Tindi, Russia

Tindi is a village (aul) in the Tsumadinsky district of Dagestan. The village is located at the foot of the Adallo-Shukhgel-meer mountain (in Tindinsky "Kabala dees"), covered with eternal glaciers, on the right bank of the Kila River, on the inaccessible Bogossky mountain range. The height of individual peaks of the mountain range is more than 4 thousand meters above sea level. Glaciers and permanent snow cover several square kilometers. The most powerful glacial massif is Belengi, whose area is 4 square meters. km, and the thickness of the glacier is significant - in some places it reaches 170 m.

The flora and fauna of Bogossa is rich and varied. Here there is a relict birch called Radde, a rare, endangered plant of the Tindinsky thistle. In the mountainous areas and on the rocks of the Adallo-Shukhgel-mayor, the Dagestan tur lives, on rocky areas - the bezoar goat. Bogoss is a favorite destination for climbers and tourists.



The history of the village of Tindi goes back to antiquity. When exactly the settlement was founded, it has not been established. However, the words of the old residents, the data of archaeological excavations indicate that the settlement has long been inhabited by man.

This is evidenced by the remains of the destroyed settlement on Mount Gobl'i shchebola, and numerous burials found during the construction of a new quarter of the village. In these burials were found 2nd century women's jewelry, bronze figurines and numerous images of crosses, confirming that in ancient times the Tindians professed a pagan religion or were Christians.

The campaigns of stronger peoples led to the displacement and resettlement of some groups of the population who did not want to obey from their original habitats, which led to the formation of new ethnosocial formations: villages, societies, tukhums. This is how the village of Tindi was formed on the mountain G'obli shchebola. The Tindinka River flows here from the east, and the Kila River from the south. The village was naturally protected from all sides from the raids of its neighbors.

The growth of property and social inequality and the thirst for profit further stimulated the feudal rulers to make raids and plunder neighboring villages. That is why auls were built on mountain tops, on hard-to-reach rocks, on steep river banks - in order to create natural barriers. The Tindin society was one of the largest rural settlements. The inhabitants of the society called themselves "idari" (leaders).

There is interesting information from old residents about the origin of the name of the village of Tindi. In their opinion, “Tuindi” comes from the words “tuil chuvay” (“tuil” - “stick”, “chuvay” - “to put”). Visiting hunters put sticks at the place of their lodging in a cave around Mount Gobli rubble, hung their equipment on them. This is where the name "Tindy" comes from.

Another legend says that ancient people learned to make an alcoholic drink called "dindi" from barley or spring wheat using hops that grow on the banks of the Kila River. This is where the name "Tindi" comes from.

There is a third assumption, which is probably closer to the truth.

They say that in ancient times at the bottom of the gorge there was a road connecting Dagestan with Georgia. The travelers, going down to the gorge, said: "We are going to rest at the bottom." In Avar, the bottom of "tino" is Tindi.

The main branch of the economy of the Tindians was agriculture. Although there was not enough land, each family had its own piece of uncomfortable land - "mulk". The highlanders tried to have a piece of arable land, which traditionally symbolized a certain well-being of the family. Hence the high prices for land in the mountains.

The Tindians celebrated a variety of holidays. The most significant was the Kyaba holiday. It is also famous because there was no such holiday in neighboring societies. Maybe he remained from the days of paganism or Christianity.

The holiday began in the middle of winter, that is, after 40 days from the beginning of winter, somewhere on February 2-3. According to the Tindin agricultural calendar, winter lasted from December 20 to March 20. After hibernation, nature begins to awaken from the middle of winter. The days are getting warmer, longer and the nights are shorter. The whole village was preparing the holiday. Nobody appointed those responsible. All as one prepared the holiday.

According to the old custom, a local low-alcohol drink, honey, was fermented. On the appointed day, all the villagers brought some flour, some meat, some cheese into the common pot.

The women baked bread, cooked meat, prepared treats. In the afternoon, from the outskirts of the village or from nearby farmsteads, it was necessary to bring the bride of Kyaba to the village "Kiabala bakhgaray".

The bride became a poor, poor woman, usually a widow. A man and a woman were sent for the bride on horseback.

Young people blocked the path of the wedding caravan, demanding a ransom, that is, a jug of bread drink, a bottle of moonshine or vodka, bread and meat.

The wedding caravan moved slowly towards the center of the village. Along the way, the youth again blocked his path, demanding a ransom. As soon as they received the ransom, they cleared the road and escorted the procession to the center of the village.

The fun was already beginning there: dances, songs to the drum and zurnu. As the bride Kiaba approached the center of the village, she was showered with sweets, small coins, symbolizing success and prosperity this year, and the children collected these sweets and small coins. Then everyone was fed.

After the meal, the fun began again, dances and songs. Whoever invited Kyaba's bride to dance had to put money on her head. The fun continued until late at night.

Finally, Kaba's bride was given gifts: cuts for a dress, scarves, shoes, money, and so on. The holiday ended there.

This holiday was massive, young and old took part in it. All this was done very solemnly. Such was the Tindin festival of Kyaba, the festival of the awakening of nature.