Karachayevsk, Russia


Karachaevsk is a city of republican significance in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. The administrative center of the Karachaevsky district (which is not part of) and the Karachaevsky urban district.



Karachaevsk is located at the confluence of three rivers: Kuban, Teberda and Mary, at an altitude of about 870 meters above sea level. The area of ​​Karachaevsk is 11.84 km2.

The city is located within the North Jurassic depression, on the cape of the river terrace. The cape is formed by the Kuban and its left tributary Teberda. The city is also stretched along the left bank of the Kuban to the south of the indicated cape and along both banks of the Teberda upstream of the river. To the north of the mouth of the Teberda, on the western coast of the Kuban, there is a residential and, to the north, an industrial microdistrict (the latter already borders on the village named after Kosta Khetagurov). To the south of the city, upstream of the Kuban, the immediate suburb of Karachaevsk is the aul of Kamennomost (more precisely, its lower part), upstream of the Teberda is the aul of Dingirik. Along the eastern bank of the Kuban, in the area of ​​the mouth of its right tributary Mary, to the north and south of it, as well as above the mouth in the valley of Mary, the streets of the village of Mara-Ayagy, which is part of the Karachaevsky urban district, are scattered.

The mountains that surround the city on three sides, except for the northern one (the Kuban valley expands to the north), are the final spurs of the Front Range. They are composed of volcanic rocks that break through Jurassic sediments. To the south of Karachaevsk there is a large development zone of the Lower Jurassic intrusions of the Teberdino-Kuban depression, in many areas of which up to 50-60% of the outlets of mineral water sources are concentrated. The city is dominated by the Komsomolskaya mountain, which is the end point of the watershed between the Kuban and Teberda and divides Karachaevsk into two parts, gravitating towards the valleys of two rivers, being the geographical center of the city.

The Military-Sukhum road passes through Karachaevsk, in addition, it is connected by highways with the upper reaches of the Kuban and Kislovodsk.



The climate of the city is temperate, mild, characterized by an abundance of sunny days. The average annual humidity is 70%. The frost-free period lasts 175 days. Winds and fogs are rare. The average annual temperature is +8 ° C. Winters are warm, with little snow, with an average temperature of -2.2 ° C. Summer is not hot, with an average temperature of +16.9 ° C. Autumn is warm, dry, sunny and calm, with an average temperature of about +9 ° C.



The initiator of the construction of the city in mountainous Karachai was the chairman of the executive committee of the regional council of the Karachay-Cherkess autonomous region, Kurman Kurdzhiev (he headed the regional executive committee in 1922-1926), while his initiative was approved, according to some sources, by a council of elders from representatives of Karachai villages. Then she was supported by Anastas Mikoyan, the 1st secretary of the committee of the CPSU (b) of the North Caucasian Territory, which included the KCAO, Anastas Mikoyan (headed the regional committee until August 1926). The foundation stone of the new city was allegedly laid in 1926 in the area of ​​the current city hospital.

In April 1926, as a result of the division of KChAO, a separate Karachay Autonomous Region was created, and the new city was to become its regional center. According to the census on December 17, 1926, there were 157 residents (116 men and 41 women) in 117 households on the construction of the regional center, of which 120 people were Russians (76.4%), 8 people were Germans (5.1%), 8 people - Ukrainians (5.1%), 21 people - other nationalities (13.4%). The construction site administratively belonged to the Kamennomostsky village council.

On July 17, 1927, the second session of the Karachay Regional Council of Working People's Deputies, held in the village of Uchkeken, decided to name the new city Mikoyan-Shahar, in honor of Anastas Mikoyan, making a corresponding petition to the administrative commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (literally Karach-Balk. Mikoyan-Shahar - "the city of Mikoyan"). For the construction of the city, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR allocated 7 million rubles, specialists from Moscow and Leningrad developed the layout of the settlement.

On November 7, 1927, on the 10th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, the city was officially opened. The ceremony was headed by the chairman of the executive committee of the regional council of the Karachaevskaya Autonomous Okrug Kurman Kurdzhiev (became the head of the regional executive committee in 1927, after the resignation of M.I.Batchaev), H.H.-M. Aybazov, I.Z.Karaketov, guests from Moscow, Kharkov, Rostov-on-Don, etc. According to some reports, a sacrifice ceremony was performed.


By a resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of August 26, 1929, the name Mikoyan-Shahar was approved and the town was given the status of a city. By 1931, Mikoyan-Shahar had 150 buildings with a total area of ​​36 thousand m2; by 1940, the housing stock had tripled. Two schools appeared in the city (in 1930 and 1936), a pedagogical and medical technical school, a working faculty, a hospital with a polyclinic, a dairy and a bakery factories, a printing house, a regional museum of local history (1930), and the Karachaevsky Research Institute of the History of Language and Literature were founded (1935), Karachay Teachers' Institute (1938). Since 1924, the newspaper "Gorskaya Zhizn" was published in Karachai in the Karachai language, then, with the development of Mikoyan-Shahar as a cultural center of the region, the Karachai-language newspapers "Dzharyklyk" ("Enlightenment", since 1931), "Kyzyl K'arachay" (from 1932), the newspaper "Red Karachay" in Russian (since 1934). Initially, the city was the regional center of Mikoyan-Shahar region, then it became a city of regional subordination.

During the Great Patriotic War Mikoyan-Shahar was originally a rear hospital city (hospitals were located in the hospital, the building of the pedagogical institute, and even in the House of Soviets). On August 12, 1942, the Germans occupied the Melnichny farm (north of the Teberda River, between Mikoyan-Shahar and the village named after Kosta Khetagurov), but the bridge across Teberda was blown up, and they were able to enter the city only in the following days. In Mikoyan-Shahar, German equipment, a stable, a hospital were housed, a German cemetery was arranged. On January 18, 1943, the city was liberated. Third-party organizations, for example, the Stavropolugol trust, helped the townspeople in restoring the settlement.

In October 1943, the Karachay Autonomous District was liquidated, and in early November, the illegal deportation of the Karachais was carried out. By the decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR dated November 6, 1943, Mikoyan-Shahar was renamed Klukhori - the territory of the former Karachay Autonomous Okrug was assigned to the Georgian SSR. As part of the Klukhorsky region, the city was in the Georgian SSR until March 14, 1955, when by the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces, the Klukhorsky region was transferred to the Stavropol Territory. On July 14, 1955, the city of Klukhori was assigned to the cities of regional subordination. On January 12, 1957, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the city of Klukhori was renamed Karachaevsk.

In the restored Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous District, according to the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR dated February 1, 1963, Karachaevsk became a city of regional significance. By the same decree, it included the mining settlements of Mara-Ayagy, Markopi, settlements of mines No. 11 and No. 13 (now all of them constitute the village of Mara-Ayagy on the right bank of the Kuban). In 1970, the resort village of Dombay was transferred to the Karachayevsky City Council, in 1971 - the resort village of Teberda, which was simultaneously transformed into a city. There were also miners' settlements in the Karachayevsky City Council - the village of Ordzhonikidze with its subordinate rural settlement Malokurganny, the village of Elbrus. In 1996, on the basis of the petition of the administration of Karachaevsk No. 162 dated July 20, 1996, based, in turn, on the results of the gathering of citizens of the Mara-Ayagy microdistrict (Karachaevsk-1), the People's Assembly (Parliament) of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic by its decision No. 297 of On November 22, 1996, it decided to allocate a new rural settlement Mara-Ayagy from the territory of the city of Karachaevsk, with an independent rural administration subordinate to the administration of Karachaevsk. The new settlement united the Mara-Ayagy microdistrict, the settlements of mines No. 11 and No. 13, the villages of Markopi and Yubileiny.



Sculpture "Invitation to Karachaevsk", which also has the unofficial name "Goryanka", by the Karachai sculptor Khamzat Krymshamkhalov. Installed in 1965-1966, it depicts a mountain girl with a bowl of ayran. Located at the intersection of Lenin and Mira streets, it is an object of cultural heritage of Russia - a monument of art of regional significance (taken under protection by the decision of the executive committee of the Council of People's Deputies of the Stavropol Territory back in 1981). The visiting card of the city is present on the coat of arms of Karachaevsk.
The building of the Administration of the Karachaevsky urban district - the House of Soviets. It is located on the central square of Karachaevsk, being the compositional center of the entire urban development. The building was erected simultaneously with the construction of the city, using local materials (stone - from the village of Georgievsko-Osetinsky, brick - from the village of Kamennomostsky, forest - from the Dausuz region and the Teberda valley). According to some reports, Anastas Mikoyan and Kurman Kurdzhiev attended the opening of the House of Soviets.
Memorial complex to the victims of the deportation of the Karachai people.
The building of the cinema named after S. M. Khalilov.
Alley of Heroes of the Soviet Union and Heroes of Russia.
Alley of noble people of Karachai.
Obelisk to those killed during the Great Patriotic War.
Obelisk to the Red Army soldiers