Lake Tere-Khol, Russia

Tere-Khol is a lake in the southeast of Tyva, Russia. It is located in the Tere-Khol tectonic depression at an altitude of 1300 meters. The surface area of ​​the lake is 39.1 km². The catchment area is 295 km². Structurally, it is a rather large, but shallow lake with a dozen islands.

From the lake flows the Saldam River, the left tributary of the Balyktyg-Khem. The small rivers Kholdzhukh-Tikh (from the northwest), the Bazherganak (from the west), and the Kungur-Tuk (from the southeast) flow into the Tere-Khol. There is an island on Tere-Khol, on which the remains of the Uyghur fortress Por-Bazhyn of the 8th century AD have been preserved. e. The island is connected to the southeastern shore of the lake by a 1.3 km long pile footbridge.

The lake is part of the Tere-Khol Lake nature monument.

In the 1970s - 1990s, a fishing artel was located on the lake, carrying out small-scale fishing for bream and pike.

The regional center of the Tere-Khol region (kozhuun), the village of Kungurtug (Kungur-Tuk), is located 6 km southeast of the lake.



Por-Bazhyn (Tuv. Por-Bazhyk, "clay house") - the ruins of a fortress on an island in the middle of Lake Tere-Khol in Tere-Khol kozhuun of the Tyva Republic (Russian Federation).

The construction of the fortress began in the summer of 777 during the time of the third Uygur Kaganate (744–840 AD) during the reign of the Begyu Kagan. The fortress has a rectangular shape with a clear internal layout, which includes a central structure and a system of courtyards with small buildings in the center along the inner perimeter of the walls. In the center of the eastern wall there was a gate with fortified towers. The fortress stretches 211 meters from west to east, 158 meters from north to south, the total area of ​​the fortress is 3.3 hectares, the height of the walls is up to 9.5 meters. The complex with a labyrinthine structure of inner walls occupies almost the entire area of ​​the island on which it is located. It still rises to 12m in height. The thickness of the outer walls is more than 10 m. The buildings are built of adobe bricks. The fortress is relatively well preserved due to its inaccessible location and remoteness from transport routes. You can get to the area of ​​the fortress only by air or in a dry season by an off-road vehicle.

Ancient roof tiles among the ruins of the Por-Bazhyn fortress
The ruins of the fortress were discovered in 1891 by an employee of the Minusinsk Museum, D.A.Klemenets. In 1957-1963, an archaeological expedition was organized on the island, led by Professor of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences Sevian Weinstein. In 1995, on the basis of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated February 20, 1995 No. 176, the monument acquired the status of a monument of federal significance under the name “Ancient Uigur Fortress Porbazhin”, VIII-IX centuries AD "

In 2004, the government of Tuva adopted a program for the development of culture in Tuva for 2005-2010, within the framework of which it was planned to create a fortress park "Por-Bazhyn".

On June 1, 2007, under the auspices of the Russian Emergencies Ministry, an archaeological expedition began work in Por-Bazhyn, during which an attempt was made to restore the building of the temple (palace). The expedition, in addition to archaeologists and employees of the Ministry of Emergencies, is attended by students from various Russian universities.

The archaeological field camp and the island on which the fortress is located is connected by a pile bridge. Its length is 1.3 kilometers. There are 38 technical personnel and 21 units of auxiliary equipment in the camp.

On August 13, 2007, Por-Bazhyn was visited by Russian President Vladimir Putin and Prince Albert II of Monaco.

Por-Bazhyn became known throughout the country thanks to the efforts of Sergei Shoigu. For an archeological expedition to the ruins of the ancient Uigur fortress, the Por-Bazhyn Fortress Cultural Foundation was created. Its president is a well-known businessman and politician M. V. Ignatova. This scientific project, in which more than a hundred scientists of various specialties took part, also became an action for the patriotic education of youth.