Nizhneudinsk, Russia


Nizhneudinsk is a city in the Irkutsk region, the administrative center of the Nizhneudinsk region. Forms the Nizhneudinskoe municipal formation.



Located on the Uda River - the right tributary of the Taseyeva River (Angara basin), 506 km north-west of Irkutsk. It was named Nizhneudinsk to distinguish it from the city of Verkhneudinsk (now Ulan-Ude, Buryatia) formed at the mouth of the Uda River in Transbaikalia.

The area of ​​the city is 7.5 thousand hectares. 18 km from Nizhneudinsk, downstream of the river. Uda is the Ukovsky waterfall (height - 20 m). 75 km up the Uda, south of the city, at an altitude of about 460 m above the river level, there are the Nizhneudinskie caves.

In Nizhneudinsky district, 209 km from the regional center, there is Tofalaria, the region of residence of the Tofalars, one of the smallest ethnic groups in Russia.



Moving to the Sayan region, the Russians met with serious resistance from the Udi Buryats, united under the rule of the prince Oylan (Ilanko). And only after a large detachment of the Krasnoyarsk Cossacks under the leadership of atamans Miloslav Koltsov and Yelisei Tyumentsev defeated the main forces of the Buryats in August 1645, these lands began to be populated and developed by Russians. In 1647, Oylan recognized the domination of the Russian Tsar and beat his forehead about the construction of a prison in his lands "to protect them, brotherly people, from other non-peaceful lands, from wars and for the yasak collection." The next year, ataman Yelisey Tyumentsev was sent up the Uda with a detachment of Krasnoyarsk Cossacks, who laid the foundation on October 14, 1648, on the day of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos, on the high right bank of the Uda "sovereign winter quarters" (Pokrovsky town).

In 1664, the Udi settlement was awarded the title of a prison and it becomes not only a fortification, but also a center of trade and agriculture.

In the summer of 1666, the fort was ravaged by the Yenisei Kyrgyz, led by Irenek.

In 1700, the Udinsky prison was renamed into Nizhneudinsky, in contrast to the Udinsky prison in Transbaikalia (the future Verkhneudinsk).

From the middle of the eighteenth century, a slow development of a prison settlement into a small town began. This was due, first of all, to the laying of the Moscow highway that passed through Nizhneudinsk. Its settlement begins, the number of nearby villages grows. A post station and an inn were established in Nizhneudinsk.

In 1783, Nizhneudinsk received the status of a district town, in which there was a coachman's settlement (28 houses) and 84 people of the bourgeois class lived, not counting the peasants. In 1780, the city's coat of arms was approved.

Since the end of the 18th century, the city itself has hardly grown. The local bourgeois society was in the most miserable condition and constantly complained about their poverty and the inability to bear state duties. But it was much more lively on the left bank of the Uda. It is no coincidence that it was in the settlement that the stone Resurrection Cathedral was laid, built in one connection with the bell tower. It was erected in 1780-1783 by the Yenisei townspeople S. Zlygostev and A. Funtasov. The cathedral was consecrated in 1785.

In 1789, along with other cities of Siberia, Nizhneudinsk received a master plan, which marked the existing buildings and showed the promising development of the city. The plan clearly shows that the settlement consisted, as it were, of two parts - the city itself with a complex of state and state buildings, a prison, a church and Podgorodnaya Sloboda on the opposite bank.

In 1822 Nizhneudinsk was included in the category of low-power cities, but two decades later noticeable changes took place in its fate. This was most clearly manifested in the dynamics of the urban population. If in 1823 there were 412 male souls, in 1835 - 801, then by the 1860s there were already more than 4.5 thousand souls.

The opening of the Biryusin gold mines in the 1830s contributed to the revitalization of trade and fishing activities, and the growth of the urban population. During these years, the city became the residence of the Sayan gold diggers. In 1830, a six-storey seating yard with storage rooms for goods was built, but trade was carried out mainly in merchant shops. The economic life of the city was influenced by the fact that the Moscow highway passed through it. In addition, from Nizhneudinsk there was a winter route to Lena.

Another impetus in the development of the city took place at the end of the 19th century, when the Trans-Siberian railway passed by. The population grew sharply, and at the beginning of the twentieth century it amounted to 6 thousand people, and by 1917 - almost 9 thousand. Since 1897, the construction of a railway station and a locomotive depot began in Nizhneudinsk. The number of railroad workers is growing rapidly. Already in 1900, about 1.3 thousand people worked in the depot and at a distance. With the construction of the railway, the Nizhneudinsky district began to quickly populate, dozens of new villages and forest areas appear.


During the First World War, a prisoner of war camp was created in Nizhneudinsk. In the winter of 1915-1916, 2,200 prisoners of war were kept in the camp, as a result of which the city became one of the centers of the White Czech uprising in Siberia. It was in Nizhneudinsk, under pressure from the White Czechs, that the Supreme Ruler of Russia, Alexander Kolchak, renounced his rank, after which the Czechoslovak troops escorted him to Irkutsk, thus obtaining a pass for himself to the Far East.

Since the 1930s, the city began to develop as an industrial center. In 1932, an enterprise appeared, which laid the foundation for a modern mica factory, in 1939 - a confectionery factory, then mechanical repair shops, a brick factory, a meat-packing plant were built, a brewery and a furniture factory were reconstructed.

On February 1, 1963, Nizhneudinsk was assigned to the category of cities of regional subordination.

In connection with the massive development in the 1970s-1980s, the face of the city has changed significantly. Almost all the historical buildings of the Podgorodnaya Sloboda were demolished, except for the earliest, island one. On the site of the old buildings, there are modern quarters of multi-storey residential buildings. During the construction of a new bridge across the Uda, the buildings in the historical center of the city were badly damaged. Historical and reserved places include buildings on the island between the river. Milk and channel Zastryanka, separate quarters on the street. Sbitnev, Lenin, Turgenev.

Modern Nizhneudinsk covers an area of ​​over 7 thousand hectares. There are over 70 enterprises and organizations in the city. The city's population doubled during the post-war period and exceeded 40 thousand people.



Station of the East Siberian Railway.
Route P 255 "Siberia" (M53).
Nizhneudinsk airport.

The main mode of transport is rail. In 2004, the reconstruction of the locomotive depot and the railway station was completed.

Air transportation is carried out by OJSC "Nizhneudinskoe Aviation Enterprise". Since 2010, after the bankruptcy procedure, the company has been bought by IrkutskAvia (in 2011, it merged with the Angara airline).

Road transport is carried out by MUP "Transavto" and individual entrepreneurs.