Izberbash (Yizbirbash) is a city in southern Russia, in the Republic of Dagestan. It is known as the city of oil workers, but at present it is actively developing as a resort and recreation center on the shores of the Caspian Sea.



The name "Yiz bir bash" is translated from the Kumyk language as the Footprint of one head, or the Footprint on the top of the mountain.


Geographical position

The city arose in connection with the development of oil fields on the shelf of the Caspian Sea and is located on its shore 65 km south of Makhachkala. The city is located on the Caspian lowland and stretches from northwest to southeast along the coastline of the Caspian Sea for more than 10 km. From the north and west, the valley in which the city lies is bordered by low chains of the foothills of the Greater Caucasus. Mount Pushkin-Tau rises above the city, showing traces of wind erosion. Distance from Moscow by rail - 2145 km. The distance to the Samur post on the border with Azerbaijan is 125 km, to Baku - 329 km.



Izberbash's climate is transitional from moderate semiarid to subtropical dry. The climate is strongly influenced by the Caspian Sea, due to which autumn is long and warm, and spring comes with a delay. Winters are mild, snow lasts only two weeks a year, and the coldest month is usually February. The sea does not freeze (the average water surface temperature in February is + 3.5 ° C), however, ice floes from the northern Caspian are driven to the shores of the wind, especially numerous in severe winters. Summer is long and hot.

The average annual temperature in Izberbash is positive: + 12.7 ° C, the average monthly temperature in January is + 0.8 ° C (minimum -17 ° C), the average monthly temperature in July is + 24.0 ° C (maximum + 37.7 ° C). The duration of the warm period is 270 days. Average precipitation is 260 mm per year; the rainiest month is October (46 mm). The average annual relative air humidity is 69.5%, the average wind speed is 5.0 m / s.

In 1952, the city had its own hydrometeorological station, which was organized by Grigory Grigorievich Heilik, a native of Kerch.

Recreational infrastructure
Izberbash's main beach is located at the end of Ushakova Street. It is quite long (about 3 kilometers long) and quite wide (200 meters wide). The local sand has a fine-grained structure, in places mixed with shells. Natural rock ridges act as natural breakwaters and protect the beaches from surging waves quite well. There are usually no storms and hurricanes in the Izberbash area. The depth of the sea also decreases gradually: the sea reaches a depth of 1.5 m at about 70 meters from the coastline. In summer, the water on the sea surface in Izberbash warms up to + 24.5 ° C on average. The salinity of water near Izberbash is not high (varies on average from 11 ‰ in February to 12.5 ‰ in August).

The beach has all the necessary infrastructure: there are changing cabins, sun shades, benches and trash cans. There are also thermal showers on the beach. The sand is regularly sifted by a sand cleaning machine. Rescue posts are also equipped. There are two asphalt parking lots near the beach for easy access to its territory. Cars are parked on the lower platform, the upper one is intended for minibuses.



The Russian archives contain data on the existence on the territory of modern Izberbash of the historical settlement Ullu-Izbar (from Kumyk - "Bolshoy Yard") in the region of Mount Izberg, which arose in the 17th century and was repeatedly destroyed and restored during the wars. A mention of him, for example, is present in the "Travel Journal of 1722" by Peter I.

The presence of oil in the area of ​​the city became known back in the 1920s. The first modern workers' settlement appeared here in 1931. In 1935, the first large oil wells began to be developed here. It received the status of a city on June 28, 1949. Since then, the city's population has been continuously increasing.

On September 12, 1957, the center of the Kayakent region was moved to Izberbash.

In 2005, Izberbash took first place in the competition for the most comfortable city in Russia in the category of cities with a population of up to 100 thousand inhabitants.