Votkinsk, Russia


Votkinsk (Udm. Votka Kar) is a city (since August 20, 1935) in the Udmurt Republic of Russia, the administrative center of the Votkinsk region. The city of republican significance forms the urban district, the city of Votkinsk. On September 26, 2019 it received its official name - the Municipal Urban District "Votkinsk City". Earlier in the literature was called the factory village Votkinskoe.



It arose in 1759 as a town (settlement) at the Votkinsk ironworks. The name is from the hydronym of the Votka River (the right tributary of the Kama) from here (Russian "votyaki") - "Udmurt" (compare Votskaya Autonomous Region - the name of Udmurtia in 1920-1934).



The first settlement on the territory of the city, the so-called "Votkinsk settlement", dates back to the 3rd-5th centuries and belongs to the Mazuni archaeological culture.

Votkinsk was founded by Count Shuvalov Peter Ivanovich on April 3 (14), 1757 as a settlement during the construction of the Votkinsk iron-making plant. The Senate decree on the construction of a plant on Votka was signed on October 20, 1757. Administratively, the settlement was part of the Khlynovsky district of the Kazan province.

The site for the construction of the dam was chosen by prospectors under the leadership of A.S. Moskvin downstream of the confluence of the Sharkan and Berezovka rivers into Votka. The 382-fathom dam, built in 1757, turned out to be the largest in the Urals. Below the dam, the main units of the ironworks were built in 1757-59. Dwelling houses were being built in parallel. 106 artisans from the Goroblagodatsky factories and several thousand registered peasants from nearby settlements worked on the construction. On September 21, 1759, 2 hammers were launched and the first iron was obtained. The official launch date of the plant is November 1, 1759. At the plant, there was a critical factory, as well as factories for the production of sheet and section iron. In 1760, 260 people worked at the plant, 14 hammers functioned, 75.6 thousand poods of iron were forged.

The situation of the registered peasants at the Kama factories was difficult, which led to unrest in 1750-60. In 1763, the Kama factories were transferred to the treasury of the Berg Collegium mining department.

In 1769, a tinning factory was built, producing tinned iron for the roof of the Tsarskoye Selo palaces. The volume of metal production was (thousand poods): 1766 - 129.4; 1767 - 143; 1770 - 115.2.

On June 24, 1774, the settlement and the plant were captured by the army of E.I. Pugachev, who was moving from the city of Osa. As a result of the raid, the factory and the village were partially destroyed, the Dmitrovskaya church, the house of the steward and the office were burned. Some of the workers joined the army of the rebels, many fled. Several people who refused to swear allegiance to Pugachev were hanged. As a result, the number of factory artisans has more than halved. Then Pugachev with the army moved to the Izhevsk plant. The plant was restored in 1775. The restored plant produced iron (thousand poods): in 1776 - 170.6; in 1777 - 104; in 1779 - 136.

By decree of Catherine II in 1779, the plant mastered and carried out for 140 years the production of anchors for the ships of the navy. To ensure production with the help of craftsmen sent from the Admiralty, an anchor factory with 8 forges and 3 hammers was built. In 1782, the first anchors of the Admiralty type were released, in 1783 anchors with a total weight of 1429 pounds were delivered to the Admiralty, in 1784 - 3929; in 1785/1786 - 5677; in 1786/1788 - 8344. Later the plant produced annually up to 11-15 thousand poods of anchors.

From 1759 to 1796 the village at the Votkinsk plant belonged to the Vyatka province of the Kazan province, from 1797 to 1917 it was part of the Sarapul district of the Vyatka province.

In 1801, after the transfer of the Izhevsk plant (now the Kalashnikov and Izhstal Concern), AF Deryabin moved from the mining department to the military department in Votkinsk. In 1807 he organized the production of tool steel at the Votkinsk plant.

On May 1, 1898, the Votkinsk plant was separated into an independent mining district. At the same time, a major overhaul of the plant began according to the designs of the architect V.N.Petenkin.

In 1837-48, Lieutenant Colonel of the Corps of Mining Engineers IP Tchaikovsky was the mining chief of the Kamsko-Votkinsk plants. Under his leadership, the first puddling furnace in Russia was built at the plant in 1837, shipbuilding began in 1847, and in 1848 the first steamship "Astrabad" was floated along the Votka and Siva rivers to the Kama. Over 80 years have been built over 400 ships. On April 25, 1840, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born in the village and spent the first 8 years of his life.

In 1857, at the Votkinsk plant, the spire of the Peter and Paul Fortress was made with a height of 48.5 m, weighing over 3500 poods. In 1895, in the village of Galevo, the first railway in Udmurtia was laid, connecting the pier on the Kama with the plant.

On October 18, 1902, Evgeny Andreevich Permyak, a Russian Soviet writer and playwright, journalist, and director, was born in the village of the Votkinsk plant.


On August 17, 1918, the inhabitants of the village, supporting the Izhevsk anti-Bolshevik uprising, expelled the Soviet government. Later, the Izhevsk-Votkinsk uprising expanded to the entire Sarapul district of the Vyatka province. Until November 11, 1918, the rebels not only held the defensive against the advancing from all sides of the 2nd Army (RKKA) and the 3rd Army (RKKA), but were able to expand the borders of the uprising to the Perm, Ufa and Kazan provinces. Only during the retreat, about 30 thousand people from among the workers, peasants and their families left Votkinsk to join the White Army.

In March 1919 the city was occupied by the Siberian army of A. V. Kolchak, in June - by the Red Army.

During the years of the Civil War, the population of the village decreased by 2 times, the plant was almost completely destroyed. In November 1922, the plant was mothballed and resumed work only in September 1925.

From 1917 to 1921, the settlement of Votkinsk plant belonged to the Sarapul district of the Vyatka province. In 1921, the settlement at the plant received the status of a working settlement. From 1921 to 1923 in the Sarapul district of the Perm region, from April 18, 1923 to 1934 in the Ural and Sverdlovsk regions, from 1934 to 1935 - in the Kirov region. On August 20, 1935, the settlement was transformed into a city, which until 1936 was part of the Kirov region, from 1936 to 1937 - into the Kirov region. On October 22, 1937, the city of Votkinsk from the Kirov region was transferred to the Udmurt ASSR.

On September 26, 2019 it received its official name - the municipal urban district of the Udmurt Republic "the city of Votkinsk".