Karabulak, Russia

Karabulak is a city in the Republic of Ingushetia of the Russian Federation. A city of republican significance, which forms the eponymous municipal formation, the city of Karabulak, with the status of an urban district as the only settlement in its composition.



Some authors trace the toponym “Karabulak” to the Turkic kara - “black”, and bulak - “source”, “spring”. Thus, the name of the city can be translated as "black source". According to another version, the name of the village of Karabulak at the time of its foundation contained a reference to the ethnonym "Karabulaki" - one of the names of the Orstkhoy people.



The city is located in the central part of the Republic of Ingushetia, on the left bank of the Sunzha River, 9 km west of the center of the Sunzha region - the city of Sunzha and 22 km north-east of the city of Magas (distance by road).

The nearest settlements: in the east - the village of Troitskaya, in the south - the village of Yandare, in the west - the village of Plievo. In the south and west, the territory of the urban district borders on the Nazran district, in the east - on the Sunzha district, in the north - on the Malgobek district. The city of Karabulak is located in the southern part of the urban district.

To the south of Karabulak passes the federal highway P217 "Kavkaz", to the north the railway line of the North Caucasian railway (the Beslan-Sleptsovskaya section), on the northern outskirts of the city there is a railway siding Karabulaksky.

To the south of Karabulak, behind the road, the Lesisty Range rises (the village of Yandare is located, in fact, in several intermontane valleys and on the slopes). The Sunzhensky ridge (mountain Karabulak, 723 m) stretches several kilometers to the north. In the southeastern outskirts of the city, the Sunzha River joins the Assa-Sunzha Canal.

The lands of the urban district stretch far to the north of the city, thus capturing, in addition to the Sunzha valley, a part of the Sunzha ridge and, north of it, a part of the Alkhanchurt valley. The northernmost section of the urban district border is the section of the southern bank of the Alkhanchurt Canal.



The climate is moderately cold and humid (Köppen Dfa). Winters are mild and short. Summer is hot and long. Average annual precipitation is 663 mm.



The date of foundation of the Terek Cossack village of Karabulakskaya is 1859. The construction of the village began at the end of 1858, and it was originally supposed to call it Eldyrkhanovskaya.

The Eldyrkhanovsky guard post, near which the village arose and which was originally supposed to give the village its name, already existed at least by 1847.

Since 1860, the Karabulak region was part of the Tersk region (since 1888 - in the Sunzha department). As of 1874, there were 227 households in the village with 1454 inhabitants, there was an Orthodox church and a school, and there were oil wells. According to the ESBE (1895), 1986 people lived in the village, there was a church, 2 schools (one of them is an Old Believer), 4 smithies, 4 mills.

In August 1917, there were clashes between the Ingush and Cossacks of the villages of Karabulakskaya, Troitskaya and Sleptsovskaya. The conflict was caused, in turn, by the clashes between the Ingush and soldiers returning from the fronts of the First World War, which took place in Vladikavkaz on July 6-7. Despite the fact that already on September 15 a "truce" was concluded between the parties, these events actually became a prologue to bloody battles between the Ingush and the inhabitants of the Cossack villages during the events of the Civil War in the Caucasus.

In 1920-1929, the village was part of the Sunzha Cossack District, then - a part of the Chechen Autonomous Region, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Region, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Grozny Region, and again - the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

By the decree of the Presidium of the Armed Forces of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of November 29, 1962, the village of Karabulakskaya of the Sunzhensky District was assigned to the category of workers' settlements with the assignment of the name - the working settlement of Karabulak.

During the Soviet period, there is a gradual change in the ethnic composition of the village's population - the number of Ingush increases and the number of Russians decreases.

In 1991, an aggravation of the ethnopolitical situation took place in the Sunzha region of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR. In May 1990, on the basis of the organizing committee "Cossack Sunzha", the Sunzha department of the revived Terek Cossack army was formed under the leadership of Ataman A. I. Podkolzin. However, in April 1991, A.I. Podkolzin was killed in Karabulak, which resulted in rallies of the Russian-speaking population, who spoke out with demands for security. At the same time, there were several bloody clashes between local Cossacks and Ingush - in March in Karabulak and at the end of April in the village of Troitskaya (the conflict in Troitskaya had a special resonance in the republic). There is a point of view that it was the events of the spring of 1991 in the Sunzhensky region that marked the beginning of the mass departure of Russians from Ingushetia.

In 1995, Karabulak received the status of a city. A separate urban district (with the status of a municipal formation of the district level) on the basis of the city of Karabulak was formed only in 2009.


In 2006-2008, in a number of settlements of Ingushetia (the city of Karabulak, the villages of Ordzhonikidzevskaya, Troitskaya and Nesterovskaya, the city of Nazran, the village of Yandare), a series of crimes were committed against Russian-speaking citizens (explosive devices, arson, shelling and murders). This series culminated in the events of summer-autumn 2007, when several high-profile murders, terrorist acts and other crimes were committed against Russians, Koreans, Gypsies, and Armenians. In particular, in Karabulak on August 30, 2007, there was a resonant murder of the family of the Russian teacher V. Draganchuk (3 dead), the second attack on Russian teachers after the murder of the family of teacher L. Teryokhina in the village of Ordzhonikidzevskaya in July of the same year (3 also killed). In October 2007, the Russian families of the Kortikovs and Nemovs were shot in Karabulak (3 dead, 1 wounded). This series of crimes attracted significant public attention and led to a new wave of Russian outflows from the republic.

In the city, the Islamist bandit underground, operating in the North Caucasus, showed its activity. In particular, some objects in the city were attacked during the militants' attack on Ingushetia in June 2004. As part of a series of terrorist attacks in March-April 2010, a major terrorist act was also committed in Karabulak.



Railway transport is represented by the Karabulaksky junction, which is located on a single-track dead-end line running from Beslan station. The previous large station is Nazran, the next one is Sleptsovskaya (it is the final one on this branch, since the railway line in the direction of Grozny was destroyed and dismantled). Thus, movement by rail is possible only from the direction of Nazran. The junction is closed for passenger traffic (due to its absence on this section of the road, in principle), only freight traffic is carried out. The Karabulaksky junction has the most extensive network of access roads among all railway stations in Ingushetia. The bulk of the oil produced in the republic and transported by rail passes through the Karabulak junction.

Regular passenger road transport is carried out by transit buses and taxis. The main load is borne by the transit routes Nazran-Sunzha and Nazran-Grozny. The transportations are carried out by the State Unitary Enterprise "Ingushavtotrans" and private entrepreneurs. Also, transportation is carried out by departmental transport.