Listvyanka, Russia


Listvyanka is the nearest village to Irkutsk, located on Lake Baikal. It is here, most likely, that tourists from Irkutsk will go, dreaming of seeing Lake Baikal with their own eyes. Here hiking trails to neighboring villages begin, laid along the shore of Lake Baikal along secluded bays overgrown with pine trees. Here you can take a rocket and get to Olkhon Island - the center of shamanism in the region.

Listvyanka can be called a resort. There are more and more hotels, boarding houses, guest houses with each high season. Among the active entertainment offered to the people are snowmobiling in winter and horseback riding in summer, lake boat trips, hiking tours to the nearest mountains. Those who like to wind kilometers in wild places should get a pass to the Pribaikalsky Nature Reserve in advance. This service is provided in the office of Listvyansky forestry on Gorky street.



Listvyanka got its name from the larches growing on the nearby Listvennichny Cape. In addition, until the beginning of the 20th century, the official name of the village was "Larch". Gradually, under the influence of the simplified slang name, the official name was changed to Listvyanka. Many scientists who worked in Listvyanka advocated the return of the original name "Larch".



Listvyanka is located on the right side of the source of the Angara River and stretches to the northwest along Lake Baikal (Listvenichny Bay) for 5 km.

In Listvyanka, several streams and rivers flow into Baikal, the largest of them is Krestovka.



The village of Listvyanka arose on the basis of the ancient village of Listvenichnoye, which has existed for a long time on Lake Baikal, a few kilometers from the source of the Angara.

In local history literature, there is a version that at the beginning of the 18th century, one of the inhabitants of the village of Nikola, Roman Kislitsyn, set up a winter hut on the site of the future Listvyanka, and soon houses and several residents of Irkutsk appeared here. These events date back to around 1725.

The version is based on the notes of the famous Irkutsk local historian, researcher of the history of villages along the shores of Lake Baikal I. I. Veselov, who in 1925, on the instructions of the East Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society, made a historical and ethnographic trip along the shores of Lake Baikal. In the early 1930s, he was in charge of a tourist base and a museum in the village of Listvenichnoye.

The State Archives of the Irkutsk Region keeps a note by I.I. Veselova entitled “On the issue of the initial settlement of the village. Listvenichny", which, among other things, says the following: "And so, as they say in Listvenichny itself, approximately in 1725, one of the inhabitants of the then Nikola, thinks, transfers his "winter hut" to Baikal, and the first the Russian hut of the industrialist of the village of Nikola, Roman Kislitsyn.

It follows from this that the history of the founding of the village of Listvennichnoye was recorded by a local historian based on the stories of local residents, and the date is indicated “approximately”. It is quite possible that the name of its founder was remembered in the village. It is known that I. I. Veselov, studying the history of the Baikal villages, actively used the stories of old-timers.

Nevertheless, if we talk about official documents, then, obviously, the earliest, now known mention of Listvennichny should be considered an entry in the Journal of the Russian embassy to China, held in 1725-1728. headed by a well-known diplomat, associate of Peter I S. L. Vladislavich-Raguzinsky.

On its way to China, in July 1726 the embassy crossed Baikal from the village of Goloustnoye to the Posolsky Monastery. Before that, the embassy left the source of the Angara and headed along Baikal, about which the following entry was made in the Journal on July 21: only two huts. A little further away, 6 versts, there is a wharf from the weather, called Listvenishnaya.

Thus, in a situation where the exact date of the foundation of a particular settlement is unknown, the earliest mention in reliable sources is used as the initial date of its history.

With regard to the village of Listvennichnoye and, consequently, the village of Listvyanka, such is the above entry in the Journal of the Russian Embassy in China, dated July 21, 1726.

The Journal's information about the existence of the Listvenishnaya pier at that time, where it was possible to hide in bad weather, confirms the presence of a settlement there.

Thus, the earliest reliable mention of modern Listvyanka is July 21, 1726, which is considered to be the date of foundation of the village.

Main events
1843 - Listvenichnoye becomes a village, a new church is transferred from the village of Nikola to Listvenichnoye.

Since 1860 - a rapid increase in the growth of the village, the beginning of the work of a large steamship company Khaminov and Rusanov (32 fishing vessels).

In 1873, Listvenichnoye became a village in the Irkutsk District of the Irkutsk Province.

By 1874, about 200 people lived in Listvenichny. The main occupations of the inhabitants of Listvenichny were crafts: hunting and fishing.

Benedict Dybowski and Bernhard Petri went on scientific expeditions from here, and many outstanding explorers of Baikal lived and worked here.

1880-1900 - construction of an icebreaking crossing, a sharp development of shipbuilding.

1896 - 409 inhabitants.

1900 - in the summer the most active steamship communication is between Listvenichnaya and Mysovaya. In winter, icebreakers transport entire trains along this route. Another shipping company maintains Listvenichny's traffic across Lake Baikal along the Selenga River. There are several boat trips.

1905 - holding between Art. Baikal and the Slyudyanka railway, connecting the Tomsk railway with the Trans-Baikal (Circum-Baikal Railway). The activities of the icebreaking crossing and partly the Kokovina shipping company are gradually moderated and since 1912 have been rapidly declining.

1911 - in the village of Listvenichnoye, Irkutsk province, there is a Baikal customs outpost. Outpost manager: n.h. Nikolai Stepanovich Shvets, assistant manager: call. reg. Leonid Ivanovich Nekipelov.

1918 - the termination of the ice crossing after the burning of the icebreaker "Baikal".

1925 - 1523 inhabitants in 353 yards.

1926 - Listvenichnoye - a pristansky settlement of the Irkutsk region of the East Siberian Territory.

The population is 1299: 627 men and 672 women. Occupations of the population: hunting, fishing, cedar fishing. There is an excursion base, a school of the 1st stage, a seven-year plan for water transport and a club. Consumer society shop, post and telegraph department, medical assistant's station. The shipbuilding base is being developed.

On July 1, 1934, the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee assigned Listvyanka the status of an urban-type settlement.

1953 - Listvyanka - an urban-type settlement in the Slyudyansky district of the Irkutsk region of the RSFSR. Pier, shipyard, Baikal limnological station of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, secondary and primary school, FZO school, club, tourist base. 2.7 thousand inhabitants.

1973 - Listvyanka - an urban-type settlement in the Irkutsk district of the Irkutsk region of the RSFSR. Shipyard, Institute of Limnology, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

After the construction of the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station in the 50s of the XX century, the coastal territory of the village fell into the flood zone, as a result of which the original two-row building of the main street was transformed into a single-row one.

From July 5, 1984 to August 2, 1995, Listvyanka was part of the Oktyabrsky district of the city of Irkutsk.

In 1972, the famous playwright Alexander Vampilov drowned in the Angara near Listvyanka.



Despite the fact that Irkutsk is only 65 km from Listvyanka, the climate of these two places is different. In Listvyanka, it has features of the sea, although officially it is considered sharply continental. Huge water masses of Lake Baikal in the summer warm up to a depth of 200-250 meters and, like an accumulator, accumulate a large amount of heat. Therefore, the winter in Listvyanka is much milder, and the summer is cooler than in Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude and other Siberian cities. It is also colder in spring and warmer in autumn.

The minimum precipitation falls on January-March. Maximum July-August. Ice in the Listvyanka area usually rises in January and melts in April-May. In winters with little snow, it is transparent and its thickness reaches 100-110 cm.



Tourism is the backbone of the village's economy. Here they sell Baikal omul and souvenirs. There are hotels in Listvyanka. The Baikal City project is being developed.

The shipyard (former ship repair workshops of the Baikal ferry crossing) was the most important enterprise of Listvyanka, many ships of the Baikal fleet were built on it, and the famous ferry-icebreaker "Baikal" and the icebreaker "Angara" built in England were assembled there. Now abandoned.

Listvyanka is famous for its picturesque nature. For the sake of beautiful photos, tourists from different regions of Russia, as well as foreign tourists from China, Mongolia, Armenia, Georgia, France, Germany, the USA and other countries come here.

However, the development of the tourism business creates a number of problems. Local residents are outraged by the expansion of the Chinese, who pose a threat, including pollution of Lake Baikal with untreated sewage, but the state does not take adequate measures.



Listvyanka is connected with Irkutsk by land (buses and fixed-route taxis), and in summer by water. The distance from Irkutsk to Listvyanka is 64 km, the journey takes about 1 hour. Buses and fixed-route taxis in Irkutsk depart from the bus station, and motor ships depart from the Raketa pier.

Every day, 3-5 ferries depart from the Rogatka pier (in Listvyanka) to the port of Baikal, from where the Circum-Baikal Railway (CBR) begins.

The houses in the village face Baikal with their main facade. Old buildings are characterized by houses made of logs, without sheathing of external walls. Recently, more and more houses sheathed with plastic siding have appeared.

On May 10, 2009, Igor Esipovsky, Governor of the Irkutsk Region, died in a helicopter crash near Listvyanka.



In Listvyanka there are:

Baikal Museum of the Irkutsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Baikal Astrophysical Observatory;
Church of St. Nicholas;
Catholic parish named after John Paul II, which received this name during the life of the Pope;
Monument to playwright Alexander Vampilov;
Chersky stone, observation deck;
Shaman stone;
Ski center "Eastland" and the observation deck "Stone Chersky";
On the road towards Irkutsk is the Irkutsk architectural and ethnographic museum "Taltsy" (20 km);
Art Gallery. Vladimir Plamenevsky;
Author's song theater on Baikal, Irkutsk;
"Retro-Park", an art gallery, an exhibition of metal sculptures, a collection of retro cars. Museum "Retro Park";
Hotel "Mayak" stands out for its appearance;
Every year, starting from 2015, on the ice of Lake Baikal, the Public Movement #Live on Baikal builds a composition of ice sculptures out of ice from the letters of the hashtag "#Live_on_Baikal".