Kuldur, Russia


Kuldur is an urban-type settlement in the Obluchensky District of the Jewish Autonomous Region of Russia. The name comes from 'Chul-Ji-Uri', which in the Aboriginal language means 'hot, warm'.


Geographical position

The settlement is located in the valley of the Kuldur river (Bira basin), in the spurs of the Bureinsky ridge.

The railway station is located on the Izvestkovaya - Novy Urgal line. Distance to the village. The limestone is 30 km away.

Road to the village. Kuldur goes north from the village of Birakan (stands on the Chita - Khabarovsk highway), the distance to the village. Birakan is 25 km away.

Distance to Birobidzhan - 135 km, distance to Obluchye - 77 km.



The resort "Kuldur" is located at the spurs of the Lesser Khingan, in the valley of a mountain river, where the Kuldur spring flows.

Kuldur hot mineral springs have been known to the local Tungus population since time immemorial, as evidenced by the name of the rivers washing Kuldur - translated from the Tungus "hot" and Kolobolok, which means "near the boiler". Both these thermal springs and the surrounding area were considered sacred by the local population, their location was kept a strict secret from the Europeans.

The legend of antiquity attributes the discovery of this source to the Tungus hunter, who found many animals in this place. The hunter, of course, was amazed by the vision: the high temperature of the source, the smell of hydrogen sulfide ... This place was called sacred and was kept secret under pain of death. The secret belonged only to the Tungus, for many centuries it was sacredly kept among this tribe. There were sacrifices here, and treatment for various ailments began little by little, as the hunters were convinced that fractures and wounds heal well from Kuldur water.

This secret, perhaps, would have been kept for many more years, centuries, but ... Once, the Tungus, pitying a familiar sick Russian Cossack, took him to be treated to a source. He led him with his eyes closed, through the impenetrable taiga. In various ways - through alcohol, money - the Cossack achieved the disclosure of the secret: this is how he was amazed by the healing effect of the source. This is how the Russians learned about Kuldura.

In 1897, Kuldur was first mentioned in the literature (Nature and Hunting magazine No. 3), and in 1910 in the Proceedings of the Amur Expedition.

In 1910, there was an exploration party in these places, headed by E. E. Anert. The water of the source was taken for the first time for research in the laboratory of the geological office. According to its chemical composition, it belongs to nitrogen-siliceous low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-chloride-sodium alkaline waters with a high content of fluorine. Mineral water has a temperature of +75°.

In 1913, F. T. Zhilyaev strenuously sought to lease the source, and a year later new tenants appeared - Plotnikov and Postnykh, who also failed. At the same time, state organizations did nothing. A primitive analysis of the Kuldur source was made by the local physician A. Buk (1913). He used healing water in the treatment of the first builders of the Far Eastern Iron Hub at the Sololi station (Obluchye) since 1911. A. Buk sent an analysis of the water and treatment methods to the Khabarovsk Society of Doctors and the Primorsky Governor-General.

The newly built Amur Railway contributed to the popularization of Kuldur. Information about the healing properties of the source was widely spread from the workers, many of whom had been here. By 1915 there was still no definite route to Kuldur. Information in the newspaper "Priamure" dated June 10, 1914 and indications in the works "Geological research of the Amur-Primorsky gold-bearing region" gave vague, inconsistent information about the location of Kuldur.

Animal trails, pack taiga way through the unknown taiga did not stop the suffering person. According to the data of the doctor R. I. Blum, in 1914 35 patients visited Kuldur, then in 1915 - 80, in 1916 - 140, in 1917 - 295, in 1918 - over 2.5 thousand . Human.

In 1916, the State Property Department took care of the source, but due to lack of funds, very little was done, only the pack road from Birakan station to the source was improved. A year later, the source was drilled, a wheel road was surveyed and surveyed, partial work was done to uproot the clearing, and a wheel road was laid halfway through.

Until 1918, patients were treated in primitive conditions at their own discretion. There was only one paramedic at the resort. The patients were housed in huts. In practice, then earth pits were used. Treatment was expensive: travel from Birakan to Kuldur on pack horses with a guide - 25-35 rubles, a bed in a hut - 5-6 rubles, digging a dirt bath-pit - 10-12 rubles. Later, baths with a wooden frame appeared - rectangular pits with a hole for draining water. There were 4 such baths in 1910, 7 in 1915, 15 in 1916, and 166 in 1921.

Already in Soviet times, the 5th Peasant Congress of the Amur Region decided: "The Kuldur mineral spring is a public property, which is why it should be equipped and arranged at public expense." In 1918, two barracks and one house for employees were built.

The Kuldur healing area received official recognition in May 1924, at the same time it was included in the country's resorts. It is from this year that Kuldur gradually begins to settle down. In the autumn of 1925, the construction of a boarding house for 90 beds was completed. A bathroom building, a sanatorium for 50 beds were completed, steam baths were equipped, a 2-storey house for employees, a laundry, a power station, and a clinic were built. Auxiliary enterprises were organized, the wheel road to Kuldur from Birakan station was improved. Since 1926, specialist doctors have been working every season. Since 1929, the resort has been operating all year round, with a permanent staff of doctors and medical staff.

Since 1934, a military sanatorium has been operating on the territory of Kuldur. During the Great Patriotic War, the Kuldur hospitals, both military and "civilian", were large military hospitals. They brought hundreds of wounded soldiers and officers for aftercare and rehabilitation. And if under normal conditions it took several months, "Kuldur" put its patients on their feet literally in 3-4 weeks.

From 1951 to 1973 the resort was headed by V. M. Plastunov, a participant in the war, who walked the front roads to Berlin as a medical instructor. During these years, five dormitory buildings, a polyclinic, a hydropathic clinic, a kindergarten, a school, a canteen, a power plant, a consumer services center were built, a recreation center for 700 seats was laid. V. M. Plastunov became the first honored doctor, candidate of medical sciences in the Jewish Autonomous Region, wrote two books “Kuldur Resort”, which were published in 1966 and 1971. Then VN Zavgorudko was the head physician of the resort for 10 years.

In 1980, the children's sanatorium "Pearl of Khingan" was put into operation.

In the year of the 40th anniversary of the Victory (1985), a memorial of Glory to the participants in the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars was erected in Kuldur. The Memorial of Glory, the cafe "Tea House", the sanatoriums "Sanus" and "Gornyak" were built according to the project of the Khabarovsk architect A. N. Naumov.

In 1995, a symposium of Russian scientists was held on the basis of the Kuldur resort, where there were delegates from Paraguay, Germany, and Japan.

The 1990s were a crisis for the resort. For several years, nothing was built here, the medical staff was not replenished by young balneologists, real scientific work was “at zero”.

Despite the political and economic upheavals of the 1990s, the resort area continued to live and make plans in real conditions. New treatment and diagnostic rooms began to open, the range of application of Kuldur mineral water expanded, and new treatment methods were introduced.

Among the procedures are various showers: circular, Charcot, descending. Pearl baths, hydromassage, jacuzzi are especially popular. In 2000, as a concomitant, they began to use mud therapy. Mud for applications is brought from Muhen. Vacationers, for whom the mineral water of Kuldur is contraindicated, appreciated the artificial baths with Legrand salts, which have tonic and sedative properties.

The health resort is equipped with modern medical and diagnostic equipment. There are rooms for functional diagnostics, clinical and biochemical laboratories, an X-ray room, a room for physiotherapy exercises, general and gynecological massage, physiopsychotherapy, electric sleep, dentistry and prosthetics rooms.

The Kuldur spring heals more than 300 diseases included in the international classification of diseases. Here, people with disorders of the organs of movement, peripheral and central nervous system, skin and gynecological diseases improve their health every year.

An additional charge of vivacity and energy, who arrived for treatment at the Kuldur sanatorium, receive by visiting the cultural and leisure center. Sports are not forgotten either. The sanatorium has well-equipped sports and fitness rooms, a billiard room.

Currently, the health resort accepts for treatment and rest not only adults, but also parents with children in the department "Mother and Child" (the former sanatorium "Pearl of Khingan"), children and adolescents who arrived at the sanatorium and health camp.
"Kuldur" continues to improve. Its complex includes polyclinics, two hydropathic clinics, eight bedroom buildings, a canteen, a school, a children's factory, and shops.

In total, over the years of its existence, the sanatorium has healed over 600 thousand people.

In 2005, the sanatorium "Kuldur" was awarded the Diploma of the Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation.

Currently, there are 5 sanatoriums in the resort area: LLC Khabarovskkurort, Gornyak (Chegdomyn mine administration), a boarding house of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, a private sanatorium "Sanus" and a children's health resort "Pearl of Khingan". To date, the Kuldur sanatorium is a single complex, which includes: an 8-storey medical and sleeping building for 400 people, a clinic with modern medical and diagnostic equipment, 2 hydropathic clinics, and a building of increased comfort.

In 2014, the private sanatorium "Sanus" turns 20 years old.

The general director of the sanatorium "Kuldur" is G. L. Kolesnikova.

The main healing factor of the resort is its natural nitrogen-siliceous thermal waters, which belong to the "Kuldur" or "Kuldur-Perinean" type. Kuldur mineral waters are considered highly silicic (with a silicic acid content of 112 mlg/l), their peculiarity is in the selective effect on toxic substances located in various tissues with which they come into contact and remove them from the body in a neutralized state.

On the territory of the sanatorium "Kuldur" there is a year-round children's camp (SOLKD), in which children can improve their health without interrupting the school curriculum.



A health resort of federal significance. There are four sanatoriums in the resort area: JSC Sanatorium Kuldur, Gornyak, a military boarding house, and the first private sanatorium Sanus in the Far East.

By chemical composition, the Kuldur waters are nitrogenous siliceous, low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-chloride sodium alkaline with a high fluorine content. One well emits radon water. They are characterized by a higher content of silicic acid (112 milligrams per liter) compared to the average standards of Russian resorts (50 milligrams per liter). Balneological factors have a beneficial effect. Directions of treatment: arthritis, osteochondrosis and especially skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis.