Ust-Ordа (Bur. Khargana), (Bur. Ordyn Adag) is a settlement in the Irkutsk region of Russia. The administrative center of the Ust-Orda Buryat District - an administrative-territorial unit with a special status within the Irkutsk Region, the administrative center of the Ekhirit-Bulagatsky District. Forms a rural settlement of the municipal formation "Ust-Ordа".



The settlement is located in the valley of the Kuda River (a tributary of the Angara), mainly on the right bank, 62 km north-east of Irkutsk. Within the village, several small rivulets flow into the Kuda river, including Ordushka (Orda), after which the village is named, Idyga, Kulunkunka. The landscape within the village is flat, with several small hills. From the west and east, the village is surrounded by ridges of hills up to 718 m high. 3 km north of the village is Mount Bulen, which is a historical and cult place.



The climate is sharply continental. Winter with little snow, cold. The average temperature in January is -23 ° С, in July +21 ° С. Annual precipitation is about 300 mm.




There is a legend that at the beginning of the 19th century, a rumor spread that gold was found in the distant Vitim taiga. And at this time a resident of the ulus Kukunut Khakhalov decided to settle his son Badma on the road. He married him to a Tugutui girl Anna, but since his father did not agree to give the house for an unbaptized Buryat, Badma was christened before the wedding. The Tugutui priest at baptism gave him the name Peter and gave him his surname Tatarinov. Examining the area for settlement, Peter, with disdain, remarked: “Well, the place, there is a swamp, mud, kharkhana (bush) all around. (This word later gave the name to the village - Kharkhanai) ”. "Nothing, son," his father answered, "but there will be a gold mine here." And, indeed, at first glance, the place is uncomfortable: hummocks, swamps, thickets of honeysuckle, willow. Therefore, people passed this place, no one settled here. We chose a drier place. At the confluence of the Ordynka they set up a hut, a smithy, and a bathhouse. And the young Tatarinovs healed in a new place. People began to visit them, call in. Father in the surrounding villages bought fodder, food, clothing. Peter resold them. Working in the smithy also gave income. The economy grew and grew rapidly. Growing up four sons Vasily, Alexey, Mikhail, Efim helped their parents. Subsequently, the sons got married, separated into independent ones. So the village of Kharganai grew, the Tatarin tribe grew. And for a long time there were no other names here besides the Tatarinovs.

There is also a second version of the formation of the village. The well-known toponymy scientist MP Melkheev in his work "Geographical Names of Eastern Siberia" noted that until 1837 it was the Buryat village of Khuzhir (translated as "salt marsh", "solonetz"). This name is due to the high salinity of the soil in the vicinity of the village, when in dry weather the land is covered with a whitish coating of salt. Near Khuzhir, at the beginning of the 19th century, there was an Ust-Orda post station in one courtyard, which was also called the Swede, since once the station was kept by a certain Swedish prisoner of war. Over time, the village, along the mouth of the Ordushka River, founded as an initial point, a post station, began to grow and was transformed into an aimach capital.


Aymach center

Since the formation of the Ekhirit-Bulagat aimag in 1918, the villages of Olzony and Bayandai have alternately been administrative centers. But due to their inconvenient location, the central aimag institutions were transferred to Ust-Orda.

"To recognize the village of Ust-Orda as an administrative, economic and political center" - such a resolution was adopted by the Presidium of the Ekhirit-Bulagatsky District Committee of the RCP (b) on January 5, 1925. Since that time, the status of Ust-Orda has changed. Private small traders rushed to the aimag center, many wishing to live and work here.

Here, already in the twenties, there were all the advantages over other villages of the aimag. Ust-Orda was an economic center: the population flocked here to the market to sell and buy agricultural products, there was a powerful consumer cooperative shop, the board of an agricultural cooperative-credit partnership.

The geographical position of Ust-Orda, located close to Irkutsk, on the intersection of the vast majority of Bulagat and Ekhirite clans, was also advantageous. The Olkhonsky tract ran parallel to Ust-Orda only 8 versts away, which made it possible for the aimag population to visit the administrative center on their business. A secondary school was opened, and the construction of a hospital began in the same year.

On March 7, 1928, a radio receiver began to work in the village club.

On September 22, 1928, the Ust-Orda hospital with 50 beds was opened. During this period, the hospital already employs 14 doctors and 17 nurses.

One of the first in Ust-Opde was built a building for prisoners, then called the house of arrest. But upon completion of construction, taking into account that “there are no suitable buildings for a school, a hospital and in view of the acute housing crisis in the center,” it was decided to transfer the building to the District Committee of the PKK (b), it also housed the RLKSM and the library.


District center

In September 1937, simultaneously with the division of the East Siberian Territory into Irkutsk and Chita Regions, the Ust-Orda Buryat-Mongolian (later Ust-Orda Buryat) Autonomous District was formed as part of the Irkutsk Region. By the time the district was formed in Ust-Orda, although by that time it was the center of the Ekhirit-Bulagat aimag, there were very few opportunities to "take over" the duties of the "capital" of the district. Here, in addition to the executive committee of the Bulagat aimak council, there were the Irkutsk-Kachug highway department, MTS, the Krasnaya Ust-Orda collective farm, the office of the Ekhirit-Bulagat aimach consumer union, a small creamery, etc.

In a relatively short time - for 1938-1941. Ust-Orda has grown significantly: whole streets appeared from houses transported from different places, new construction of office and residential buildings for institutions and social and cultural enterprises began.

During 1938, under the organizing committee, such governing bodies were formed as planning, land departments, departments of communal services, public education, trade, health care, district archives, etc. In Ust-Orda, district prosecutors, courts, police, UNKVD, military enlistment office and other institutions.

In 1938, an airport was opened by the East Siberian Civil Aviation Department in Ust-Orda.

By 1941, the settlement became the largest in terms of the number of inhabitants in the district. As of the end of 1940, about 5 thousand people lived here.

By the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR dated March 27, 1941, the village of Ust-Orda, Ekhirit-Bulagat aimak (district) of the Ust-Orda Buryat-Mongolian national district of the Irkutsk region, was assigned to the category of working settlements with the assignment of the name - the working settlement Ust-Orda...

In 1944, a drama theater and a local history museum were opened in Ust-Orda. A. Ulakhanov became the first director of the museum. The museum was opened for mass visits after the war. The district theater in 1944 worked on staging two performances in the Buryat language of the People's Artist of the USSR Tsydenzhapov "The Sniper" and "The Son of the People", gave performances and theatrical concerts in Ust-Orda, aimak centers, in the uluses and villages of the district.

In 1956, the Erdem cinema with an auditorium for 300 people was opened in the district center.

In 1957 a new bathhouse was built.

In 1958, a new air line "Ust-Orda - Irkutsk" was opened, a semi-automatic telephone exchange began to operate, a children's music school was opened, a store "Gastronom" was built.

In 1959, the House of Pioneers opened its doors.

In September 1961, the district's first eight-year boarding school for 100 people was opened in the village.

In October 1961, for the first time in the district, large-format films were shown there.

In 1962, the House of Culture became an adornment and a great gift for the inhabitants of the working village.

In 1964, the village received a new three-storey high school number 1.

Since 1964, they began to build a typical hospital complex for 250 beds.

In 1972, a polyclinic was commissioned for 500 visits per day.

The administrative buildings of the Okrug Party Committee, Okrug Executive Committee, Possovet, Raypo, the Yubileiny store, the Uryaal cafe, the hotel, and the consumer services complex, built later, made the village look urban.

Since 1992 it has the status of a rural settlement.