Malgobek, Russia

Malgobek (Ingush. Maggalbike, Chech. Malhabek) is a city in the Republic of Ingushetia of the Russian Federation. The toponym "Malgobek" is considered primary for the western part of the Tersk ridge and is derived, according to one version, from the Kabardian language. Original Kabardian-Cherk. Melgebeg is a compound word consisting of mel - "sheep", the prefix of the causative ge- and the root of the verb bag - "to swell" (meaning "to swell from poison"). According to another version, the name of the city comes from the name of the Magial-Bek tract, in the place of which the city allegedly arose. From Ingush, this toponym is translated as "the supreme commander of the army" and is raised to the title of the former owner of these lands.



Located in the Alkhanchurt Valley, on the southern slope of the Tersk ridge, 40 km (in a straight line) from the capital of the republic - the city of Magas. Malgobek is located in the westernmost part of the valley, to the west of the city it narrows, pressed from the north by the Tersk ridge, and from the south by the Sunzha ridge and one of its spurs (Mount Arik-Paptsa, 510.9 m), towards the village of Nizhniy Kurp ( Kabardino-Balkaria), where it is closed by the valley of the Kurp River, which stretches in the meridional direction from south to north. Thus, already a few kilometers south of Malgobek, located at the northern border of the valley, the Sunzhensky ridge rises. To the east, the Alkhanchurt Valley is expanding. Along the southeastern border of the city, the Western Branch of the Alkhanchurt Canal flows, which originates from the Alkhanchurt Canal near the village of Nizhnie Achaluki, then goes far northwest to Malgobek, and then rushes east to the mouth of the valley.

The territory of the city (and the corresponding urban district) includes not only Malgobek itself, but also all the surrounding oil-producing villages and areas of the Malgobek-Gorsky oil field, located on the crest of the Tersky ridge to the north, north-east and north-west of the city.

During the intensification of landslide processes in the vicinity of Malgobek, caused by the development of existing oil fields, the former producing villages and areas found themselves in a landslide zone, in connection with which residents are being relocated to new territories today. Previously, the largest of them were the Pobeda site (1200 people), the village of Stary Malgobek (850 people), the Chapaev site (520 people) - as of 1988.

The nearest settlements: in the south - the village of Sagopshi (in fact, it merges with Malgobek) and the village of Psedakh, in the south-west - the village of Inarki, in the north-west - the village of Nizhniy Kurp (Kabardino-Balkaria), in the north, already beyond the Tersk ridge - the village Vezhariy, in the northeast, on the crest and slopes of the ridge - the villages of Maly Malgobek and Predgornoe (North Ossetia), the village of Voznesenskaya, in the east - the village of Yuzhnoye, in the southeast - the villages of Zyazikov-Yurt, Nizhnie Achaluki, New Redant.



In 1934, by a resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the village of Voznesenskoe of the Voznesensky village council of the Sunzhensky district of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Okrug was transformed into a working settlement of Malgobek. By the decree of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR dated August 27, 1939, the settlement was transformed into a city. The emergence and rapid growth of the settlement, and then the city, are associated with the development of the Malgobek-Gorsky oil field.

The Great Patriotic War
The heroic pages of Malgobek's history are associated with the period of the Great Patriotic War.

One of the main goals of the German offensive in the Caucasus in 1942 was the capture of the main oil production areas in the USSR - Grozny and Baku. Therefore, after the Germans reached the Terek line in the area of ​​Mozdok and Prokhladny in August, the direction to Malgobek became one of the priorities for the further offensive. Malgobek is the center of a large oil-bearing region (the first oil fields in the North Caucasus were captured in early August, when the enemy occupied Maykop). In addition, the capture of Malgobek opened for the Germans access to the Alkhanchurt Valley, along which it was possible to develop an offensive further to the southeast, to Grozny.

In early September, the German 1st Panzer Army began to cross the Terek in the Mozdok area. The heavy defensive battles that the Soviet 9th Army (11th Guards Rifle Corps and other formations) fought with the Germans in this direction make up the Mozdok-Malgobek defensive operation, which lasted from September 1 to September 28, 1942. Despite the fierce counterattacks by Soviet troops, the formations of the 1st Tank Army managed to create 2 bridgeheads on the southern bank of the Terek - in the Mozdok area (Predmostny farm) and in the area of ​​the Kizlyar village. Expanding them, on September 12 the Germans occupied the village of Malgobek (also called Malgobek-2, Malgobek western), which is now located in North Ossetia, in the north-western direction from the city of Malgobek, and has nothing to do with the city in Ingushetia. However, due to the same names, it is often the date of September 12 that is mistakenly called the beginning of the occupation of the city. In the area of ​​the village of Malgobek, the 37th Army of the Northern Group of the Transcaucasian Front defended itself, while the direction to the Malgobek oil fields from the north was covered, as already mentioned, by the 9th Army, located east of the 37th.

The fascist attack on the city of Malgobek (also called Eastern Malgobek) began only on September 26 from the west, from the area of ​​the headwaters of the Alkhanchurt Valley, as well as from the north, across the crest of the Tersk ridge. However, the initial attempts to break into the valley, taking Psedakh, Sagopshi and Malgobek, were unsuccessful. It was only on October 5 that the forces of the 52nd Army Corps of the 1st Panzer Army (111th Infantry Division) and the 5th SS Panzer Division "Viking" managed to break into the western part of Malgobek. The 5th Guards Tank Brigade, 52nd Tank Brigade, 9th Infantry Brigade, 57th Infantry Brigade, 59th Infantry Brigade and other formations defended on the Soviet side in the city area. By October 19, the front had stabilized, although local battles continued later.

During the autumn battles of 1942, the enemy was unable to completely seize the Malgobek oil fields (their eastern part remained with the Soviet troops). The 57th Rifle Brigade was later awarded the Order of the Red Banner for defensive battles in the Malgobek area and attempts to counterattack the enemy in order to liberate the city in October 1942.

Since November 1942, the 58th Army (271st Infantry Division and other units) and 44th Army (223rd, 416th Infantry Divisions, and other formations) have occupied the defense lines in the Malgobek area, on the Terek, on the approaches to Mozdok. In early January 1943, after the disastrous defeat of the Germans at Stalingrad, the offensive of the Transcaucasian Front began, hoping to forestall the retreat of the German troops, who feared encirclement in the Caucasus. On January 3, 1943, by the forces of the 58th and 44th armies, the Malgobek and Mozdok area was liberated.

Post-war period
In 1944, after the deportation of Chechens and Ingush, Malgobek was transferred to the North Ossetian ASSR and remained there until 1957, when he was returned to the restored Chechen-Ingush ASSR.

During the Soviet period, oil production remained the basis of Malgobek's economy. There was a brick factory, as well as food industry enterprises. The city's population grew until the 1970s, then remained at approximately the same level until the early 1990s. At the same time, the ethnic composition of the population was gradually changing. Almost from the moment the city was founded, the number of Russians decreased, while the number of Ingush grew.


Since 1992, after the division of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Malgobek has been a part of Ingushetia. In the 2000s and 2010s, in the city, as well as in Ingushetia as a whole, the activity of the Islamist bandit underground operating in the North Caucasus was noted. The city has repeatedly attacked law enforcement officers, committed terrorist acts, and carried out special operations against militants.

On October 8, 2007, in memory of the courage, perseverance, heroism shown by the defenders of the city during the Great Patriotic War, by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, Malgobek was awarded the honorary title of the Russian Federation "City of Military Glory". On May 9, 2010, the City of Military Glory stele was solemnly opened in the city, which immediately became one of the symbols of Malgobek. Even before its official opening, in January 2010, the city's coat of arms was changed - a commemorative stele became its central element. In 2010, a postage block dedicated to Malgobek and other Cities of Military Glory was released. In 2011, a commemorative coin dedicated to Malgobek was released in the “City of Military Glory” coin series.

On November 5, 2013, in memory of the soldiers of the 9th rifle brigade, 223rd and 416th rifle divisions of the 44th army, formed in the Azerbaijan SSR and fought in 1942-1943 in the Malgobek area, the Alley named after the President was opened in the city Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, which symbolizes the friendship and unity of the peoples of Russia and Azerbaijan. A memorial sign with the image of Heydar Aliyev is installed on the alley. On the same day, a bust of Alexei Berest, one of the participants in the hoisting of the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building, was unveiled in Malgobek.

On May 10, 2015, the city of military glory Malgobek and the Belarusian city of Brest became sister cities.