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Description of Kaluga
Kaluga is a city in the European part of Russia,
in the Central Federal District, the administrative center of the
Kaluga Region. It is located on the banks of the Oka and its
tributaries - Yachenka, Kaluzhki, Terepts, Kiyevki, 160 km
south-west of the center of Moscow, 80 km from the new borders of
Moscow. Kalyga has two railway stations: Kaluga-1 and Kaluga-2.
Kaluga International Airport was opened after reconstruction in the
summer of 2015.
From 1892 to 1935, the eminent inventor,
cosmonautics theorist K. E. Tsiolkovsky lived and worked in Kaluga.
In 1967, the State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics was opened,
the first in the world and the largest in Russia, created with the
direct participation of Sergey Korolev, Yuri Gagarin and other
cosmonauts of the USSR.
Kaluga is a city with a developed infrastructure, a major
transportation hub, one of the scientific, cultural, economic and
spiritual centers of Russia. Mechanical engineering and automotive
industry are actively developed. The city is one of the historical
centers of Russia, where a large number of architectural monuments
has been preserved.
Kaluga is among the top three in terms of
cleanliness and livability among cities of the Russian Federation,
which are the administrative centers of the constituent entities of
the Russian Federation and have a population of 100 to 500 thousand
History of Kaluga
Kaluga, founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on
the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, first appears
in the historical record in chronicles in the 14th century as
Koluga; the name comes from Old Russian kaluga - "bog, quagmire".
During the period of Tartar raids it was the western end of the Oka
bank defense line. The Great stand on the Ugra River was fought just
to the west. In the Middle Ages Kaluga was a minor settlement owned
by the Princes Vorotynsky. The ancestral home of these princes lies
southwest of the modern city.
On 19 January 1777 the Kaluga
drama theatre opened its first theatrical season, established with
the direct participation of the Governor-General M. N. Krechetnikov.
Kaluga is connected to Moscow by a railway line and by the
ancient roadway, the Kaluga Road (now partly within Moscow (as
Starokaluzhskoye Shosse - the Old Kaluga Highway), partly the A101
road). This road offered Napoleon his favored escape route from the
Moscow trap in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled
Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating
French army onto the old Smolensk road, previously devastated by the
French during their invasion of Russia.
On several occasions
during the Russian Empire Kaluga was the residence of political
exiles and prisoners such as the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray
(1786), the Kyrgyz sultan Arigazi-Abdul-Aziz (1828), the Georgian
princess Thecla (1834–1835), and the Avar leader Imam Shamil
Kaluga was briefly occupied by the German army
in Operation Barbarossa during the climactic Battle of Moscow. It
was occupied from October 12, 1941 to December 30, 1941.
1944 the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to
intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground
Home Army—whom the advancing Soviet front had arrested by in the
How to get there
You can fly to Kaluga and in the
opposite direction with regular flights of the following companies:
Komiaviatrans, RusLine and Yamal ATK, from the cities of Anapa,
Belgrade, St. Petersburg, Sochi, Simferopol, Ufa, Mineralnye Vody.
1 Kaluga International Airport
(IATA: KLF), Grabtsevskoye Highway 79 (bus 4 to the Airport stop).
email@example.com ☎ +7 (4842) 77-00-77. Open 05.00 - 15.00 UTC.
From Moscow from Kievsky station. Art. Kievskaya
metro station on the Moscow-Kaluga-1 suburban electric train (travel
time more than 3 hours) or express train to Kaluga-1 (travel time
about 2.5 hours) or long-distance trains that transit via train d
stations "Kaluga-1" and "Kaluga-2".
From St. Petersburg from
Moscow Station 1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line Sq. Vosstaniya, 3
(Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya) Mayakovskaya line by train No. 140 (St.
Petersburg-Bryansk), to the station "Kaluga-2".
From Tula from
Moskovsky railway station, on commuter diesel trains: (Tula-Kaluga),
(Uzlovaya-Kaluga) to Kaluga-1
From Vyazma from the railway
station on a suburban diesel train (Vyazma-Kaluga) to the station.
From Tashkent from the Northern Railway Station
(Toshkent metro station) by train No. 383 (Tashkent - S. Petersburg)
to the station. Kaluga-1.
2 "Kaluga-1" (Kaluga-1 Station),
Vokzalnaya Square, 3 (Change to: bus. 1, 12, 19, 29, 30, 31, 45, 76,
83, 84, 94, tb. 12). ☎ +7 (800) 775-00-00. 00: 00-24: 00. $ 100. The
railway station of the Moscow railway on the chord line Vyazma -
Syzran in the city of Kaluga. It has the status of a precinct
station, in terms of the volume of work, it is classified as Class
I. The railway station Kaluga-1 is part of the Moscow Regional
Directorate of the Directorate of Railway Stations. The station is
located north of the city center. The main course of the line in
this place makes a loop, going deep inside the city.
(Kaluga-2 Station), Kaluga-2. st. Privokzalnaya (Replantation: bus.
20, 30, m / t20). ☎ +7 (800) 775-00-00. 00: 00-24: 00. $ 100.
Railway station of the Moscow Railway on the line Tikhonov Pustyn -
Sukhinichi, station, in the urban district of Kaluga. The secondary
station (the main station is Kaluga-1). Due to the remoteness from
the main part of the city, it is not popular with passengers,
although it takes only 15-20 minutes to get to the bus. The station
is located in the village of railway workers, located about 11 km
from the main part of the city. The station was opened on May 26,
1959 on the site of the former station of Sergiev Skit.
From Moscow: from bus stations near metro stations: Metro
station orange.png Teply Stan, Shchelkovskaya metro station, or from
bus stations near Kievskaya metro station, Yugo-Zapadnaya. Buses to
Kaluga depart every hour (several flights per hour). The line is
open daily from 05:00 to 22:00 depending on the place of departure
in Moscow (See the schedule at the points of departure).
city has a direct bus service to the cities: Moscow, Kozelsk,
Lyudinovo, Kirov (Kaluga region), Bryansk, Tula, Aleksin,
Bogoroditsk, Venev, Dubna, Smolensk, Plavsk, Suvorov, Yasnogorsk,
etc. on the bus station website). The cost of services for the sale
of tickets of the return direction at the ticket office of the
Kaluga bus station is from 25 rubles for each ticket.
station "Kaluga", Vokzalnaya square, 3 (area of the railway
station Kaluga-1 station) (tb. 1, 12, m / t1, 12, 29, 31, 45, 76,
83). ☎ +7 (4842) 78-36-78. 04: 30-22: 00. Tickets can be ordered by
calling 78-36-86, 78-36-99 from 9:00 to 18:00. The cost of the
service for booking a ticket by phone is 60 rubles. for each ticket.
An additional item for the sale of tickets for suburban and
intercity buses on Gagarin Street, 5.
on the highways M3 (distance ~ 170 kilometers) or A130.
Municipal trolleybus, bus, and also a fixed-route taxi:
a single fare (fare) - 16 rubles. Passenger and cargo taxi can be
easily ordered at any time. The city has a large number of services
that carry passengers and cargo. Prices from 50 rubles.