Zelenchukskaya, Russia


Zelenchukskaya (Abaz. Zelenchukv, Zelenchukskaya, Karach.-Balk. Zelenchuk, Dzhalandzhuk, feet. Zelenchuksky) is a village, the administrative center of the Zelenchuk region of Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia). It is also the center of the Zelenchuksky rural settlement.

The village of Zelenchukskaya is located at the confluence of the Khusa-Kardonikskaya river into Bolshoy Zelenchuk, approximately 60 km south-west of Cherkessk. 9 km to the west is the village of Storozhevaya, 6 km to the east - Kardonikskaya (road distances). The main part of residential development is concentrated in the interfluve of Bolshoy Zelenchuk and Khusa-Kardonikskaya, on the right bank of Bolshoy Zelenchuk, a smaller part on the left bank of the river. Several streets are located on the right bank of the Khusa-Kardonikskaya, on the eastern and northern outskirts of the village of Zelenchukskaya.

The settlement is located in a low-lying basin, bounded from the north by the treeless southern slopes of the Rocky Range. Directly to the north of Zelenchukskaya in the ridge there rises a peak 1609.9 m high, with a steep western slope called the "Jissa rock" (Shissa). Closer to the village, between the valleys of Bolshoy Zelenchuk and Marukha, there are several lower peaks (within 1000-1300 m), which make up the southern spurs of the ridge. Several streams flow from the western slope of the mountain along the Borodin gully, which then flow into Bolshoi Zelenchuk. Downstream of the village, in a wide river gorge between two sections of the Rocky Range, is the village of Ilyich.

East of Zelenchukskaya, in the direction of the village of Kardonikskaya, a slight rise in the relief, continuing the southern spurs of the Rocky Range, then passes into moderately wooded, mainly birch-alder foothills (Bashlyk tract, peaks 1089.5 m and 1100.5 m, further to the south of the height only grow). To the west of the village, in the direction of Storozheva, the low-lying plain in the interfluve of Bolshoy Zelenchuk and Kyafar (the closest to the settlement area of ​​this plain north-west of Zelenchukskaya is the Mogilka tract) also gradually passes into the foothills overgrown with rare forest. Two streams flow from it to Bolshoi Zelenchuk - Maly Karabizhgon (closer to the village) and Bolshoi Karabizhgon (further to the west). A low ridge on the right bank of the Small Karabizhgon is called the Smaglin tract.

To the south, upstream of Bolshoy Zelenchuk, is the village of Dausuz, upstream of the river Khusa-Kardonikskaya - the village of Khusa-Kardonik. To the southeast, in the valley of Marukhi, is the village of the same name. In this area there are hydraulic structures of the Zelenchukskaya HPP-PSPP, through which the waters of Bolshoy Zelenchuk and Marukha are transferred to the Kuban. These are the hydroelectric complex on Bolshoy Zelenchuk in Dausuz (with a reservoir bounded by a fill dam), a canal to Khusa-Kardonikskaya, a tunnel to Marukha, a hydrosystem on Marukh (also with a reservoir and a dam).

On the southern outskirts of the village of Zelenchukskaya, on the plain between Bolshoy Zelenchuk and Khusa-Kardonikskaya, the RATAN-600 radio telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences is located. 4-4.5 km south of it, between Dausuz and the village of Khusa-Kardonik, already in the foothills, is the Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomy Observatory. On the eastern outskirts of the village, at the entrance to Zelenchukskaya, a geoglyph (more precisely, an inscription made of trees) "65 YEARS OF VICTORY" was created in honor of the anniversary of victory in the Great Patriotic War.



Early history
The area of ​​the modern village of Zelenchukskaya was inhabited, at least already in the Mousterian era - a flint flake of the corresponding period was found in the Kusa-Kardonikskaya valley. Finds that indicate a person's stay in these places in later eras are represented, in particular, by artifacts of the 6th-7th centuries. These are things found in a stone tomb in the area of ​​Bogotobagde in the vicinity of the village, and clay vessels of the Alan type, discovered during construction work in Zelenchukskaya itself in the fall of 1974.

Remains of stone fortresses (with stone ramparts) were discovered in the area of ​​the village. According to some reports, from the mouth of Bolshoy Zelenchuk to the modern Zelenchuk there were 6 such fortresses. Found stone slabs, crosses, pillars, statues, including a male statue without a head, arms and legs, with a belt and a hatchet on it. On the left bank of Bolshoy Zelenchuk, on the Batareya hill, opposite the village, there was an early medieval settlement.

At Zelenchukskaya, small mounds of the Kabardino-Circassian type were recorded. 3-4 km north of the village, on the left bank of Zelenchuk, at the mouth of the Bolshoi Karabizhgon River, there is a burial mound of the Adyghe type of the XIV-XVI centuries.

Base of the village
The village of Zelenchukskaya was founded on April 19, 1859, on the same day as the village of Kardonikskaya, the 2nd battalion of the Lithuanian infantry regiment, which was part of the Zelenchuksk detachment, created to build two new and cover the previously built villages (the cover troops were in the Watchtower). The sites for the construction of Zelenchukskaya and Kardonikskaya were chosen by the head of the Urupskaya cordon line, Lieutenant Colonel EF Semyonkin. The vicinity of the future settlements was a mountainous area covered with forests. Ramparts were immediately set up around the stanitsas under construction, and a forest was cut down along the banks of Bolshoy Zelenchuk.

3 officer families, 61 families of line Cossacks, 54 - Don, Little Russian families - 78, lower ranks of the regular army - 108 families were sent to Zelenchukskaya to settle the village. In addition to the battalion of the Lithuanian regiment, there were two hundred of the 1st Volga regiment of the Caucasian linear Cossack army and an artillery platoon in the village.

Of the two villages founded in 1859, it was Zelenchukskaya that became the target of attacks by the mountaineers. Already on May 9, a detachment of 600 mountaineers had a clash with a hundred Cossacks, who were sent for reconnaissance. On May 20, an enemy party of up to 1,000 people attacked the camp where the units that were building the village were stationed. The garrison of Zelenchukskaya during the battle lost 21 people killed, drowned (while trying to cross to the left bank of Zelenchuk, to the rear of a detachment of mountaineers), wounded and captured. The main target of the attack was the stealing of livestock: a total of 259 horses and heads of cattle were stolen. At the end of May 1859, a battalion of the Crimean Infantry Regiment arrived in Zelenchukskaya, replacing in July the Lithuanians who had departed to a new location in the Melitopol district.

The village in the XIX - early XX century
In the vicinity of Zelenchukskaya there were several guard and observation posts: to the south of the village - the Zelenchuksky post, to the north-west, on the road to the village Storozhevaya - Karabezhgonsky, to the east, towards the village of Kardonikskaya, there was a watchtower.

Militarily, the village was first assigned to the 2nd Urupsky Cossack regiment, formed in 1858 and part of the 3rd Urupsky brigade, in 1870 it became part of the Khopersky regimental district, in which the Khopersky 1st Cossack regiment was based. Since 1869, it was part of the Batalpashinsky district, since 1888 - the Batalpashinsky department of the Kuban region.

According to data from 1873-1874, the population of Zelenchukskaya was 2033 people. In 1882, 2,530 people lived (379 households, Orthodox, mainly Little Russians and Great Russians). In 1915 there were 7695 inhabitants in 1213 households.

The historical center of the village, according to some sources, was located in the area of ​​the current secondary school No. 1. In terms of the settlement, it was a quadrangle, which was typical for Cossack villages at that time. One corner of the quadrangle, according to unconfirmed reports, is the intersection of the current Shkolnaya and Sovetskaya streets (northeastern corner), the other corner is the intersection of Sovetskaya and Gagarin streets (southeastern corner).

The villages, as a rule, were surrounded by an earthen rampart and a deep ditch in front of it. Along the rampart was a fence lined with thorny bushes. Zelenchukskaya also had a moat 2.5 m deep and 3 m wide at the top and 1.5 m at the bottom. A thorny shrub to strengthen the earthen fence was sea buckthorn or tree tree. The moat started from the river and surrounded the mound on the northern border of the settlement (now there is a regional hospital on the mound), then walked along the modern Sovetskaya Street, which had previously been called "Kanava" in this connection.


The gate with an observation tower (another characteristic feature of the stanitsa fortifications in the middle of the 19th century) in the north of the stanitsa was located, according to some sources, in the alignment of the present Pobeda Street. Some villages had cannons. The aforementioned mound (in the alignment of modern Internatsionalnaya Street) had a watchtower with a cannon. In Zelenchukskaya, according to unconfirmed reports, there were 4 guns installed at the corners of the settlement, where there were towers and sheds for guns. On the side of the river there was a gate and a descent to the water, but there were no fortifications.

The traditional Cossack dwelling in the village at that time was an almost square adobe house, covered with thatch or shit. In Zelenchukskaya and Kardonikskaya houses, as a rule, they whitewashed with lime. From the side of the entrance - an open veranda, then a vestibule, from where you can get into the living room - the "hut" itself, with low ceilings and three protruding beams. A Russian stove with a stove bench was placed on the side of the entrance in the corner.

Zelenchukskaya was originally supplied from the village of Correct. In the first years of the settlement's existence, the schedule of economic activities of the inhabitants was determined by the military authorities, taking into account the military situation. Farms and settlements of the stanitsa, settled surrounded by non-peaceful mountain tribes, initially did not have. At night, residents gathered in the village behind closed gates and with increased security. During the day, in the absence of a threat from the mountaineers, it was allowed to go to work in the field, often with military cover. The men worked with weapons. Later, it became a practice to spend the night in the field, but in exceptionally large camps, and not alone. The purpose of the attacks of the highlanders, among other things, was to take prisoners for the subsequent ransom.

As of 1882, Zelenchukskaya already had 4 farms in its vicinity (the Cossacks Borodin, Zinchenko, Fisun and Yaroshenko). In total, the Cossack society of the village owned 23,918 acres of land. In the village there was a church, a school for boys, 2 shops, 3 drinking establishments, 8 water flour mills. According to information for 1915, Zelenchukskaya had a village administration, an emergency room for 6 beds with one doctor, a paramedic and a midwife, an elementary school, a post office, a church, a forestry, a mill, a cheese factory and a sawmill. There were fairs in the village: Nikolaevskaya in May and Pokrovskaya in October.

Village in the XX century
During the Civil War in 1918, rebel detachments of A.G. Shkuro operated in the area of ​​Zelenchukskaya and the surrounding villages. Having finally established himself in the Batalpashinsky department, Shkuro, according to some sources, organized the construction of a sawmill in Zelenchuk to restore the destroyed villages.

During the Great Patriotic War in August 1942, Zelenchukskaya was occupied by German troops, the headquarters of mountain riflemen was located in the village. Further south, in the upper reaches of Bolshoy Zelenchuk, a partisan detachment, formed in the city of Cherkessk, operated.

During the years of Soviet power, active housing and social construction was carried out in the village. A number of multi-apartment houses were built, a hospital, a department store, a post office, buildings for educational institutions (including a music school appeared in Zelenchukskaya) and the placement of regional authorities were built, a wide-screen cinema was opened.

During the collapse of the USSR, within the framework of the so-called parade of sovereignty (within the borders of the RSFSR), on August 19, 1991, in some territories of the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Region, the Zelenchuksko-Urupskaya Cossack Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed with its capital in the village of Zelenchukskaya. On November 30, 1991, the Upper Kuban Cossack Republic was proclaimed, also with the capital in Zelenchukskaya, resulting from the unification of the Zelenchuksko-Urupskaya Cossack SSR and the Batalpashinsky Cossack Republic proclaimed on August 10, with the capital in Cherkessk. The Upper Kuban Republic united the territories with the Russian Cossack population within the historical region of the Upper Kuban and was to, through joining the Union of Cossack Republics of the South of Russia, become part of the Union of Sovereign States. These statements did not entail any real political consequences; at the referendum in March 1992, according to official data, the majority of the population of Karachay-Cherkessia spoke out against the division into several national republics.

In 1992-1994, the 56th separate guards airborne assault brigade was temporarily based in Zelenchukskaya, redeployed from the city of Iolotan of the Turkmen SSR (later departed to the city of Volgodonsk, Rostov region).

In 1999, during the political crisis in the KChR, provoked by the election of the head of the republic, Zelenchukskaya became one of the venues for rallies in support of the so-called "Circassian" candidate S. E. Derev.

In the post-Soviet period, as part of the revival of the Cossacks, Zelenchukskaya became the location of the headquarters of the Zelenchuksky regional Cossack society of the Batalpashinsky department of the Kuban military Cossack society.