bathing include the island of Yunost, the warm lakes of the hydroelectric power station and the Solnechny microdistrict. Outside the city, Irkutsk residents go to the Baikal beaches of the Small Sea.



Irkutsk is located on the edge of the relatively safe Siberian Platform near a seismically active tectonic fault - the Baikal Rift Zone, and is classified as an area of possible earthquakes with an intensity of up to 8 points. Shocks with an intensity of 9 points in Irkutsk are unlikely, since the epicenters of most destructive earthquakes are located at a distance from the city - in the Baikal basin and the Eastern Sayan Mountains. The Angarsk tectonic fault passes under the city in the north-western direction, which is not a source of major earthquakes of our time. Tsunamis were not observed near Irkutsk. The hydroelectric dam is able to withstand an earthquake of 8 points. The human victims of earthquakes in Irkutsk are not known in history. However, false rumors about an upcoming earthquake regularly pop up in the city.

On average, 304 earthquakes with an intensity of up to 4 points are recorded annually in Irkutsk. Earthquakes with an intensity of 6 points on average occur once every 15 years. In 1862, the city felt 8-point shocks of the strongest known earthquake on Lake Baikal - Tsagansky with an intensity of up to 10 points at the epicenter, which caused a tsunami wave 2 meters high. Crosses fell from city churches, bells rang by themselves, ice cracked on the Angara. In the 20th century, shaking with an intensity of 5 to 7 was recorded in 1903, 1905, 1950, 1957, 1959, 1967, 1995 and 1999. A large earthquake with an intensity of 6 points occurred on August 27, 2008, and on September 22, 2020, at about half past three in the morning (September 21, 18.30 Moscow time), an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 points occurred (according to the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia for the region: “Earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 , class 14.7, intensity 8.1, the epicenter in the Slyudyansky district of the village of Kultuk, in Irkutsk and Slyudyanka - five to six points").



Irkutsk is in the MSK+5 time zone. The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +8:00. In accordance with the applied time and geographic longitude, the average solar noon in Irkutsk occurs at 13:03.



Due to the remoteness from the seas, the climate of Irkutsk is sharply continental with significant daily and annual fluctuations in air temperatures. The difference between summer and winter temperatures can exceed 70 °C. The average annual solstice is 318 days.

The negative temperature is set at the end of October (from the 23rd on average) and lasts until the beginning of April (on the average until the 6th). Winter is severe, protracted - lasting more than 5 months (end of October - beginning of April). With the advent of the Siberian anticyclone, clear, frosty and calm weather sets in. The coldest month of the year is January, with an average temperature of -17.8°C. Spring is dry, short; the snow melts at the beginning of April, the positive temperature is set by the beginning of May. Summer in the first half is hot and dry, in the second half there are prolonged rains. The warmest month is July, with an average temperature of 18.3°C. Autumn is warm and dry; characterized by sharp diurnal temperature fluctuations.

The city is located in the 2nd frost resistance zone. Permafrost processes are caused by soil freezing, which begins in late October - early November and continues until the end of March or mid-April. Soil thawing usually begins in the first half of April, and in the initial period, a small layer thaws during the day and freezes at night. In most of the territory, complete thawing occurs in June-July. The normative depth of soil freezing is 3-3.5 meters. In winter, the “heat island” effect is most noticeable, when, due to heated buildings, the average daily air temperature in the center of Irkutsk is 1–2 °C higher than outside it. The growing season lasts an average of 148 days a year. The frost-free period is 95 days. The average daily air temperature is above 0 °C for 200 days. The warm season (May-September) accounts for 78% of all precipitation, while the cold season accounts for 22%. The average annual wind speed is 2.1 m/s. The greatest number of windy days occurs in spring and autumn. The average annual air humidity is moderate - 72%. The absolute maximum of annual precipitation was recorded in 1938 at the level of 797 mm, the absolute minimum - in 1884 at the level of 209 mm.

The non-freezing polynya of the Angara - the downstream of the HPP causes regular fogs in the autumn-winter period, an increase in air humidity in the coastal zone, and, as a result, frost on the trees. The influence of the upstream water reservoir is of a local nature.



The main pollutants of the atmospheric air in Irkutsk are vehicle emissions (60% of emissions) and thermal power sources that are not equipped with filters (38% of emissions); manufacturing plants account for about 2% of all emissions. The average annual concentrations of benzpyrene in 2010 exceeded the permissible norm by 10 times, nitrogen oxide by 1.1 times, suspended solids by 2 times, and formaldehyde by 6 times. During the period 2005-2009, there was an increase in the average annual concentrations of suspended solids, benzpyrene, formaldehyde, copper, nitrogen dioxide and oxide. The most polluted territories include part of the center and microdistricts of Novo-Lenino and Irkutsk-II; the least polluted and quiet are the Ershovsky and Raduzhny microdistricts, as well as the banks of the Angara from Yunost Island to the hydroelectric dam and the site near Akademgorodok.

Emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary and mobile sources in 2011 amounted to 143 thousand tons. In terms of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary sources in 2010, Irkutsk ranked 15th among Russian cities with the most unfavorable environmental situation. In 2010, there were 196 enterprises emitting 69 pollutants into the atmosphere. 94% of all emissions from stationary sources come from combustion products (coal and fuel oil tar, benzpyrene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide). The largest contribution to air pollution from stationary sources is made by thermal power plants - 69%. The main stationary sources of air pollution include: Novo-Irkutsk CHPP (40 thousand tons of emissions per year), Baikalenergo (6 thousand tons) and the Irkutsk Aviation Plant (5 thousand tons). In terms of air emissions from stationary sources, Irkutsk accounts for 10% of all emissions in the region (for comparison, Angarsk - 33%, Bratsk - 21%). The main wastewater discharges into the Angara are produced by the Irkutsk Aviation Plant, Baikalenergo and the city's water utility, and a furniture factory into the Irkut River.

The main source of negative impact on plants and soil cover is an increased level of atmospheric air pollution, especially sulfur dioxide and heavy metal aerosols. There is a high content of fluorine in the soils, distributed by the aluminum plant in Shelekhov. According to the results of a survey of the soils of the city and its environs in 1997, the soils of this area were classified as a permissible pollution category. The electromagnetic background of the urban environment exceeds the permissible level in 40% of cases. There are also several enterprises-users of radionuclide substances on the territory of the city.

The negative environmental factors include drinking water in the years. Irkutsk, Shelekhov. Water in the water supply of these cities and suburban villages comes from the Ershov water intake in the Irkutsk reservoir, that is, practically from the lake. Baikal. Despite its purity, the water is characterized by a very low mineralization, according to this indicator, Baikal water is close to distilled [source not specified 709 days]. The constant use of this water in food leads to the development of a disease such as osteoporosis in humans. There are several projects to bring the Irkutsk tap water to the levels required by GOSTs, but none of them has yet been implemented due to lack of funding.

“Well-maintained yards are also in the past: groves and flower beds have been replaced by asphalt, parked cars and garages. There is a problem not only ecological, but also social. […] Currently (2011), according to experts from the ISU Botanical Garden, there are about 4 m² of public green space per one Irkutsk citizen (the official figure is 6.2), while the urban planning norms and rules of the Russian Federation establish a standard of at least 16 .5 m². Moreover, this indicator was developed for the European part of the country, but in the conditions of the harsh climate of Siberia, the provision of greenery - as well as housing, by the way - should reach at least 20 "squares".



According to the charter of the city of Irkutsk, adopted by the Duma of Irkutsk on May 20, 2004, local governments include: the head of the city - the mayor, the administration, the city duma and the Chamber of Control and Accounts.

The highest official of the city is the mayor: he heads the city administration, is elected by the City Duma from among its members for a period of five years by open voting by a two-thirds majority of the established number of deputies of the City Duma. The powers of a city Duma deputy elected mayor of the city are terminated.

In 1994-1997 Boris Govorin held the post of mayor of Irkutsk.
In 1997-2009 Mayor of Irkutsk was Vladimir Yakubovsky.
The mayor from March 14, 2010 to March 26, 2015 was Viktor Ivanovich Kondrashov; an entrepreneur and since 2008 a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Irkutsk region, elected on the party list of the Irkutsk regional branch of the Communist Party. In March 2010, he resigned as a deputy in connection with the victory in the election of the mayor of Irkutsk, where he won 64% of the vote with a voter turnout of 33.5%. After the victory, he joined the United Russia party. In the elections to the Legislative Assembly in 2018, he became a deputy from the Communist Party of the Russian Federation in single-mandate constituency No. 5.
From March 28, 2015 to March 17, 2020, the mayor of the city of Irkutsk was Dmitry Viktorovich Berdnikov, who became a deputy of the Duma of the city of Irkutsk in the 2014 elections through self-nomination. From 1991 to 1993 he was the director of the plant "Baikalinterplast".
Currently, the position of mayor of the city since April 30, 2020 is occupied by Bolotov Ruslan Nikolaevich

The representative body is the City Council. Consists of 35 deputies elected in single-mandate electoral districts for a term of 5 years. The seats in the Duma of the VI convocation, elected in 2014, were distributed as follows: 27 deputies from United Russia, 6 self-nominees, 1 deputy from the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, 1 deputy from the Civic Platform. At the by-elections to the Duma of the city of Irkutsk in the 18th district (instead of Dmitry Viktorovich Berdnikov, who became the mayor of the city of Irkutsk), a deputy from A Just Russia was elected. Since April 30, 2015, Irina Vsevolodovna Yezhova has been the Chairman of the Duma of the city of Irkutsk of the sixth convocation since April 30, 2015.

In the 2011 State Duma elections in Irkutsk, 25.6% of voters voted for United Russia, 31% for the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, 39.8% of voters voted for United Russia in the 2016 State Duma elections, and 24% for the Communist Party .05%.

According to the charter of the Irkutsk region, Irkutsk is the administrative center of the Irkutsk region. The Federal Arbitration Court of the East Siberian Arbitration District, the East Siberian Transport Prosecutor's Office, the East Siberian Departments of the Investigative Committee and the Ministry of Internal Affairs for Transport are also deployed in Irkutsk.


Administrative-territorial division

According to the Law "On the administrative-territorial structure of the Irkutsk region", the city is divided into the following administrative-territorial formations - 5 districts: Kirovsky, Kuibyshevsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Sverdlovsky districts.

According to the charter of the city, the municipal formation of the city of Irkutsk is divided into 4 administrative districts, which are not administrative-territorial formations of the region, but were created for the administrative management of the respective territories and may include several districts of the city of Irkutsk.

The city's districts are governed by mayor-appointed chairs of district management committees who are also deputy mayors. The natural border between the districts runs along the rivers Angara, Irkut and Ushakovka; the border of the Pravoberezhny and Oktyabrsky districts runs mainly along the streets. At different times, the city swallowed up the villages of Veresovka, Battery, Ermakovskiy, Bokovo, Zhilkino, Parfenovka, Iskra, named after Kirov, Melnikovo, Selivanikha, Cheryomushki, Titovo, Kuzmikha.

The historical, administrative and business center is located in the Pravoberezhny district (110,759 people), formed in 1996 at the merger of the Kirov and Kuibyshev districts. Other large planning zones are the suburbs of Znamenskoye (the old name of Marat), Rabocheye, Radishchevo, and the Maratovsky industrial hub.
Oktyabrsky District (149,469 people) is an area of modern residential development. The district has an airport and an Eastern industrial hub.
The Sverdlovsk District (202,231 people) forms the Glazkovo and Studgorodok planning zones in the north; Akademgorodok, the Primorsky, Yubileiny, Yuzhny microdistricts and the settlements of Energetikov and hydroelectric power stations in the south, the Pervomaisky, Universitetsky, Sinyushina Gora microdistricts, the Melnikovsky industrial hub in the west. The Irkutsk hydroelectric power station, Novo-Irkutsk thermal power station, Irkutsk-Passenger railway station are located in the district.
The Leninsky district (154,805 people) is formed by the districts of Irkutsk-II, Novo-Lenino, Zhilkino. In the district there are Severny and Zhilkinsky industrial hubs, an aircraft plant and the Irkutsk-Sortirovochny railway station.
On April 30, 2015, the deputies of the Duma of Irkutsk approved a new structure of the administration of Irkutsk, according to which the city is divided into only three urban districts: Central (which includes only the Kirov district), Pravoberezhny (includes the Kuibyshev and Oktyabrsky districts) and Left-bank (includes the Sverdlovsk and Leninsky districts).

However, already on October 8, 2015, the city returned to its former administrative division into four districts - Pravoberezhny, Oktyabrsky, and Leninsky. The corresponding decision was made by the deputies of the Duma of the regional center. According to the then mayor of the city, Dmitry Berdnikov, it was necessary to maintain the usual division for the comfort of Irkutsk residents.



In Irkutsk, the offices of the East Siberian Railway, Irkutskenergo, Vostsibugol, Irkutsk Oil Company are located; the main office of the Baikal Bank of Sberbank of Russia. The research center "Irgiredmet" provides support in the extraction and processing of metal ores and diamonds.



Irkutskenergo is the largest energy company in Russia: it combines 3 hydroelectric power plants of the Angara cascade with a capacity of 9 GW, thermal power plants with a capacity of 3.9 GW, as well as coal mines and district heating networks. Part of the Rusal group. The Irkutsk HPP generates 4.1 billion kWh per year and employs about 150 people. The company "Vostsibugol" is the largest producer and supplier of hard and brown coal in the region of 6 coal mines; part of Irkutskenergo.

The leading industrial enterprise is the Irkutsk Aviation Plant, which gave the name to the current Russian aircraft building corporation Irkut. The plant manufactures military and civil aviation aircraft, in particular, export combat aircraft Su-30 and combat training aircraft Yak-130. Produces components for the Airbus A320 aircraft and launches the production of the Russian medium-haul aircraft MS-21. The company employs about 12 thousand people. The Irkutsk plant of heavy engineering manufactures gold mining, mining and processing and metallurgical equipment. There are about 700 people in the state. The Irkutsk Relay Plant is an enterprise of the military-industrial complex that manufactures switching equipment. In the field of production of building materials, large companies operate the Irkutsk Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Plant and the Irkutsk Ceramic Plant. The Irkutsk Plant of Road Machines produces equipment for road repair and snow removal.

The food industry is represented by the Irkutsk Oil and Fat Plant, the Irkutsk Meat Company and the Irkutsk Dairy Plant, the Irkutsk Bakery, the Angara Confectionery Factory, and the Heineken Baikal Brewery Brewery, a branch of the Heineken Company.



In 2011, there were 994 shops, 13 retail markets, 65 shopping centers, 302 kiosks and 622 trade pavilions; retail trade turnover amounted to 102.3 billion rubles. The level of consumer prices in Irkutsk is 3% higher than in Russia as a whole, and higher than in Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk.

Supermarket chains: Centavr, which owns 30 SPAR and Caesar supermarkets, Mayak owns 69 Slata supermarkets and 49 Khleb-Sol supermarkets, Sibirskaya Kompaniya owns 10 Bagira supermarkets, Hypermarkets: METRO , Tape, OK. There are 877 catering establishments, including 55 restaurants. Fast food chains have been opened under the international brands Subway, Papa Johns, KFC, Broster Food and others.



The largest wired Internet operators: MTS, Rostelecom, Business Network - Irkutsk, Megapolis-Telecom, Irknet-Telecom, Sibtelecom, Baikal-Telecom, Orient-Telecom, Svyaztranzit and In 2011, free Wi-Fi began to appear in crowded places in the city.

Fixed telephone services are provided by more than 20 operators, including Rostelecom, Sibtelecom, Payphone and others. The number of landline telephone numbers is 221,000, including 173,000 residential telephones. Mobile communications are represented by cellular operators MegaFon, MTS, BeeLine, TELE2, Tinkoff Mobile.



Inbound tourism in Irkutsk is mainly of a transit nature on the way to Baikal. Foreign tourists stay in the city for an average of 1.5-2 days, most of them are travelers from China, Germany and Japan. 70% of the tourist flow falls on the summer season, the peak load is during the Baikal Economic Forum in September. In the 1980s, over 40,000 foreigners visited the city every year.

The number of rooms in hotels and similar accommodation facilities in 2011 amounted to 3.9 thousand beds. There are 72 tour operators. The tourism sector employs 23.4 thousand people. From international level hotels, a four-star hotel of the Marriott network, as well as a three-star Ibis hotel, has been opened. The average annual occupancy of hotels does not exceed 40%.

The tourist exhibition "Baikal-Tour" is held annually. Sanatorium-resort treatment is provided by the Angara resort, the Irkut sanatorium, the pulmonary tuberculosis Sinyushina Gora and the children's Snowdrop. The Taltsy architectural and ethnographic museum is located in the vicinity of the city.



A four-lane federal highway "Baikal" M53 M55 AH6 Novosibirsk - Chita passes through the city through the left bank of the Angara. Regional highways P418 leave from the right bank to the village of Ust-Ordynsky, along the Aleksandrovsky tract - to Ust-Uda, along the Baikal tract - to Listvyanka. To the west in the direction of Shelekhov there is a bypass of Irkutsk. Until 2020, it is planned to create ring roads inside and outside the city.

Transport crossings through the Angara pass along the hydroelectric dam and three bridges - Glazkovskiy in the center, built according to the design of the Moscow architect I. Frantsuz, as well as Innokentievskiy and Academic. The railway bridge crosses the Irkut River. There are several underground pedestrian crossings and two elevated ones. In 2008, foreign cars accounted for 66% of the fleet of all cars. In 2012, 208 thousand cars were registered in the city. In 2011, 78 people died on the roads of the city.

River transport on both sides of the hydroelectric dam on the Angara, which does not have locks, is represented by two river stations: the Raketa station above the dam for sightseeing tours towards Baikal and the river station in the city center for communication along the Angara below the dam. From June to September, passenger boats run regularly to Bratsk and Bolshie Koty. From the river port on the outskirts of Marat, the East Siberian River Shipping Company carries out cargo transportation of Cheremkhovo coal, timber and building materials to Makariev.



Public transport of the city is represented by the municipal enterprises "Irkutskavtotrans" and the tram and trolleybus "Irkutskgortrans", 235 private carriers.

The municipal bus fleet consists of 182 buses, including 101 large-capacity buses and 81 medium-capacity buses. In addition to the bus station, there is a bus station in the remote neighborhood of Novo-Lenino.

There are 98 city bus, eleven trolleybus and seven tram routes.

In 2009, 1,400 private buses and minibuses served the bus lines; which transported 49% of the total volume of passengers, municipal transport - 51% of passengers.

The tram appeared in 1947. 7 routes with a total length of 66 km cover mainly the right bank of the Angara, including the center, connecting it with the left bank with a line to the railway station and Studgorodok. 37 trams on the lines carry more than 70 thousand passengers daily.

The trolleybus appeared in 1970. 11 routes connect remote areas with the center, except for the Leninsky district. There are 55 trolleybuses on the line every day. Since June 2016, an autonomous trolleybus has been launched in test mode to the suburb of Irkutsk, the village of Molodyozhny, Irkutsk region.

Regular taxi services are provided by more than 100 taxi companies.

Depreciation of the rolling stock of municipal passenger transport in 2011 amounted to: trolleybuses - 12%, buses - 42%, trams - 86%.



Irkutsk is a railway junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the location of the East Siberian Railway. The city has two stations - at the Irkutsk-Passenger and Irkutsk-Sortirovochny stations, where all passenger trains stop. Freight trains bypass the main part of the city along the Irkutsk-Sortirovochny-Goncharovo detour. Within the city there are also stations Kaya, Military town, Battery and 8 stopping points. The railway station of Irkutsk-Passenger station is an architectural monument, it was rebuilt in 1907, there is a reconstruction project. The station handles about 8,000 commuter and long-distance train passengers per day. Tourist trains "Circum-Baikal Express" and "Baikal Cruise" (until 2012) depart from the station to travel along the Circum-Baikal Railway from Kultuk station to the final station of Port Baikal. Suburban communication is carried out in two directions: Angarsk to the northwest to Zima and Shelekhovsky to the southwest to Slyudyanka. Electric trains are also used as intercity transport. In the long term, until 2030, it is planned to create a high-speed traffic between Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk.

Irkutsk Airport has been operating since 1933 (international status since 1954), located within the city, 5 km from the center. It operates regular and charter flights to many cities in Russia, Europe and Asia, as well as regional flights to the northern regions of the region. Passenger traffic in 2011 amounted to 1.26 million people. Local airlines are based at the airport: IrAero operates flights within Russia, and Angara operates flights around the region and to nearby regions. In the Leninsky district, on the territory of the aircraft plant, there is a test airfield Irkutsk-2. The construction of the Irkutsk-Novy airport, 24 km northeast of the city, has been postponed indefinitely due to a lack of federal funding and inconsistencies in terms of land selection. During the period from 1952 to 2006, more than 20 air crashes occurred in the city and near it, for which Irkutsk gained fame as the “city of falling planes”. Major incidents include the crash of an An-124 cargo plane that crashed into residential buildings in 1997, and an A-310 passenger plane that broke through a concrete fence during landing in 2006.



The municipal order for the current maintenance of roads is carried out by the municipal enterprise Irkutskavtodor. About 2.1 million m³ of solid waste is generated per year. The landfill for solid domestic waste has an area of 47 hectares, located on the 5th km of the Aleksandrovsky tract. The removal of household waste is carried out by the companies Regional operator for the treatment of MSW RT-NEO Irkutsk, MUP "Spetsavtokhozyaystvo", the companies "Peter and Company", "Clean City" and others. There is no gas distribution system in the city. The kerosene pipeline Angarsk - Irkutsk airport runs along the right-bank periphery of the city. Construction of the Chikanskoye gas condensate field – Sayansk – Irkutsk gas pipeline is planned for 2014. In the market of services for the management of apartment buildings, management companies occupy 79%, homeowners associations - 18%. An important economic role in the life of Irkutsk is played by the Angara, which supplies the city with water, heat, electricity, and at the same time is a sewage receiver.


Electricity and heat supply

Sources of power supply - Irkutsk hydroelectric power station and Novo-Irkutsk thermal power station. Electricity is supplied to consumers from four 220 kV substations, twenty-three 110 kV substations and twelve 35 kV substations. The main supplier of electricity is the Irkutsk Energy Retail Company. The networks are serviced by Southern Electric Networks. Tariffs for the population remain relatively low (82 kopecks per kWh in the 2nd half of 2014).

Sources of heat supply: Novo-Irkutsk CHPP, more than 100 boiler houses, about 40 electric boiler houses. In total, 475 km of heating networks are in operation. The production of electricity and heat accounts for up to 88% of solid fuel and about 13% of fuel oil. At the beginning of 2010, 30% of heating networks were in dilapidated condition, the life of most networks exceeded the age of 25-30 years. There are three centralized heat supply systems in the Leninsky District - boiler houses in the Novo-Lenino, Irkutsk-II and Zhilkino districts. The rest of the districts receive heat from the Irkutsk CHPP. The suburbs of Rabocheye and Radishchevo are heated by quarterly boiler houses. The heating season starts on September 15 and lasts 240 days.


Water supply and sanitation

Centralized water supply has existed since 1904. Municipal Unitary Enterprise "Industrial Administration of Water Supply and Sewerage" provides the population and enterprises with drinking water, carries out water disposal and wastewater treatment. The main source of water supply is surface water from the Irkutsk reservoir within the city, from which water is taken by 2 units - "Ershi" and "Construction No. 1". The main water intake - Ershovsky was opened in 1971, located in the area of ​​Ershovsky Bay, 2 km from the hydroelectric dam, capacity - 210 thousand m³ / day, operator - MUP "PU VKH". The water intake disinfects water with chlorine and supplies it to the networks of Irkutsk and Shelekhov. "Construction No. 1" with a capacity of 270 thousand m³ / day is installed in the body of the dam of the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station, it supplies water to the Novo-Irkutsk thermal power plant. In the microdistrict Zelenoye, there is a water intake of the Ushakovskoye groundwater deposit with a capacity of up to 5 thousand m³ / day. The length of water supply networks is 728 km, 50% of which were completely worn out in 2010. 46% of the total volume sold falls on the population, 34% - energy enterprises, 12% - industrial enterprises, 8% - public utility organizations. Baikal drinking water is characterized by low hardness and low mineralization: the absence of iron, zinc and copper.

Centralized sewerage in the city appeared in 1955. The sewerage system is subdivided into the left-bank (288 thousand m³/day) and right-bank basins (223.5 thousand m³/day). The length of sewer networks is 714.8 thousand meters, of which 47% at the beginning of 2010 were completely worn out. Treatment facilities receive 472 thousand m³/day (with a design capacity of 150 thousand m³/day). The storm sewer system is decentralized, developed mainly in the central part of the city and in the Oktyabrsky district, it receives 73% of the total water flow. The length of the collectors in 2010 was 62 km, 30% of the collectors were in disrepair; there were 56 organized releases, including 39 on the banks of the Angara. As of the end of 2011, a quarter of all city sewage was discharged into the Angara without treatment.