Kyzyl, Russia


Description of Kyzyl

Kyzyl (Tuv. Kyzyl - Red) is a city in the Russian Federation, the capital of the Republic of Tyva. Forms the urban district of the city of Kyzyl. Kyzyl claims to be located exactly in the geographical center of Asia. Whether these coordinates are in fact the center of Asia is disputed (e.g., Ürümqi in China makes a similar claim). However, there is a monument labelled "Center of Asia" in English, Russian, and Tuvan which asserts this claim. Tos-Bulak is the area of open fields and mineral springs which lies immediately south of Kyzyl.

Kyzyl is located where the Yenisei River meets the Maly Yenisey River to form the Verkhny Yenisey. Most development is south of the river and follows the curves of the river, with the highest development centered where the two headstreams of the Yenisei, the Bii-Khem (Russian: Большой Енисей), and the Kaa-Khem (Russian: Малый Енисей), meet. A monument was built in 1964 on the river bank to mark this.



1  Centre of Asia (Asia Tuvu). The sculptural complex "Center of Asia", marking the geographical center of Asia.
2 Yenisei (Ulug-Khem). The beginning of the Yenisei River is the confluence of the Kaa-Khem and Bii-Khem rivers. And
3 National Museum of the Republic of Tyva "Aldan-Maadyr" (Tyva Republican National Museums), 667000. Republic of Tyva, Kyzyl, st. Titova 30.. ☎ +7 (39422) 2-28-04. 10:00-18:00.
4  Government of the Republic of Tyva (Tyva Republican Chazaa).
5  Dogee (Dөgee)  (located north of the city). The mountain with a height of 1003 meters has several ways to climb to the top: on foot from the front side in different ways (you can leave the car below); or by car driving from the left side (if you look at the mountain). Then turn towards the mountain and up - to the platform under the mountain. Or by skipping this turn, further down the road you can go straight to the top by car. Mount Dogee is located on the right bank of the Yenisei, a few kilometers north of the capital of Tuva, Kyzyl. It is part of the Uyuk Range of the Western Sayan. From the top there is a picturesque view of the confluence of Biy-Khem and Kaa-Khem.
The keeper of the sacred stone is the place of Chalama (in a picturesque place on the banks of the Bayan-Kol river). The sacred heart-shaped stone in the place of Chalama of the Kyzyl kozhuun is a block 9 meters high. An unusual creation of nature is located in a picturesque place - on the banks of the Bayan-Kol River. The stone is said to have tremendous energy power. The people of these places worship the stone for a long time and get a huge boost of energy. It protects from negativity, punishes those who have committed unworthy deeds. The tradition of knitting ribbons (in Tuvan chalama) is spread from the far north to the Kola Peninsula.

Cinema Nayiral, st. Kochetova, 45, Kyzyl, Rep. Tyva. ☎ +7 (963) 203-16-17.
Bicycle rental "Rental of TOTAL UniversaL"   (Shchetinkina-Kravchenko street near the Buddhist temple Tsechenling near the Gastello National Park). ☎ +7 (923) 388-66-66. Bicycle rental for children and adults, rental of tourist equipment, child car seats, power tools, etc.
Considering that some sports are highly developed in Kyzyl (Khuresh national wrestling, freestyle wrestling, and other martial arts), the following sports facilities will be of interest to fans of sports and morning exercises:

Universal sports complex "SUBEDEY".
Sports Complex. I. Yarygina.
Sports hall "HEREL".
Sports complex "IRBIS".
Standadion "KHURESH".
Stadium them. 5th anniversary of Soviet Tuva.


History of Kyzyl

Protectorate of the Russian Empire

After the Mongolian National Revolution of 1911, the Tuvan princes were divided into three groups: some supported independence, others offered to become part of Mongolia, and the rest offered to become part of the Russian Empire.

After the Xinhai Revolution in China (1912-1913), Tuvan noyons Ambyn-noyon Kombu-Dorzhu, Chamzy Khamby-Lama, noyon Daa-khoshun Buyan-Badyrgy and others several times turned to the tsarist government with a request to accept Tuva under the protectorate of the Russian Empire. It was decided to satisfy the request, and thus in 1914 Tuva voluntarily entered under the protectorate of Russia under the name Uryankhai region as part of the Yenisei province with the transfer of political and diplomatic affairs in Tuva to the Irkutsk governor-general. In the same year, construction began on the capital of the region, which was named Belotsarsk in honor of the "White Tsar", that is, the Russian emperor.


Formation of the People's Republic of Tannu-Tuva

On June 18, 1918, a joint meeting of the Russian and Tuvan congresses took place in the Uryankhai region, at which the Treaty on Self-Determination of Tuva, Friendship and Mutual Assistance of the Russian and Tuvan Peoples was unanimously adopted.

From July 7, 1918, the Uryankhai region was practically occupied by Kolchak's troops. On June 14, 1919, the troops of the Badzhey Soviet Republic under the command of A. D. Kravchenko and P. E. Shchetinkin moved from the territory of the Kansk and Krasnoyarsk districts to the Uryankhai region. On July 18, they captured the capital of the Uryankhai region, Belotsarsk.

In the middle of 1921, the Tuvan revolutionaries, supported by the RSFSR, decided to proclaim the national sovereignty of Tuva, and the independent People's Republic of Tannu-Tuva was formed. The Constitution, the flag, the coat of arms were adopted, the gold reserves, the budget and the plenipotentiaries in the USSR and the MPR were approved.

Since 1926 - the Tuva People's Republic. The state was recognized by the USSR in 1924 and the Mongolian People's Republic in 1926, but was not recognized by China and most countries of the world, which considered Tuva to be part of China.

In 1932, an agreement was signed on the border between the TPR and the MPR, which provided for the transfer of part of the disputed territories south of the Tannu-Ola ridge (modern Mongun-Taiginsky, Ovyursky, Tes-Khemsky and Erzinsky kozhuuns) to the People's Republic of China. This agreement, concluded with the mediation of the USSR, was ambiguously perceived in Mongolia and was not ratified by it. In 1937, the Mongolian side declared the 1932 border agreement "unfair" and concluded under pressure from the USSR and repeatedly proposed to revise it, including after the TNR joined the USSR. However, all these proposals were rejected by the Tuvan-Soviet side.


Tuva during World War II

On June 25, 1941, the Tuva People's Republic entered the Second World War on the side of the USSR, declaring war on Nazi Germany, and became the first state to officially become an ally of the Soviet Union in the fight against the aggressor.

From June 1941 to August 1944, the Tuva People's Republic delivered 50,000 horses to the USSR, as well as about 750,000 heads of cattle, of which almost 650,000 were free of charge. Thus, from each Tuvan family, which, as a rule, had an average of 130 heads, 10-100 heads of cattle were delivered to the USSR. During the war, Tuva supplied the Soviet Army with 52,000 pairs of skis, 10,000 coats, 19,000 pairs of mittens, 16,000 pairs of felt boots, 67 tons of wool, 400 tons of meat, rye, barley flour and melted butter, as well as tens of tons of honey, fruit and canned berries and concentrates, fish products, tons of dressings, alternative medicine, wax and resin, and approximately 90% - free of charge. Also, at the end of the war, Ukraine was donated 30,000 cows, with the livestock of which began the post-war revival of Ukrainian animal husbandry. The entire gold reserve of the republic was transferred to the disposal of the USSR, and the extraction of Tuvan gold, in total, in the amount of 35 million rubles (of that time).

In 1942, the government of the USSR allowed the recruitment of volunteers from Tuva for military service. Earlier, the mobilization of Russian-speaking citizens into the Red Army was announced. The first volunteers joined its ranks in May 1943 and were enlisted in the 25th separate tank regiment (since February 1944, the regiment was part of the 52nd Army of the 2nd Ukrainian Front), which took part in the hostilities on the territory of Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

In September 1943, the second group of volunteers (206 people) was enrolled in the 8th Cavalry Division, where they took part in a raid on the German rear in western Ukraine. In total, during the war years, up to 8 thousand residents of the Tuva People's Republic and Soviet Tuva served in the Red Army, many of them were awarded orders and medals of the USSR and the Tuva People's Republic for military merits.


Tuva as part of the USSR and the RSFSR

On August 17, 1944, the VII session of the Small Khural of the Tuva People's Republic adopted a declaration on the entry of the TPR into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and petitioned the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to accept the Tuva People's Republic into the USSR as an autonomous region of the RSFSR.

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, by Decree of October 11, 1944, granted the petition and proposed to the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR to accept the Tuva People's Republic as part of the RSFSR as an autonomous region.

By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR of October 14, 1944 "On the admission of the Tuva People's Republic into the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic", the Tuva People's Republic was admitted to the RSFSR as the Tuva Autonomous Region.

On October 10, 1961, the region was transformed into the Tuva Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

On December 17, 1961, elections were held to the Supreme Soviet of the Tuva ASSR of the first convocation.

In 1978, the first constitution of the Tuva ASSR was adopted since joining the USSR.

On December 12, 1990, the Supreme Council of the Tuva ASSR adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Soviet Republic of Tuva.

On May 24, 1991, the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR transformed the Tuva ASSR into the Tuva SSR, amending Art. 71 of the constitution of the RSFSR.

After the August coup in the USSR, on August 28, 1991, the Tuva ASSR was renamed by the Supreme Council of the republic into the Republic of Tuva. This name was enshrined in the constitution of the RSFSR in the edition of April 21, 1992.

In December 1991, the post of President of Tuva was introduced, who is also the head of the government of the Republic of Tuva.



In 1993, the version of the Constitution of the Republic of 1993 was adopted with the new name of the republic: the Republic of Tuva (the Tuvan language was listed as "Tuva language"). In the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which entered into force 2 months later, the name "Republic of Tyva" was fixed.

In the current Constitution of the Republic of 2001, the names "Republic of Tyva" and "Tuva" have become equivalent. The constitution, adopted by referendum on May 6, 2001, did not contain any mention of sovereignty and equalized the rights of the Russian and Tuvan languages. Also, the 2001 Constitution abolished the position of the president of the republic, and the head of the region was declared the chairman of the government, appointed by the president of Russia.



Modern state symbols, coat of arms and flag of the Republic of Tyva, adopted by the Supreme Council of the Republic on September 17, 1992.

The State Emblem of the Republic of Tuva is an image on a blue background of a rider in national Tuvan clothes, riding a horse towards the rays of the rising sun. At the base of the coat of arms on the traditional ribbon "kadak" white inscription "Tyva". The rider, the horse, the sun and its rays, the inscription "Tuva" are made in gold (yellow) color. The image is framed by a five-petal shape with stripes of gold (yellow), white and gold (yellow) colors alternating along the contour.

The national flag of the Republic of Tuva is a blue rectangular panel. From the side of the pole, from the top and bottom corners of the flag, slanted white and blue stripes emanate. The blue stripes form, when connected, one stripe running along the length of the flag, in its middle. Parallel to it, above and below, are white stripes. The conditional triangle formed by white stripes emanating from the upper and lower corners of the flag, and its left edge, has a golden (yellow) color.

In 1993-2011, the national anthem of the Republic of Tuva was the folk song "Tooruktug long tandym" (translated into Russian - Forest full of pine nuts). Words and music - folk, text processing - Ayana Mongush. In 2011, a new anthem "Men - tyva men" ("I am a Tuvan") was adopted. Authors: Okay Shanagash (words) and Kantomur Saryglar (music).


Public holidays

Shagaa (New Year according to the lunar calendar). The date of the holiday is calculated by lamas according to the lunar calendar. The festival usually begins in the afternoon, on the eve of Shagaa. Prayers are performed in Buddhist temples, theatrical performances. The holiday was approved by the Law of the Republic of Tyva dated February 12, 1999 No. 143 "On holidays of the Republic of Tyva".
Constitution Day of the Republic of Tyva - May 6. The Constitution of the Republic of Tyva was adopted on May 6, 2001, finalized after the referendum on April 11, 2010. This is the current, eighth Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, the first of which was adopted on August 4, 1921 at the All-Tuva Constituent Khural during the proclamation of the independent Tuva People's Republic.
Day of the Republic of Tyva. A holiday approved by the Law of the Republic of Tyva dated February 12, 1999 No. 143 "On holidays of the Republic of Tyva". Republic Day is celebrated as the historical date of foundation of the Tuvan statehood on August 15. In August 1921, the All-Tuva Constituent Khural proclaimed the formation of a sovereign state - the Tuva People's Republic (TNR). Russia took a direct part in the preparation of this event, supporting the Tuvan people in their quest for self-determination. Later, on October 11, 1944, the republic voluntarily became part of the USSR as an autonomous region of the RSFSR.



How to get there

By plane
1 Airport. Airport Kyzyl. This airport is small and offers flights to and from the Siberian center of Krasnoyarsk as well as Raduzhny, Khantia-Mansia for some odd reason. The direct flights from Moscow to Kyzyl go twice a week via Ufa, Bashkiria's capital, departing from Moscow on Sunday and Wednesday.

By train
2 Abakan railway station. Railway station of the city of Abakan. The best option is to take the train from Moscow to Abakan (76 hours), with one-way fares varying from approximately 4,000 Rub (US$160) to 9,500 Rub (US$390). The price changes according to peak tourist seasons in Russia: by far the cheapest day to travel is 1 January, while July is the most expensive.
By car
3 Federal Highway R257 Yenisei (Usinsk highway). The federal highway Yenisei R257 or otherwise the Usinsky tract, the M-54 is the only road between Abakan and Kyzyl.

By bus
4 Passenger ATP of Kyzyl. Bus station Kyzyl. It is possible to take a bus from Abakan in neighboring Khakassia. While a night bus is an option, don't take it! The route meanders through the gorgeous Sayan mountain landscapes of the Ergaki region, which would be foolish to miss. The train from Moscow arrives in Abakan at 06:00, and apart from the bus, there will be plenty of taxi drivers offering to take you to Kyzyl (approximately 420 km from Abakan) for 1,000 — 1,500 Rub (US$40-60). There is a possibility that you may have to register at the Russian-Tuvan border — just hand over your passport to the police officer, there is no fee for the service. You may even travel by bus from as far as Krasnoyarsk, but expect it to be a long evening and night in a bus. The road in Tuva is being renovated, but otherwise the trip is smooth.

On the ship
The city of Kyzyl has no access to the sea.



Bank, ATM
Tuvinsky branch of OJSC "Rosselkhozbank", city It's red. 23 of Tuvinsk volunteers. ☎ +7 (39422) 2-04-01, +7 (39422) 2-41-01. Mon–Fri 9:00–18:00, break from 13:00 to 14:00.
Tuvinsky regional branch of OJSC "Rosbank", city It's red. 10, Tuvinskih volunteers. ☎ +7 (39422) 3-80-88. Mon–Fri 9:30–17:00, break 13:00–14:00, Sat 10:00–14:00 with lunch.
Sberbank of Russia, It's red. Kochetova, 43. Mon–Fri 8:30–19:00, Sat 9:00–17:30, Sun 10:00–16:00.



Restaurant "BAYAN-GOL". Working hours: from 10.00 to 24.00 daily. d. It's red. Angarsky Bulbar, 12. Tel.: 8-913-341-52-69;
Restaurant "ODUGEN". Working hours: from 12:00 to 03:00. d. It's red. Krasnykh-Partizan, 36. tel.: 8 (39422) 3-25-18;
Restaurant "BUYAN-BADYRGY". Working hours: from 10:00 to 23:00. d. It's red. Moskovskaya, 1. tel.: 8 (39422) 2-56-55;
Cafe "MOKKA". Opening hours: from 10.00 to 23.00 daily. d. It's red. Shchetinkina-Kravchenko, 41. tel.: 8 (39422) 3-29-04;
Cafe "BELISSIMO". Working hours: from 12:00 to 01:00. d. It's red. Kalinina, 10 p. tel.: 8 (39422) 6-00-21, 8-923-545-65-82;
Cafe "COFFEEMAN". Working hours: from 10:00 to 23:00. daily, d. It's red. Kochetovo, 2. tel.: 8 (39422) 2-02-79;
Cafe "VOSTORG". Working hours: from 08.00 to 23.00. daily d. It's red. Shchetinkina-Kravchenko, 35. tel.: 8 (39422) 2-28-40;
Cafe "FUJN". Working hours: from 12.00 to 24.00. daily d. It's red. Tuvinsky volunteers, 13. tel.: 8 (39422) 2-59-69, 2-59-60;
Lounge-cafe "DOLCHE VITA". Working hours: from 10:00 to 01:00. daily d. It's red. Kochetovo, 168. tel.: 8 (39422) 2-12-12;
Cafe "PAPARAZZI". Working hours: from 11:00 to 22:00. daily d. It's red. Rabochaya, 250. Phone: 8-923-266-11-99, delivery 8-923-268-22-88;
Cafe "DVA PERSKA". Working hours: from 10:00 to 22:00. d. It's red. Kalinina, 1 st. tel.: 8-923-386-47-74;
Cafe "ONDUM". Working hours: from 12:00 to 00:00. d. It's red. Kochetovo, 25. tel.: 8 (39422) 2-59-99, 8-913-344-59-99;
Cafe "LETO". Working hours: from 09.00 to 23.00 daily. d. It's red. Angarsky boulevard, 12. tel.: 8 (39422) 5-14-99;


Night life

Cafe-bar "ICON". Working hours: from 19.00 to 03.00 from Wednesday to Sunday, str. Red partisans, 28. Tel.: 8 (39422) 2-22-52.
Resto-club "Tengri". Opening hours: Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday from 11:00 to 01:00, Friday from 11:00 to 04:00, Saturday from 15:00 to 04:00, Sunday from 15:00 to 01:00 . d. It's red. Gornaya, 104. Tel. 8(39422) 5-63-70.
"Yurta Subedea". Working hours: from 10:00 to 01:00. d. It's red. Druzhby, 149. Tel. 8-923-555-70-55.



Hotel "Buyan-Badyrgy" (category 2**) - st. Moscow, 1. 667000. tel.: 8 (39422) 5-64-60, 5-63-42, fax: 8 (39422) 5-63-18.
Hotel "Cottage" - st. Krasnykh partisans, 38. tel/fax 8 (39422) 3-05-03, 2-01-45.
Hotel "Mongulek" - st. Kochetovo 1. tel/fax: 8 (39422) 3-12-53.
Hotel "Mini-hotel" - st. Moscowskaya, 24. tel.: 8 (39422) 5-66-66.
Hotel "Odugen" - st. Red partisans, 36. tel.: 8 (39422) 3-25-18, 2-01-45.



The main mobile operators in Russia are present here: Megafon, MTS, Beeline, Tele2, Yota, etc. There are 4G zones. There are enough communication offices. You can even find Internet cafes, computer clubs for the Internet, and many establishments have free Wi-Fi.

There is a “London” red telephone booth in the city center on the local Arbat square and it works. The service is free.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Tyva Republic is located in the geographical center of Asia in the south of Eastern Siberia, in the upper reaches of the Yenisei. The maximum length of the territory from north to south is 420 km, from west to east - 630 km, the maximum and minimum lengths are 720 km and 120 km, respectively. The total area of the republic is 168.6 thousand km².

The republic borders: in the south and southeast - with Mongolia, in the east - with the Republic of Buryatia, in the northeast - with the Irkutsk region, in the north - with the Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the northwest - with the Republic of Khakassia, in the west - with the Republic of Altai. Tuva is a mountainous region with alternating mountain ranges and intermountain basins. About 80% of the territory of the republic is occupied by mountains, and only the remaining part of it is flat steppe areas.

The capital of the Tyva Republic, Kyzyl, is the geographical center of Asia. The obelisk "Center of Asia" is installed on the embankment 1 km below the confluence of Biy-Khem and Kaa-Khem on the left bank of the Yenisei and is a landmark of the city.



The Tyva Republic is in the MSK+4 time zone. The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +7:00.



The climate is sharply continental. Summer is moderately warm in the mountains, and hot in the basins. Average annual air temperature −5.5 °C; absolute minimum/maximum −59/+38 °C Average annual precipitation ranges from 200 mm in the basins to 1000 mm in the mountains. The most favorable time of the year is late spring and early autumn. The growing season is 150-160 days. On the territory of Tuva, areas of permafrost are widespread.



According to its relief, the territory of the republic is mountainous and hollow. Mountains occupy approximately 82% of its area, and only the remaining part of it is flat areas.

In the north and east of Tuva there are ridges and spurs of the Sayan Mountains with peaks 2000-3000 meters above sea level. In the middle part, the system of ridges of Academician Obruchev merges with the Eastern Sayan. Where Biy-Khem (Great Yenisei) originates, there is a high-mountain basalt plateau Derby-Taiga with 16 extinct volcanoes.

In the west of Tuva there are ridges and spurs of the Altai Mountains with peaks over 3000 m above sea level. The highest of them are Mongun-Taiga (3976 m), Ak-Oyuk (3608 m), Mongulek (3485 m), Kyzyl-Taiga (3121 m).

The mountains play the role of a wall that isolates from external influences, defining the climate of the republic as sharply continental, characterized by a frosty, windless winter, in hollows with little snow.


Water resources

Tuva has a rich potential of fresh water. Almost all rivers belong to the basin of the upper Yenisei, and only the southern slopes of Tannu-Ola and Sangilen give their waters to the rivers of the drainless basin of the Big Lakes - a vast tectonic depression in the west of Mongolia and the south of Tuva.

One of the largest rivers in the world, the Yenisei (Ulug-Khem), originates in Tuva. In the Tuva basin near Kyzyl, two rivers merge - the Big Yenisei (Biy-Khem) and the Small Yenisei (Kaa-Khem). The bulk of the river's water is received during the spring-summer snowmelt and summer rains.

There are more than 430 lakes on the territory of the republic, most of which are of glacial origin. There are also 13 salty mud lakes and more than 50 healing springs, the waters of which are successfully used to treat various kinds of diseases. The republic is rich in underground and mineral waters of various groups, such as carbonic (cold and thermal), siliceous thermal, radon, sulfide, acid ferruginous and without specific components. The largest of the arzhaans, healing springs, are the hot springs Ush-Beldir (Northern arzhaan) and Tarys (Southern arzhaan) in the mountains of eastern Tuva on the Akademika Obruchev Ridge with a water temperature of +52 to +85 °C.


Seismic environment

Tyva is a seismically hazardous region, in particular, on December 27, 2011, February 26 and June 6, 2012, three strong earthquakes and many aftershocks occurred on the territory of the republic.

On January 12, 2021, tremors were felt in Tyva from an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 in northern Mongolia and the aftershocks that followed. In Kyzyl, the intensity of tremors reached 4.5 points, the strongest tremors (6 points) were recorded in the village of Kungurtug.


Flora and fauna

Tuva has a unique and diverse flora and fauna. Amphibians are represented by six species from two orders. There are seven types of reptiles. There are more than 348 species of birds in the avifauna. There are 85 species of mammals from seven orders.

As of 2020, forests on the territory of Tyva occupy 8671.2 thousand hectares (51% of the republic's area), of which 8055.5 thousand hectares are part of the forest fund lands, the rest are on lands for other purposes. In the composition of forest plantations, larch is in the lead, the second place is occupied by cedar, mixed with fir, spruce and birch, which occupies a little less than half of the forest land. Pine forests make up 1.1%, and softwood forests 3.4% of the total forest area.

Sable, squirrel, fox, Siberian weasel, ermine, lynx, roe deer, musk deer, red deer, elk, wild boar, brown bear live in the taiga. In spring, the Daurian rhododendron blooms (called rosemary by the local population). Medicinal plants are successfully used in folk and Tibetan medicine.

About 30 species of fish live in the reservoirs: salmon, grayling, pike, carp, cod. In the Yenisei River basin: grayling, lenok and taimen live in the river system; in backwaters and oxbow lakes - pike, perch, Siberian roach, ide, bream, whitefish; in the lakes - whitefish, pike, ide, perch, roach, burbot, dace, grayling, peled. The Sayano-Shushenskoye reservoir is inhabited by roach, perch, pike, burbot, bream, and ide. 11 species of fish are of commercial importance: lenok, peled, grayling, pike, roach, ide, burbot, perch, bream. Fishing is concentrated in the lake system, the optimal commercial catch of fish is 600-700 tons per year, including catches in the river system up to 60 tons.

The dynamic development of trade relations with China after the collapse of the USSR led to changes in forestry and the environmental situation in the region. Based on ten years of observations, it was concluded that the volume of cuttings is many times higher than the permitted and declared. This raised concerns from the World Wildlife Fund. Chinese-owned sawmills and timber yards play a key role in the spread of illegal logging, while being a major area of interest in Russia for Chinese organized crime. Poaching contributes to the reduction of rare animal species; and the main direction of smuggling was the export of parts and derivatives.