Stockholm Archipelago

  Stockholm Archipelago


Number of islands: 24,000

Area: 2,162 sq mi (5,600 sq km)


Destruction of Stockholm Archipelago

Stockholm Archipelago is a cluster of 24,000 islands situated East of Stockholm, capital of Sweden, in the Baltic Sea. It covers a total area of 2,162 sq mi (5,600 sq km). The Stockholm archipelago (in Swedish, Stockholms skärgård) is the largest in Sweden and one of the largest in the Baltic Sea. Stockholm archipelago extends from the coasts of the city of Stockholm up to 60 km in the open sea. It has islands between the coasts of Uppland and Södermanland, from Björkö-Arholma in the north to the island of Öja, Nynäshamn with the Landsort lighthouse in the south. It is also connected to the Åland archipelago.


In the year 1719 it had a population of 2800 people in total. Having been populated initially by fishermen, nowadays it has become a summer resort for the population of Stockholm and tourists. The permanent population is concentrated in the islands of Vaxholm, Värmdö and in other similar large ones. Many of them live permanently there and work in the city. They are calculated in 50 000 houses distributed in the area. Public transport with the rest of the city is done by boat with the Waxholmsbolaget.

The archipelago has been a source of inspiration for many writers, painters and other artists, among them August Strindberg, Roland Svenssonn, Ernst Didring and Aleister Crowley. External parts of the archipelago (Stockholms and ttre skärgård, an area of ​​15,000 ha) have been protected as a Ramsar site since June 12, 1989 (nº ref 4354).



The Stockholm archipelago has long been important as a commercial and military entry route to Stockholm. During Gustav Vasa's time as regent (1523–1560) in Sweden, it was decided to fortify Vaxholmen to protect Stockholm's inland seaway via Kodjupet and Vaxholmen against hostile attacks, and in 1549 the first defense facility was completed, which at that time consisted of a single log house in wood that later was reinforced with a tower in stone during the time of Johan III . The fortification at Vaxholmen was expanded in several rounds for several hundred years and got its present appearance after a total rebuild that was not completed until 1863. In 1889 the fortress got its own permanent staff, which in 1902 was converted toVaxholm Coast Artillery Regiment , located on Rindö . In 2005 the regiment moved to Berga war base and changed its name to the First Amphibian Regiment.

During the 1600s, the Stockholm archipelago was mapped by cartographer Carl Gripenhielm . In 1719, the Stockholm archipelago, as well as large parts of the east coast, were hit hard by the Russian raids, where many archipelago villages were plundered and burned down. The Battle of Stäket is in this context one of the most well-known killings of this time. Stockholm's archipelago, which gained a more significant resident population only from the end of the 14th century, had a population of about 2,800 people at the time of the Russian raids in the 18th century.

After World War IIand towards the 1950s, a gradual relocation from the archipelago took place to the nearest mainland towns, which offered a greater supply of jobs. The relocation was also largely due to the fact that the compulsory schooling was gradually expanded, with many having to apply to the mainland where the schools were located for higher studies after the elementary school. Fishing was a significant industry for a long time, but gradually declined in importance and today constitutes a very small part of the archipelago industry. During the latter part of the 20th century, from around 1960 onwards, the Stockholm archipelago has been developed primarily to take on the role of summer resident for mainland residents from mainly the Stockholm area, with rented or own summer houses and as an outdoor recreation area for recreational boats with overnight accommodation like camping.on the mainland side. The development has led to a strong seasonal need for manpower in various service industries in the archipelago.

The Stockholm archipelago has at all times had the character of small farming combined with fishing for its own household, unlike the Gothenburg archipelago which has had the character of purely fishing communities. These clear differences in living conditions and living opportunities have led to major differences in culture and development in both types of archipelago communities.

Until the beginning of the 20th century, the archipelago's living conditions were characterized by economic scarcity compared to the living conditions on the mainland. In the smaller farms with small agricultural areas, there was limited scope for the sale of agricultural products. What was produced was mostly eaten in our own household and forage for farm animals during the winter months. Fishing accounted for a significant part of the household, but also as a source of income, where the larger islands with a large population often fished in working teams with jointly owned larger fishing gear to streamline fishing, which mainly applied to the spring and autumn fishing. The herring fishery, and the fishery in general, which, as early as the 1400s, developed as one of the main industries of the archipelago mainly for the residents of the middle part of the archipelago which had limited access to agricultural land, was also conducted as large-scale operation around some of the outermost inserts of the free fishing waters, so-called krone waters, which belonged to the state. Significant "Fishing Harbors or Fishing Piers" are mentioned in 1744; Håkanskär, Vattungarna, Norrskär, Tyfskär, Karlskär, Långskär, Skärf, Swedish Högarna, Gillöga, Kubbarna, Nassa, Björkskär, Horssten, Grönskär.


The congestion at these fishing spots was at times great and the order must be maintained with careful regulations. A "Harbor Skull" was established as early as 1448 by Karl Knutsson (Farmer) (c. 1409–1470) and the Main Cutting Act 1450 by Erengisle Nilsson dy . Majestyrenewed "Harbor Ordinance" in 1726. According to these regulations, there would be a port steward at each fishing port, which regulated the distribution of fishing waters, allocation of port space, and land for fishing boats and boathouses and space for net drying. No one was allowed to start fishing in the morning, before the port guard gave a start signal with a bell. In the evening, the network laying also did not start until after such a start signal. The Port Authority also settled disputes between the Fisheries Act. The intense seasonal fishing out on the islands in the outer archipelago with great distances to the permanent settlements, meant that many lived out at the fishing villages for longer times, which is why the church felt there was a need to build chapels on the most populated islands, such as Horssten, Gillöga and Svenska Högarna. . The clergy from the nearest churches had an obligation to appear during the fishing season and "sacra ibidem peragere" and the fishing law had to appear for the worship services held. At Horssten there was also a tavern. In some islands, cemeteries were also built because they were too far to row ashore the deceased. The lack of enough soil on the bare rocks caused a low stone wall to be built around the grave, which was filled with soil. Remains of such cemeteries are found at Horssten and Svenska Högarna, among others. The lack of enough soil on the bare rocks caused a low stone wall to be built around the grave, which was filled with soil. Remains of such cemeteries are found at Horssten and Svenska Högarna, among others. The lack of enough soil on the bare rocks caused a low stone wall to be built around the grave, which was filled with soil. Remains of such cemeteries are found at Horssten and Svenska Högarna, among others.

At the far end of the archipelago, with thin soil layers that were only enough for smaller horticultural lands, for example, potato cultivation and a few grazing animals, fishing and hunting for seals and seabirds accounted for the main sources of income. Remains of hides for bird hunting in the form of the stone cane can still be found on many of the islands in the outer archipelago. Before starting to use firearms, often in combination with whistles (bird traps), for hunting seabirds, they used large nets that were split up between high poles where they knew that the low-flying bird trappings emerged, such as eiders . Bird eggs were also picked out on the islands, which, like catches with bird nets, was soon banned because it developed into a serious threat to the entire bird population in the archipelago.

Those who lacked agricultural land were usually specialized in fishing alone or different types of crafts such as boat or house construction. Uninhabited islands with good meadows further into the archipelago included in the estates were often used as grazing lakes for cattle that were transported out by boats and went out and milked on site. They also often mowed the tall grass on islands that were not grazed and transported it home in boats to the farm which feeds the animals. Many of the islands in the archipelago called "Ängsholmen" or "Ängsholmarna" have their origins in use as grazing lakes or islands to which you rowed, mowed the grass and kept after the sly .

Households in the archipelago were often completely self-sufficient and most of them were manufactured on their own farm or locally on one of the nearest larger islands. The visits to the nearest major town on the mainland were rare where it was mostly about selling salted fish, seals and handicraft that they had manufactured during the dark winter months and replenishing their supplies of basic goods that could not be procured outside the islands. The insulation against mainland life became especially evident during the winter months, where it was mainly about surviving and saving on the supplies that had been bunked up. Ice formation in the archipelago winter time, which has varied greatly over the centuries, used to be of crucial importance in the past for the ability to survive and move between islands and into the mainland. Winter Months,

The regular meeting place often became the church on Sundays for those who could get there depending on the weather and ice conditions. The church was also used for parish meetings if there was no special village yard , where everything was discussed and planned for decided measures within the parish.


The school in the archipelago
Through the general school duty , introduced in Sweden in 1842 as a replacement for the church's basic reading education, many smaller schools in the late 1800s came to build on the larger islands in the archipelago within a 5-10 year period. Often one or a maximum of two teachers were responsible for teaching all subjects in the basic 4-year school and from 1882 the 6-year compulsory primary school . The school building was mostly built as a combined school and residence for the teacher's family, who usually came from the mainland and in most cases did not have a family background as an archipelago residence.

The teacher, the priest and the district doctor were the three instances that, well into the 19th century, in practice accounted for much of the basic everyday order in the archipelago society and resolved many minor disputes by having usually the best education and good contacts with society's central functions and various authorities. The police system in the form of a county magistrate (from 1675, the Crown County magistrate) was only addressed in major disputes and pure crimes by the way out in the archipelago was about day-long journeys. For the local common direction of the development of society, the parish meetings respondedas a governing body and was often held in the church with the church pastor as chairman. Before the publication of the newspaper was widely disseminated and literacy became more widespread, important announcements and proclamations from authorities in the oral form were preached by the pastor from the pulpit when they were gathered for the service on Sundays.

Because the number of pupils in many schools in the archipelago was low, as was often the case in the 19th century in the sparsely populated countryside in Sweden, and one or at most two teachers taught from first to sixth grade in all curricula including craft, students were often divided in age groups, where the teacher conducted teaching in parallel in several different year classes by changing the subject during the lesson hours. For pupils in the most remote islands, in some cases they had to resort to accommodation in connection with the school because of the difficulty in getting to school in bad weather. Teaching in schools was largely driven by the requirement that all employed family members were needed on the farm for the family's livelihood, especially during harvest times and other important seasonal tasks. The schooling was therefore seen by many archipelagoers for a long time as "a necessary evil" where it was mainly about getting the students to learn the basic subjects reading, writing and counting. There was rarely any opportunity to study further on the mainland after the basic 6-year schooling, for both practical and economic reasons, conditions that often applied as far back as the 1950s, which delayed the general theoretical level of education compared to conditions for mainland residents. For the archipelago residents, the great need was mainly in practical knowledge in agriculture, machine maintenance, animal husbandry, fishing, seafaring and craftsmanship, because these skills were crucial to being able to support themselves and take over the family farm.